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in money and grain (as far as has been ascertained) will be best understood by consulting the statements in the appendix. It appears to me that a jaegeer in land is the most unexceptionable mode of providing for them, on many accounts. In forming an opinion on this point, it is to be taken into consideration, that not only the personal services of the individuals holding the office of chokeedars, but those of all the males, and frequently of the females, of the family, are put in requisition, when occasion demands, by the zumeendars, police officers, and troops, or travellers requir. in guides or supplies. Therefore, not only ought the whole family to be decently provided for, but it is to be supposed that some members of it may always find leisure to cultivate the family jaegeer, without injury to the public as supposed by some of the magistrates. In the first place a jaegeer tends to render them more respectable, attaches them
to the village, and tends to keep the office in
21, regulation XII. 1807, all zumeendars and
also, to the Government, their provision ap: where lands waste at the time of the perpopearing to them at least to emanate from the tual settlement, and included in the settlement state; thirdly, it is a more permanent and of any estate, have been since brought into unvarying mode of providing for them, and, cultivation, the zumeendar may be reasonably by affording occupation for the other members expected, out of his surplus profit, to proof the family, tends to preserve them from vide for the maintenance of the chokee: bad courses. I conceive that five or six beegas dar. If more than one chokeedar be required of rent-free land would, on an average, yield for the protection of an extensive and poputhem a net profit of three rupees per mensem, lous village, it is reasonable that the merand should if possible be secured to the chants, shopkeepers and the more wealthy chokeedar of every village of any magnitude. ryots (without exception of rank, or caste)
There is reason to believe that such jaegeers
should provided for the additional protection
Among the selections in our last will be found a circular from the secretary to the Government of Bengal, addressed to the Commissioners, informing them that his Lordship, being desirous of obtaining statisical information regarding the provinces under his government, had appointed the civil and military medical officers to prepare reports embracing information on the following points;
viz. –“l, Census of population; 2, Cause and
area of districts, comparative productiveness
may, we think, be properly attributed to the peculiar character of the British Indian Government, arising chiefly from its being a company of merchants, with whose immediate objects of pursuit scientific inquiries are quite unconnected. We are glad to find that these inquiries are now to be earnestly prosecuted: but we upprehend several difficulties in the way of completing the reports in a satisfactory manner. His Lordship appears to be aware of some of them, and has directed that the influential zemindars be consulted. So much the accuracy, or even an approach to accuracy, in several of the items of information required, will necessarily depend on the co-operation of the zemindars, that we think, unless they can be made to understand the benevolent objects of the inquiry and to enter into the spirit of it, little hope can be entertained as to a satisfactory termination of the undertaking. The greatest difficulty in the way of obtaining the hearty co-operation of these people will be the apprehension that information thus obtained, will at a future period, be employed to some purpose injurious to their interests. The Quinquennial returns and Canangoe papers were prepared professedly with the object of facilitating the Partition of property and the settlement of disputes among the ryots, and the confirmation of the Bazezemeen duftur, and the re. gister of rent-free lands led the people to believe that it would free their claims from further inquiries. But in these hopes they have been disappointed. Information ob. tained by these means has been made to subserve the objects of the state, in carrying on the detestable and unpopular work of resumption. How is it possible then to expect that the people will not be alarmed, now that the country is infested in every direction with resumption officers, at the prospect of inquiries such as those which the reports in question are to embrace? How are the people to be satisfied that nothing detrimental to their interests will ever arise out of the information now sought from them 2 The promotion of self interest is naturally the object of every individual. How then, under existing circumstances, are these people to be persuaded to enter into the spirit of the inquiry obout to be instituted, and, instead of thwarting it, to aid it earnestly In the circular to the Commissioners, very little stress indeed is laid on the aid to be derived from the zemindars; and it would appear that Government officers are considered the principle source from which information is to be obtained. With due deference to the functionaries of the state, we cannot help stating that, owing to the manner in which information on points such as those embraced by the inquiry in question is generally obtained by them, little dependence can be placed upon it. The Government, it is true, has addressed a circular to the Commissioners, and they will send copies of it to the local officers under their control : but these local officers have not the materials to supply the requisite information on all points. They
