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the last volume of the Pitt Press German Series, "to apply to a modern language, to some extent at least, and with suitable modifications, principles which have long been recognised in the study of Greek and Latin." The first success of such an attempt, which is comparatively new, and for which but little material lies ready to hand, must almost necessarily be imperfect. Any suggestions or criticisms from persons engaged in the teaching or study of languages will be gratefully received.

I have to acknowledge some obligation to the work of Dr Weismann on Uhland's Dramatische Dichtungen; I am however still more indebted to several friends in Germany for help most kindly rendered, and to the Rev. J. W. Cartmell, Fellow and Tutor of Christ's College, for valuable criticism and assistance in the revision of the MS. and the proofs. H. J. W.

CAMBRIDGE,

December, 1881.

INTRODUCTION.

Life of
Uhland.

JOHANN LUDWIG UHLAND was born April 26th, 1787, in the university town of Tübingen in Württemberg, where his father afterwards occupied the post of secretary to the university. He received his first education at the grammar-school of his native town, but was according to a then prevalent custom enrolled at an early age in the university, receiving here and through private tuition the necessary preparation for his university course proper, which he did not enter upon until his eighteenth year. He was a lively, rather wild lad, fond of open-air sports, but intelligent and quick to learn. He was especially fond of acting in play with his comrades scenes from the chivalry of the middle ages, towards which his tastes were thus early turned. As he grew older, he became more retiring and reserved, even to excess; so that as a youth and a man he was often regarded, by those who did not know his modest integrity and real kindness of heart, as obstinately taciturn and morose. Though he early showed a marked facility in Latin verse, and pursued his classical studies with zeal, he appears to have been influenced in his own poetical development less by the classical literature than by that of his native country, and less by modern than by mediæval literature, and the poetry of the North. At the university it was necessary that he should take up a professional study, and external circumstances rather than his own tastes led to the decision in favour of jurisprudence. After completing his course and taking his doctor's degree, he invested the

savings from his university Stipendium, or scholarship, in a journey to Paris, where however his time was less given to the study of the Code Napoléon, the ostensible object of his visit, than to that of the treasures of Old French and Middle High German poetry in the Imperial library. On his return he published a valuable essay embodying some of the fruits of his researches. After serving for a year and a half in the Ministry of Justice in Stuttgart, without salary and without the promised promotion, he established himself as a practising lawyer in the same town.

In the Wars of Liberation and the momentous events of the years 1813-15 Uhland took the deepest and warmest interest. He was prevented indeed by the condition of affairs in Württemberg, where the king remained at heart a partisan of Napoleon, and by his own family and personal circumstances, from serving his country in the field, as he appears at one time to have wished. Nor were many of his patriotic songs called forth by the great final struggle against Napoleon, in which Rückert, Arndt, and other of his contemporaries gave expression, in their more fiery strains, to the national spirit of warlike enthusiasm. No German was ever more loyally and disinterestedly patriotic than Uhland; in no German poet is true national sentiment a more pervading element. But he was a man of deep and true, rather than of enthusiastic feeling; and his patriotism found its congenial sphere rather in the labours of peaceful political development than in the scenes of war. The greater number of his vaterländische Gedichte were occasioned by the constitutional struggle in Württemberg which followed the peace of 1815. King Frederick had on assuming the royal title in 1806 arbitrarily annulled the old constitution, and had ruled since then as an absolute monarch. Early in 1815 he called an assembly of the Estates, and offered a new and in some respects liberal constitution. This however they steadily refused to accept as a gift of royal favour. The old constitution of Württemberg, it was maintained, though indeed in many respects obsolete and in need of revision, rested on the inviolable foundation of a contract between ruler and people;

and a firm demand was made that it should be restored before any further negotiations could take place. This demand for the restoration of" das alte, gute Recht" forms the burden of most of Uhland's "patriotic poems," which, printed on single leaves, were scattered through the land, and exercised a considerable influence both upon the minds of the people and upon the practical issue of the struggle. Some of them possess considerable poetic merit, and all show strong and warm, if occasionally rather narrow patriotic feeling. The poem entitled Nachruf, beginning "Noch ist kein Fürst so hoch gefürstet," breathes a bold and manly spirit of liberty, and shows clearly that Uhland, in resisting with all his strength, as a poet and a politician, the introduction of a constitution greatly superior to the old one, was animated solely by fidelity to a principle upon which he felt that the liberties of a people were based, and by the surrender of which any immediate advantages would be dearly purchased. Of his readiness to make great personal sacrifices to his convictions he gave proof in his steadfast refusal to seek or accept any post, which would necessitate his taking an oath to a king who was ruling in defiance of the fundamental conditions of his office. But the history in detail of Uhland's part in the struggle, and of his later activity as a politician, seems to show that he was deficient in some of the qualities most essential to a statesman. Like so many of the learned men of his nation, he was too much a theorist to recognise duly the conditions and requirements of practical and public life. He had moreover in his own character too much of simple straightforwardness and of stern unbending loyalty to conviction and duty, to be able to reconcile himself to diplomacy and compromise. The result of the conflict was the hurried acceptance in 1819, at the time of the Karlsbad Decrees, of a constitution which was indeed based on the principle of contract between prince and people, for which Uhland and his party had so persistently contended, but which was in many points inferior both to that first offered by King Frederick, and to a second one proposed by his more liberal successor, William I. The introduction of the new constitution was celebrated by a representa

tion in the Stuttgart Hoftheater of Uhland's Herzog Ernst, for which occasion the prologue was composed by special request.

Uhland was at once elected by the town of Tübingen into the second chamber of the Landtag or parliament thus established, of which he was for many years one of the most active and influential members, the advocate of liberal reforms and the watchful guardian of civil liberties and popular rights. His patriotic and democratic sentiments, and the devotion with which he strove to serve the interests of his country, both as a representative of the people in Württemberg and later as a member of the short-lived German Parliament in Frankfurt, contributed perhaps no less than his poetical productions to the great popularity throughout Germany which he enjoyed in the latter part of his life. But neither legal nor political pursuits were really congenial to Uhland, and in the inevitable disappointments and discouragements of a time which brought so much disappointment to German patriots, he often longed for quiet and leisure for his studies in mediæval literature and popular poetry. In 1826 he declined re-election; in 1830 he was appointed to a professorship of German Literature, the prospect of which had been long held out to him, in the University of Tübingen. But in this congenial sphere he was not long left undisturbed. The liberal and national movement in Germany had been stirred up anew by the Paris Revolution of July, 1830, and Uhland considered it his duty to respond to the appeal made to him to resume his parliamentary activity. When in 1833 the government, displeased with his liberal opposition, refused him the necessary leave of absence from his professorial duties to attend the Landtag, he at once sacrificed his professorship, and returned to his political pursuits. In 1838 he again declined re-election, and resumed his literary labours, from which he was but once more called away, when in 1848 he was sent to Frankfurt, first by the ministry in Württemberg as one of the seventeen Vertrauensmänner, and afterwards by the district Tübingen-Rottenburg as a member of the National Assembly. After the failure of this ill-directed and unfortunate attempt at German unity, he retired to Tü

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