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Native Estab. of Messrs. Gilmore and Co. 38 0 0 1 Establishment of the Mint...... . . . . . . . . 158 2 0 P. Makenzie, Esq: ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 0 0|Peary Mohun Sen, Baboo.............. 20 o 0 Major James Bedford.................. • 50 0 0| Establishment of Messrs. Bagshaw and Co. 80 0 0 Non-commissioned Officers and Privates Govinchunder Banerjee.............. 100 0 0

o,H.M. 25th Regt................ 109 6 0|Nilcomul Paul Chowdry........ . . . . . 100 0 0 P. B; $ . . . . . . . . . . ............ . . . . 50 0 0|Joychunder Paul Chowdry............ i00 o 0 David Ross, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 0 0 | Sonaton Coondoo...... - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25 0 0 R. J. D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • 10 0 0|Gopaulchunder Chuckerbutty. 5 0 0 Captain, Birch as per list.............. 87 0 0|Sundry per ditto .......... - - - - - - - - - - 6 0 0 John Morgan, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 0 0 | Professors and Studts. of the Medl. Col. 273 o 0 Native Establishment of Mr. Carmichael 26 8 0| Arsenal Establishment of Fort william per Pewarychund Mittir.................. 4 0 0 Colonel. Powney owoom 13 6 John, Storm, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 0 0|Powder Works per do .............. . 143 8 9 W. Storo, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 0 0 | Dum-Dum Subscriptions per do........ 395 0 0 Mr. G. H. Robertson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 0 0 | D. W. Madge, Esq. . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - 6 0 0 Robert Watson, Esq............. . . ... 100 0 0 |G. A. Simpson, Esq...... . . . . . . . . . . 19 0 0 Mrs. Col. Faithfuls.................. 4 0 0 || W. N. Garrett, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 0 0 Cornet Roche, 3d L. D....... . . . . . . . . 20 0 0 || J. Dunsmure, Esq.................... 50 0 0 W. Braddon's House Servants.......... 11 4 0 Capt. Wilkinson .................... 200 0 0 Capt. Simmonds...................... 40 0 0 |Lieutenant Harrington...... . . . . . . . . . . 50. 0 0 !ady Grant ........................ 100 0 0 -- Simpson ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 0 0 Hon'ble.J.C. Erskine.... . . . . . . . .... ... 100 0 0 | Captain Wilkinson's establishment...... 70 0 to 9°ge. Uday, Esq.......... . . . . . . . . . . 200 0 0|J. Taylor, Esq. Dacca..............., 50 0 0 Major Hutchinson.................... 50 0 0 James Madge, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - 25 0 0 Ram Comul Sen Baboo..... - - - - - - - - ... 100 0 0 Co.'s Rs. 40,332 13 6 Establishment Bank of Bengal.......... 76 12 0 Hurimohun Sen, Mint ....... ....... 20 0 ol Hurk. Murch 16.]



One of the last measures of Lord William Bentinck's active administration was, the appointment of a committee to investigate the mineral resources of the country, more particularly with reference to inland steam navigation. One half the expense of this invaluable improvement, which the country owes likewise to that enlightened Governor General—is absorbed in the price of coal. It was, therefore, self evident, that until this item of expenditure could be reduced, economy in other departments of the undertaking could be beneficial only to a very limited extent. The object to which the attention of the committee was directed was to ascertain whether other mines lying nearer to the main line of inland communication than the Burdwan mines, could not be wrought to advantage, so as to furnish this article at a cheaper rate. The committee divided the different fields of investigation among each other, and appointed Dr McClelland their secretary. The present report, which is the result of their labors, has been drawn up under his direction.