must request their amlahs to send purwannas to the different thannadars to obtain the required information, and these again will refer to the village chokey dars—poor ignorant creatures, employed at about two rupees per mensem, and at the nod of every influential man in the village 1 These then are to be the real sources from which the information is ultimately to be derived on such grave and important questions. Now how can materials collected from such a source,—especially if the zemindars, instead of aiding set their face against it,-supply the required information in a satisfactory manner The duties of medical gentlemen require them to be constantly at their respective stations. It cannot therefore be expected that they will personally visit the villages. It is therefore evident, that if the channel of Government officials is alone to be emplyed, the materials for the returns in question will be derived from no better source than what we have just described. It is true that when the information comes before His Lordship, embodied in the form of a report, prepared with all that attention to style and with those graces with which the pen of a well-educated man can adorn the subject of his theme, it will possess in every respect the appearance that can be desired : but the trapping can never alter the nature of the beast, and glass, however well polished, will never acquire the value of real diamond. It may deceive the inexperienced observer: but will never be valuable. We have therefore considered it a duty we owe to the state and to the public to lay open the difficulties which are likely to attend the undertaking set on foot, and which if not removed, would render its results unsatisfactory We shall now offer a few remarks as to the best method by which we think the difficulties pointed out above may be removed, if not entirely, at least to a considerable degree. We would recommend the formation of a central committee of the most influencial and intelligent zemindars residing in and near Calcutta, to be presided by one or more Government functionaries, and of similar branch commitees in each district to be presided by the medical or other officers, as it may be thought proper. The central committee would direct the labours of the branch committees, receive their reports, and arrange the whole information in the most judicious from. The zemindars forming the central committee, being the most enlightened among the class, would readily appreciate the objects of the enquiry, and would, no doubt, be the means of inspiring considence in others of the same class who might form the branch committees. Besides the very formation of such committees in the Mofussil would enable the European functionaries, their presidents, to remove in some measure the prejudices and apprehensions of the members, and induce them to afford very material service in the preparation of the documents required. These committees when formed would afford to the Government the readiest and most certain means of obtaining any information which might be required concerning the state of the county, the condition of the people, and their sentiments regarding the various measures of Government. Information on all these points is of the last importance, and therefore, the ex" istence of an efficient channel through which it can be readily obtained is a very great desideratum. Whilst these are the reasons which ought to induce the Government to form such committees, there are others which ought to induce the zemindars readily to come forward and form themselves into such bodies. There are two causes which very materially check the improvement of the people in this country. The first that measures which regard the public weal are disregarded by individuals, and the other that there is no means at present by which individuals can join in any public measure. To notice but one fact as an illustration ; how many are there who have suffered or are likely to suffer by the operations of the resumption regulations. These sufferers have been deeply groaning under the weight of the calamity which has befallen them, and none comes forward to make representation on the subject to the Government. Had one hundredth part of the mischief done by these regulations been done in England, petitions upon petitions would have poured down on the legislature. And why this great difference 2 Not only because the people of England are more enlightened than those of India, the difference in this regard is far from being sufficient to account of the fact we have noticed. The reason is, the former are alive to measures of public interest, and possess the means of communicating with each other regarding matters which concern individuals generally. Hence so many associations, so many representations on questions of public interest, and such opposition to all measures detrimental to the people. A knowledge of these facts ought to induce our land proprietors to form themselves into associations, and when necessary, to submit such representations as may place their grievances before their rulers in a proper light. The Government of India, in their letter to the Court of Directors, dated 23d February
1828, adverting to the petitions against regulation III, of 1828, speak as follows:
126. Among the petititions against Regulations III, 1828, which have been noticed in a preceding part of this despatch, there is one which we have stated to be anonymous ; we have now to notice that an exact duplicate of that petition has since been presented to us, with the signatures of above 200 individuals annexed to it, accompanied by a letter addressed to our Secretary in this department by four natives, named Dwarkanauth Tagore, Kalinath Roy Pursunnoo Komar Tagore, and Rammohun Roy.
827. The intelligence of the above-named individuals is acknowledged to be much superior to that of the native aristocracy in general : however much, therefore, we may doubt whether any considerable number of the petititioners are capable of understanding the arguments which it contains, we are not the less disposed to give due consideration to the expression of the sentiments of such individuals on a question which so generally affects the interests of the native community as well as those of the state.
It is evident from the strain of these paragraphs that all those who signed the petition are not allowed the credit of participating in the sentiments which it conveys. The getting up of the petition is thus referred to four individuals, and its weight of course considerably lessened. Had similar petitions been presented from every part of the country, numerously signed, a conclusion like that to which the local Government would lead the Court of Directors, could never have been borne out. This simple fact, if others were wanting, annply preves the necessity of such associations as we have recommended.
Our remarks have been made with the view on the one hand to promote the object of the iuquiry instituted by Government, and on the other to suggest to the people the means of submitting their grievances before their rulers in the only way in which their representations are likely to be attended to ; and we hope both the Government and the people will see the advantages likely to be secured by attending
to our recommendations.—Reformer, May 21.
THE TEN COMMANDMENTS.
