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til she is at the proper distance from her, when she comes to the course under steerage-way, and is followed by the other vessels of the division, successively, all of which have, of course, slowed to steerage-way when she slowed.

After the columns are formed the fleet resumes

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* Or so soon as nine finds seventeen abreast, she may go ahead full speed. See Figs. 63 and 64,

The commander-in-chief signals:

On the rear division-form columns of vessels abreast, by divisions, in natural order, heading N.

Flag-ships of van and centre divisions signal: Division E.

Flag-ship of rear division signals: Division N.

The van and centre divisions alter course together to E.; the rear division keeps its course. So soon as the centre division has gained its proper distance to the eastward of the rear one, it comes N., and hoists the position pennant for the guidance of the van division, which now manæuvres with respect to the centre division as the centre has with respect to the rear. The fleet can be formed by the van and centre divisions keeping W. as well, but will then be in reversed order.

To form the fleet into double columns, triple columns, etc., etc., abreast, by divisions, it should be first formed into columns of vessels abreast, by one of the above methods, and then into double columns, triple columns, etc., as in 28, 29, and 30.

It is evident that the fleet can be formed, by squadrons, into columns of vessels abreast, according to the same principles.

35. The fleet being in column of vessels, in na

tural order, heading N., to form it into columns of vessels abreast, by divisions, at right angles to the original direction.

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The commander-in-chief signals:

On the van division-form columns of vessels abreast, by divisions, in natural order, heading E.

Flag-ship of van division: Head of division E.

Flag-ships of centre and rear divisions signal: Division N.

The leading vessel of the van division comes E. at once, and is followed by the other vessels of the division, successively, as they get into her wake. So soon as the division is in column to the Eastward, it slows to steerage-way. The other divisions continue onward. When nine finds herself at the proper distance to the Northward of the van division she comes E., and is followed, successively, by the other vessels of the centre division as they attain her wake. So soon as the centre division is abreast of the van division, it slows to steerage-way, and hoists the position pennant for the guidance of the rear division,* which manæuvres with respect to the centre division, as the centre has with respect to the van.

So soon as the columns are formed, the fleet resumes its speed. The fleet can be

* So soon as the leading vessel of this division has passed the rear of the centre division, steering E., it may oblique into position,

formed into columns of vessels abreast, heading E., by the leading vessel of each division coming E. at once, as shown by the dotted lines in the figure; but then it would be in order reversed.

It is evident that the fleet can be formed into columns of vessels abreast, heading W., according to the same principles. To form it in natural order then, however, the signal of commanderin-chief would be : Heads of divisions W., whereas to form it in order reversed, he would have to signal : On the van division-form columns of vessels abreast, by division-in reversed order-heading W.

It is plain, too, that, in the same manner, it can be formed into columns of vessels abreast, by squadrons, at right angles to the original direction.

To form the fleet into double columns, triple columns, etc., etc., abreast, by divisions, at right angles to the original direction, it should first be formed into column of vessels abreast, by one of the above methods, and then into double columns, triple columns, etc., as in 29 and 30.

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