The exertions of the committee, consisting of six gentlemen, engrossed with public duties in Calcutta, have necessarily been confined to the examination and arrangement of the documents which have been furnished them from the archives of Government, or through the researches of individuals. The active measures which the committee have underken are these. First, Mr. Homfray, the best practical miner in India, was deputed to survey and report on the Palamow field of coal. His report is unfavourable as far as it relates to the supply of steam vessels on the Ganges from this source. Secondly, The committee encouraged Mr. Erskine, of Elambuzar, to re-open three or four coal seams connected with the great Burdwan basin, situated nearer to the Adji than to the Damooder, and 2,000 maunds of this coal have been delivered at the depôt at Cutwa, at four annas the maund. Thirdly, Mr. G. Loch, of the Civil Service, has despatched a thousand maunds of Chirra Pronjee coal to Dinapore, at six annas the maund, under the auspices of the committee. Fourthly, A supply of coal

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“In the foregoing situations coal has been traced from Burdwan to the westward, across the Valley of Pala. mow, and from thence through the district of Sohagpore to Jubbulpore, and the neighbourhool of the Sak, and the Tow, a river in the Narbudda territories, 420 miles distant from Burdwan. , Observing nearly the same parallel of latitude, it is found in the province of Cutch, whilst it is extended in the same line across the centre of India to the N. E. extremity of Assam, forming a zone. that stretches from 69 to 93, E. longitude, embraced in an opposite direction between the 20 and 25 N. latitude Chanda on the Warda river, Cuttack and Arracan being its southern boundary, whilst the Vale of Callinger west of Allahabad, the Teesta river at the base of the Sikim Mountains, and Upper Assam, from the northern limit.

“There are, however, two situations in which coal has been foun I distinct from this extensive and well defined belt, namely, Hurdwar and Attok; the first near the source of the Ganges, and the second near that of the Indus. Although situated in the plains, yet both these situations appear to be too closely connected with the Himalaya, and too much detached from the tract now under consideration, to allow of their being considered in common with it. In the researches of infancy of this nature, for such we must as yet consider the state of our information upon the subject of coal, it would be wrong to attach exclusive importance to the peculiar distribution of the mineral just noticed, further than to observe, that this distribution appears to be highly favourable to all these objects for which coal is desirable.

“Cutch, the extreme western limit of what here might be named the carboniferous zone, is placed in the most favourable situation for yielding supplies for the navigation of the Indus, the coast of Malabar, and the Red Sea. The Nerbudda river extends 700 miles along the very centre of this zone, and coal in three situations is already found on its banks. The Soane, the Ganges, and the Hooghley, are each intersected by it, and the Bramaputta, and probably the Irrawaddi, are extended paral. lel to it throughout their navigable extent.

“Now, on the other hand, this belt had been ex. tended from the punjah towards the south, scarcely a navigable river, but the Indus alone would, in such cases, be approached by it, and the interests of navigation would be as little benefited by the presence of a carboniferous zone, as if the valuable production by which it is distinguished, were hurried beneath the table-lands of the Himalaya. It is, therefore, sufficiently encouraging in this early stage of the enquiry to find the general dis. tribution of coal so favourable, nor need we, as is evident from the Attok and Hurdwar coal, despair of finding supplies available for the navigation of the northern portions of the Ganges and Indus as soon as enquiries are directed in those remote quarters to the object here in view.

The second section contains a very valuable geolo. gical disquisition on the difference of level in Indian coal fields, it is too long for quotation, and too strictly scien. tific for the general reader.

The third section refers to Silhet coal district, which the committee places first in point of importance, not on