Our readers are aware that about five years ago the present king of Cochin China, MinhMenh, commenced a bitter persecution against the Catholic Mission which had been established in the country for nearly two centuries, and had been fostered by his predecessors ; that one of the Missionaries was put to death, and that the Bishop was obliged to seek safety in flight. It appears that, in order, if possible, to supersede Christianity, he determined, after the adoption of these violent counsels, to promulgate a new deca
logue of moral and religious duties, and to cammand the strictest obedience to it. The Bishop of Castorie, the Coadjutor of the V. Apostlic of Cochin China, transmitted a copy of these new commandments to his own superiors at Paris, together with a running commentary on them ; and they were published in the “Annales de la Propagation de la foi,” No. 51, for March, 1837. Having been favoured with a copy of this number, we have now the pleasure of laying the Bishop's letter before our readers.
“I have told you in my former letters, that the King Minh-Menh, by his edict of the 6th January, 1833, proscribed the Catholic religion through the whole extent of the state. I need not recur to the details of this frightful persecution ; the blood of the martyrs has reddened tae soil Annam, and every sign of Christian worship has been effaced. Yet this was not enough for the end which Minh-Menh proposed. He knew well that religion did no consist entirely in external practice, and he has sworn to stifle it, if that be possible, in the heart of all his subjects. Reflecting, then, upon the means of attaining with more certainty this fearful object of his desires, behold what the unodern Julian has imagined in his crafty policy. He recalled to mind that the decalogue of the Christians was the chief rule of their conduct; that the Pagans themselves often quoted it with praise, and that the faithful assembled in great numbers four times a year to celebrate in a body, the holy mysteries. The King had too much sense to believe that it was possible to extinguish a religion, without substituting something in its place. Like a philosophical prince, therefore, he resolved to oppose in some measure religion to religion, festival to festival, and decalogue to decalogue. He has, therefore, caused a great number of works upon morals to be collected, and those of Confucius among the rest, and he has caused the most splendid passages to be noted down, particularly those which might bear any anology to Christian doctrine ; and this has been arranged in the best possible manner, and has thus furnished a complete body of doctrine. The whole has been divided into ten articles. A pompous preface announces to the people of Annam, that the King, desirous of treading in the steps of his illustrious predecessors, has, in his paternal solicitude, composed these ten precepts. And it is remarked, that an exact observance of them cannot fail to obtain from above, a happy peace for all the inhabitants of the country, and abundant harvests.” The Bishop then proceeds to describe the ceremonial which has been prescribed, regarding the reception of the decalogue by all the public officers in the empire. 1st. CoM.—Preserve eractly all the Social Relations. This is the same as if one should talk of the Rights of Man. But in Tom King, they put a different construction on it, from that which is given in France. Social relations are those of the King with his subjects ; the rights of the King are every thing ; those of the subject nothing. Then follow the relation of the father with the son ; of the husband to the wife ; of brothers among each other ; and of friends to strangers. These five kinds of relations, are conspicuously brought forward in all the books of Chinese morality, which have been used in this compilation. Much is said on the subject, which after all means little ; but it is all very classic, and every scholar who does not know it by heart, would be taxed with ignorance. 2d. CoM.–In all things have a good
intention.—This rectitude is greatly recommended as the rule of our actions, which will all be good, if our heart is right, simple and just ; but evil, if a man departs from this uprightness. It is, doubtless, a good precept, but at the same time is only a republication of the Christian law; and, perhaps, Minh-Menh did not doubt this. 3D. CoM.–Fulfil with diligence the duties of Jour state and condition.—It is necessary to be content with one's condition, not to murmur against the state in which, according to the pleasure of God, one is born, to perform its duties with delight and care, and to labour with ordour and contentment. This rule refers to all labourers, artizans, merchants and soldiers ; all are to be content; then will the happiness of his Majesty's subjects be perfect. This is truly admirable; but it is to be regretted that the legislator has not given himself the trouble to point out the means of obtaining it. It is well to say men, be content, but it would be more useful to teach them how to attain it. 4th. CoM.—Be sober in eating and drinking. —This commandment prescribes the moderate use of the good things which Heaven gives us; and not the imitation of those who on certain days of debauchery, consume all they have, and strave for the rest of the year. It is said, that intemperance as well as gainbling, engenders poverty, theft, and high-way robbery. This is to take the people of Annam by their weak side ; to strike them in a tender part; and hence they are not a little displeased with the King for this law. It is impossible not to compare the state of misery under which so great a number of the people groan, with the plenty which reigns in the voluptuous Court of Minh-Menh ; so easy is it to preach sobriety to the miserable, when a man denies himself nothing. 5th. CoM.–Preserve rites and usages.—The developmnet of this precept does not correspond with its title. As it consists only of long and vague dissertations, which have no connection with the text, I need not pause to examine it. 6th. CoM.–Fathers and mothers ought to bring up their childern with care, and elder brothers should do the same by their younger bro thers.—The King considers domestic education as the base of the social edifice, and certes, with reason. This article has, the refere, been received without contradiction, and even with applause. 7th. CoM.—Avoid evil doctrines, and stud only those which are good.—The legislator is desirous that all men should give thcmselves up to study, and allow no day to pass without reading, or study ; but they must be careful not to swallow the poison with the aliments which are destined to nourish them. It is in this place, that Minh-Menh abandons himself, without restraint, to all the hatred which he feels for the Christian name. He says, that of all false doctrines that of Christianity is the most opposed to reason, and the most