account of its accessibility,+for the distance of its locality from navigable streams, has as yet prevented its being brought into use.—But on account of its superior excellence, it is the finest coal hitherto discovered in India, being found to be 10 per cent. superior to the Burdwan coal. Mr. Colebrooke first directed the attention of Government to it, in 1813, and Mr. James was soon after sent to explore the mines. But the Khassya Hills had not then come into the possession of the British, and the valuable mines concealed in their bosom were unknown. Various indications of coal at the base of the hills were discovered by Mr. James and by Mr. Stark, but from that time to the present no attempt has been made to survey those localities, or to ascertain by what means the coal they contain may be turned to the benifit of the country. The Chirra coal was discovered in 1831, about a mile distant from the Sanatarium, forming a large portion of a percipice. It may be delivered at the soot of the Hills, or at Pundua, at four annas the maund, which is the usual charge for portelage by the Khassyas. The report says, “If the demand for this coal were sufficient. the expense of conveyance might be much lessened by carting it from the pit to the brow of the mountain, and for the remainder of the distance employing either mules or bullocks, except at the more difficult passes, where a man might be stationed to receive the loads : such improvements in the mode of conveyance would imply a certain outlay in forming better roads; but even without this, Mr. G. Loch has afforded a practical proof of its value by the delivery of 1,000 maunds of this coal at Dinapore, including all charges, and under every disadvantage, for 425 rupees the thousand maunds, being 350 rupees less than the contract price.” Why the committee doubt that the demand for this coal is insufficient to encourage exertion, we are at a loss to comprehend. It is unquestonably the very best coal in India, and the demand for it must, therefore, always be great. If it can be conveyed by a very circuitous route from Chitra to Dinapole for six annas the maund, we do not see why it could not be transmitted by a more direct route to Calcutta, at the same rate ; and Chirra coal for the steam engines in Calcutta, at six annas the maund, would be universally preferred to Burdwan coal at five annas. But placing the manufacturies in Calcutta out of the question, after the experiment so successfully made by Mr. Loch, this mine of coal ought, above all others, to draw the immediate and close attention of Government, for the purposes of inland navigation. If the coal can be delivered at Dinapore, which the committee admit, at sir aunas the maund cheaper than the coal now conveyed to that place from Calcutta, it can be delivered at six annas the maund cheaper at every depót above Dinapore, as far as Allahabad, and for a still less sum at every depot below that station, down to the point where this coal, coming from the eastward, enters the Ganges. This is by far the most important discovery which has been made under the auspices of the coininittee, and Government will shew a great disregard of their own interest and the welfare of the country, if the question is allowed to lie dormant, We have not the documents before us from which we lately drew up the abstract of receipts and expenditure, in connexion with inland steam navigation, but we should think that a reduction of six annas the maund on all the coal that is used between Rajmahal and Allahabad, would effect a saving of twenty-five thousand rupees a year, upon the present consumption. In addition to this advantage in price, the coal would be ten per cent. superior to that which is now used. Here then is a field for the exertions of the committee, in which an abundant harvest of benefit may be immediately reaped. But why, in the prospect of such advantages, should not officers of Government be employed in discovering some cheaper plan of corveying the coal from the mine to the river, than the barbarous and primaeval mode of carrying it upon human shoulders, which is uow in use ! Just at

this juncture, we have a body of sappers and miners,


and of scientific officers engaged in the neighbourhood of Chirra in constructing a military road to Munipore. Why could not this circumstance be improved ; and the engineer establishment, before they quit this part of the country, be set to discover a more scientific mode of conveying this coal to the river ? We hope the question will attract notice in the highest quarter. If through

the instrumentality of the officers now engaged on the Munipore road, means could be created by the construction of a good road, of diminishing by one half, the price of this coal, as it reaches the point of embarkation, would not the whole expense thus incurred be refunded in two years, even if the establishment of steam vessels

should not be doubled t—Friend of India, March 16.


The directors beg to submit to the subscribers of the Bengal Military Fund, the case of Mrs. Margaret Kelly, widow of the late Major Kelly of Her Majesty's 24th regiment of foot.

A claim was made by this Lady on the 19th January 1836, to be re-admitted to the benefit of the pension she enjoyed from the late Bengal Military Widows’ Fund, in right of her first husband (Captain John Graham o the cavalry, see No. 1.)” but, as the rule of that institution (see No. 2) only granted pensions during continuance in widowhood, she was informed with others situated like herself (see cases No. 3) that her claim was inadmissible.

Major Adair of Her Majesty's 24th foot in a letter dated Dumfries, 20th April 1837, (see No. 4) having solicited an appeal to the subscribers from this decision, which having been approved of by three directors, it is therefore submitted to the subscribers for their decision, in doing which the directors will briefly state the grounds on which this and other ladies' claims to re-admission on subsequent widowhood, who were annuitants of the late fund have been rejected.

The late fund was established in the year 1804, from which period to 1st November 1824, when it was incor. porated with the present fund, not a single application was made for re-admission on second widowhood. On the establishment, however, of the present fund rule 24 of which (see No. 5) admitting an annuitant to the benefit of the pension, she may have enjoyed in right of her first husband's subscription on subsequent widowhood, several claims were preferred by annuitants of the late fund for re-admission, but rejected by the directors as their re-admission was inconsistent with the rules and practice of the late fund, which only granted pensions during continuance in widowhood, whereas there is an express rule in the present fund for re-admission on subsequent widowhood, to the benefit of which parties whose husbands died before the present fund, was established, or the said rule adopted could not be entitled.

Thirty-eight annuitants of the late fund have re-married and if the precedent of this nature is once admitted, it may prove detrimental to the interests of the fund.

By order of the directors."
H. Mantin dell,

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* Omitted as unnecessary.

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GENTI.EMEN, Mrs. Hind, late Mrs. Thornton, widow of the late Major Thornton, and late a pensioner of the late Bengal Military Widows’ Fund, is not agreeably to the rules of that institution entitled to be re-admitted to its benefits. The rule (26) of the military fund under which the executors of the late Colonel Hind (who never subscribed either to the old or the present fund) have claimed her re-admission, is only applicable to the widows of the subscribers of the military fund established the 1st November 1824, nearly fifteen years after the decease of the late Major Thornton, you are, therefore, requested to discontinue the payment of a Major's widows' pension to that lady, and recover from her such sums as you may have paid to her.

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Madaw, I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 31st ultimo, and to acquaint you, that your re-admission to the pension you, formerly enjoyed from the late Bengal Military Widows' Fund, is inadmissible, agreeably to the rules of that institution, as already communicated to you in my letter No. 647, of the 12th ultimo.

The directors regret, that your late husband should have been misinformed regarding your re-admission by the agents of the fund in England, and it is also to be regretted that he did not apply to this office on the subject, but the directors have not the power to act contrary to the rules laid down for their guidance.

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Sin, -Your letter to Mrs. Kelly, under date the –, was duly received by that lady ; she is much concerned to learn from it, that her re-admission to a pension from the Widows’ Fund, had not been sanctioned by the directors. Upon the reasons which are assigned for this judgment, viz. “ that such pensions, continue only during widowhood and are not claimable upon subsequent widowhood,” at the request of Mrs. Kelly, I crave permission to remark on her part, that although the original rule 17 of the Widows' Fund decreed a suspension of the stipend upon re-marriage, it contained no prohibition against its renewal upon second widowhood. Its terms on the contrary are general, that the pension shall continue “during widowhood,” and apply to any and every occasion during which the claimant may be so left. To limit its duration to first widowhood is an extension of the rule unwarranted by its letter, and quite against the spirit of the institution, which intends not only the (partial and temporary) relief, but the continuing support, while necessary, of the “Widows of Officers.” On the revision of the fund rules, which took place in 1821, the wording of the relative articles 25 and 29 continued equally strong and general, the phrases then used are “during continuance in widowhood,” and “in a state of widowhood.”

The general practice in such societies, and indeed in law, is, that where a deprivation or penalty is intended it shall be expressed, and in such cases, the affidavit on which depends the continuance of the indulgence to the widow, declares that ever since the husband's decease she has continued and then is a widow.

In what may be called the sister fund, of the lindian army, viz. Lord Clive's Bounty, the declaration required is equally direct and explicit; oath is made by the claimant that she #: not contracted marriage with any other person

since the death of her aforesaid husband. The meaning here is well defined and cannot be mistaken ; what is intended is declared, that a marriage would involve the forfeiture of the pension.

The practice of the British army is very different from that which the judgment of the Military Fund directors has for the first time made known to Mrs. Kelly. The compassionate allowance or Royal Bounty to the widow of an officer is not (See His Majesty's Warrant, 13th June 1836,) forfeited on her re-marriage, but continues during every subsequent coverture and widowhood, nor is it like the pension of the widow, of the Indian Officer, purchased by high subscriptions during his life, but it is a free and gratis grant,