dangerous as it respects good manners; that its disciples live in promiscuous intercourse
like the brutes; that many had already paid
with their heads for the folly which had engaged them in the superstitions of this worship ; that the people ought to be careful not to imitate them ; but that all ought to follow in all things the ancient usages and
the accustomed rites of the Kingdom, both in marriages and in interments, in the worship of deceased ancestors, of the tutelary genii; that is to say, he wishes all Citristians to take part in idolatruos ceremonies. This decree reveals on the part of the Prince, the most unfriendly intentions; it is to be hoped that the first edict may efface at length from the memory of the people the habitual levity of the nation, and give them something to think on. But this edict is to be published four times a year; how, then, are we to hope that the idolators will forget that they have a right to persecute the Christians, and to force thein to superstitious usages and to extort money from them 2 This is, without doubt, the accomplishment of that order which the King gave to his Mandarins to invent against us such contrivances as none of his predecessors had thought of, and thus to eradicate, sooner or later, the Christian religion from all his states. He has but too well succeeded hitherto in this infernal project, for soon after the publication of that piece, the Pagans, whose fury had been a little calmed, redoubled their zeal to pursue us, and from that time in many
parishes, the sick have died without the sa
crament, because no one wished to receive a
priest for fear of exposing himself to arrest.
But in the midst of all these miseries, there is
the tribute is insisted ou.
saurum non peficientern. self by his piracy pays a homage to the excellency of our morals, and to their necessity, even for the Pagans.
one thing that reassures us, and it is that if God be for us, we have nothing to fear from men. Si Deus, nobiscum quis contra nos ? Strengthened by this thought, we can leave the future to the cares of his merciful providence.
8th. CoM.–Preserve chastity and modesty.— Minh-Menh recommends this virtue to the people, doubtless, with the view of imitating our decalogue. He promises rewards to those who shall distinguish themselves in the practice of this virtue, and he threatens lo punish the opposite vice. But it will require some other sanction besides that of the King to make the people of Annam relish a virtue of which they know only the name ; and the prac
ject, upon the two first points.
tice of which is found only among Christians.
Surrounded as he is with a numerous scraglio, he preaches chastity with an ill grace to his people who will find it much not e easy, doubtless, to imitate his conduct than to obey his precepts. - 9th. CoM.–Observe eractly the laws of the kingdom.–Among other recommendations given in this article exactness in the payment of This has made all those who heard it murmur ; for nothing in this country more irritates men, than to hear of imposts ; nothing flatters them so much as to hear of their remission. I believe that if I had money enough to pay for eight years all the contributions to which the Pagan subject of Minh-Menh are subjected, in s ite of his edicts and his precepts, they would all be converted to Christianity, at least, so far as external observances go. 10th. CoM.–Practice good works.-This precept is, doubtless, borrowed from Christian morality ; for there is nothing expressed on this subject in Chinese books. It is said, among other things, persevere in the practice of good works ; that is to say, in other words, Oportet semper orare, et nunquam deficere.—Do, says he again, one good work to-day ; another to-morrow ; do not relax, and you will have an inexhaustible abundance of good works. This is as though he should say, Habebis theThus the King him
Such is in substance the famous decalogue of Minh Menh, in which it will be remarked that there is no allusion to robbery, falsehood, homicide, or other such crimes. Perhaps, the legislating and philosophical prince despairs of obtaining any thing from his subPerhaps he waits for the end of the war to treat of the last : perhaps, he may not have thought of them at all. As for the rest, in many places, they have already neglected the reading of the ten precepts, and the preaching which ought to follow it; in other places, scarcely any one is present at the sermon. We have much else too do, say the Pagans, than to learn that it is necessary to pay tribute to support the seragli of our much loved King and Lord.”—Friend of India.
EGYPT AS IT WAS IN 1837.
By Thomas Waghorn, General agent in Egypt
for steam intercourse, via the Red Sea, between
'ngland, India, Ceylon, China, &c. &c.
This pamphet is dedicated to the members of the British Parliament, both Lords and Commons, in the hope that it will induce in them some sort of sympathy for Egypt ; instead of that indifference to her interests which permits her to be sacrificed to the bolstering up of Turkey.
The object of this pamphlet is to draw the attention of the British Parliament to the present state of Egypt, and, from facts, to shew that it is both our interest and duty, as a nation, to aid in the civilization of that fine country, instead of adhering to a line of policy which, by encouraging the extortionate demands of Turkey upon Egypt, tends to paralyze the efforts of the latter towards the attainment of her political and moral freedom.