The late Captain Graham subscribed to the widows' fund from its commencement to his death in February 1816, a period of nearly l l years—all the return for this long subscription which his widow has hitherto received is her pension for barely two years. If the directors would but recollect the large amount of capital, nearly 13 lacs of sicca rupees transferred in 1824 from the Old Widows' to the New Military Fund, the claim to some share in the benefit thereof of the widow of an officer, who so contributed to it, would, I believe, be found deserving of further and favorable consideration. This principle, that the benefit of the continued support and increased rate of interest then promised by the Court of Directors should not be limited to the parties connected with the new institution has already been largely acted upon when they increased by one-third, the pensions of the old fund incumbents; by that increase a majority of those widows now receive larger pensions from the new fund than it grants to its own subscribers, when therefore what is asked is not preference but equality, involves an innovation but proceeds on existing usage, and incurs but a paltry expense for a praiseworthy end. I cannot but think that a respectful appeal to the long well-known liberality of the Bengal army will not be made in vain when the very dependent state of their petitioner is thus brought under their notice. I beg, therefore, that the directors will permit the reference of this distressing case to the compassionate consideration of the army, should the present communication not suffice to establish in their opinion the claim of Mrs, Kelly to restoration of her penS10 in .

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ARTrcle 24th.--If a widow pensioner on the fund marries, her pension is to cease during her coverture, but in the event of her again becoming a widow, she shall be re-admitted to all the benefits she may have enjoyed from the fund during her first widowhood, in like manner as if she had not re-married, but subject, of course, to all the limitations and conditions prescribed by the regulations in the first instance. If the second husband shall also have been a subscriber to the fund the widow will receive however only one annuity, taking that which may be the greatest, that is to say, according to the rank of the first or second husband, whichever may be the higher.—Hurkaru, March 20.

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In pursuance of a requisition which had been circuated sometime previously, upwards of two hundred of the most respectable zemindars assembled last Monday at 4 P. M. at the Town-hall. Among these we perceived the following distinguished individuals, Rajahs Borada

caunth Roy, Raj Narain, Radacaunth Bahadoor, Kaly Kishen Bahadoor, Baboos Prosonnocomar Tagore, Ramcomul Sen, Ramanath Tagore, and other members of the Tagore Family, Baboos Lukhinarain Mookerjee, Abhoy Churn Banerjee, Promothonath Deb, Ratu Rutton Roy, Oodychund Bysak, Raj Kishen Chowdhery, Sottychurn Ghosal, Mothooranath Mullik, Moonshy Ameer, Mahommed Ameer, and the Mooktears of several opulent rajahs and zemindars, who could not attend the meeting. We likewise observed several European gentlemen, among whom were Mr. T. Dickens, Mr. Geo. Prinsep, Mr. David Hare, and several other distinguished members of the community. The whole of the proceedings, with the exception of what fell from Mr. Dickens, was in Bengally, and, although considerable difficulty was experienced by us in preparing this our first report of proceedings conducted in that language, yet by the obliging assistance of a kind and talented friend, we can assure the reader that the substance of the speeches will be found fully given and as accurately reported as under circumstances it was possible.

Rajah Radhacaunth Bahadoor being called to the chair, stated that the honor which had been conferred on him was due in the first instance to the Rajah of Nuddeah, whose family was the most ancient among the zemindars of Bengal ; but this Rajah, although he had been expected, was not present at the meeting. In his absence he thought the chair was due to Rajah Barada. caunth Roy, whose family stood next in point of antiquity ; but as the meeting had done him the honor of calling him to the chair, he would thankfully accept it. Under the British rule, he observed, the people had continued to live happily, until certain regulations, connected with the resumption operations, had been promulgated, which made all very anxious, and a gloom has been cast on the landholders. On the other hand, what good had the Government done for the people When, some years ago, inundation laid waste the southern parts of the country, the Government suspended its demand, for some time, but afterwards recovered it with interest, which measure ruined many estates and gave considera. ble trouble to the people. The resumption of rent-freelands was, however, the greatest grievance they had to complain of, and circumstances pointed out the expedience of forming a society. . The benefits of such a society would be felt not only by those who resided in Calcutta, but all over the country, by forming communications with the different districts and this society. Representa. tions were always necessary to be made to Government, in these proceedings; if any one adopted an erroneous course, the society afforded a ready means of correction, and through it grievances could be easily brought to the notice of the proper authorities. It was a common saying among the people ‘ that straw could be easily broken by the finger when in separate blades : but if several blades be united together and formed into a rope, it was capable of confining even a wild elephant and reducing it into subjection.’ Union among the people was, therefore, highly necessary, and the establishment of such a society was much called for, in order to keep a watch over the measures of Government and its functionaries, and for the purpose of making 1epresentations to it.

Rajah Kaly Kishen Bahadoor expressed his full concurrence in the opinions of the chairman, and moved that a society be formed to be called the Landholders' Society... This resolution was seconded by Rajah RajNarain Roy, who also expressed his full concurrence in the views of the chairman. Carried unanimously.

Mr. Dickens stated, that he had been requested by the chairman to read the prospectus of the society in English, for the information of those who understood that language, and that a Bengally version of it would afterwards, be read and explained by some one who better understood that language than he did. He then read the prospectus which will be found in the Hurkaru of the 17th instant.

The chairman then stated, that previous to this, a meeting of several respectable zemindars and others had

Bhobanichurn Mitter and himself, a provisional committee, for the purpose of preparing the rules of the projected society, which he would now read for, the benefit of those who had not understood the English version of it, which had just been read by Mr. Dickens.

He then read the prospectus in Bengally, calling the attention of the meeting to those parts of the rules which required their immediate attention.

Moved by Rajah Rajnarain Roy, seconded by Rajah Kaly Kishen Bahadoor :

“That the rules now read be adopted as the rules of the society.

After the 2d resolution was moved, Mr. came forward and spoke :

Gentlemen : I congratulate you upon the occasion of our meeting, and upon the carrying of the resolutions already moved, which give existence and consistency to our society. As already an incipient jealousy of it has been displayed, I think it necessary to speak of my own reasons for coming forward, which otherwise, I should not have touched upon; I do not appear here in the character of a political agitator; still less in that of an advocate of any opinions, except my own, and those which I trust we have all in common... I am a proprietor of indigo factories of considerable value; I am besides by the grant of Government, a proprietor of lands in the zillah of Goruckpore, which, I trust, I shall be ena: bled by care and the assistance which I have secured to render productive, and bequeath, as a valuable inheritance to my children. Thus should I chance to leave this country, my connexion with it will remain, and I am sure you will rejoice with me, when you reflect that from the change of policy which enables Englishmen to acquire property here, this is not likely to be a solitary example ; but the connexion between both countries must needs become daily closing in all things, to the increase of knowledge, of kindliness of feeling, and, I trust, to the improvement of both classes.


I join you, therefore, as one having an earnest and friendly feeling and a common interest, and disposed with all my power, with heart and head and hand to aid in the one common object, which we have all in view.

I congratulate you, gentlemen, on the formation of the first society for political objects which has ever been organized by the natives of India with large and liberal views, without exclusiveness, and with ends and aims of extensive utility. I see in it the gem of great things, and I am satisfied that the care and prudence which will be required to conduct these beginnings to fitting ends, will not be wanting.

I have said, gentlemen, that a jealousy respecting our objects has been already displayed, I but guard myself carefully from attributing such a sentiment to the governing power : I am satisfied that there no such feeling exists. But though the last charter has been called a “Charter of Freedom” for India, I cannot, I own, perceive that much extension of political liberty has been granted by it to any class, or that any thing like what we ought to call a guarantee for civil rights has been conceded to the natives of India, or to any class of its inhabitants. I do not profess to be an admirer of that charter, I am no admirer of it, nor of the men who framed it; but though I may not deem them possessed of deep sagacity, nor of that fore-knowledge which could embrace all the consequences of their own acts, yet I am bound in candour to suppose that they must have foreseen some of those consequences, and must be pleased at seeing their anticipations verified by the event. If they did not (and they certainly did not) provide any guarantees for the rights of the governed, they at least promulgated the principle of equality. They have pronounced, gentlemen, that all men should be equal before the law, and equal in

been held at the Hindoo College, which had appointed Ba Prosonnocomar Tagore, Ram Comul Sen,

the eye of the state ; and they gave utterance to an abstract principle, which first, for any practical purposes

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