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column at its proper distance (120 fathoms) from the rear vessel of the van division. The leading vessel of the rear division keeps E., and is followed by the other vessels of the division as they get into her wake, all moving at the same rate of speed as is maintained by the centre division.

So soon as the leader of the fleet finds herself bearing N. from the centre division, she hoists the position pennant, and comes to the course, when all the fleet move at a uniform speed.*

It is evident that the column can be formed on the centre division, with the rear in front, according to the same principles.

column, etc., etc., on the van, rear, or centre division, according to the same principles; and if they are to be formed into column of vessels on the van, rear, or centre division, the divisions must be first broken into columns of vessels (see Fig. 70), and afterward maneuvre as in maneuvres 42 and 43.

A fleet in columns of vessels abreast, by squadrons, would be formed into column of vessels, on the van or rear, or right or left centre squadron, in the same manner.

* Should the commander of the centre division elect in this case, however, to move into column, as prescribed by Table J (that is, at the rate of 6-7, knots an hour, supposing the speed of the van division to be ten knots), the centre division would not steam ten knots until the rear vessel of the van division bore N. from it, as is plain ; at which time the leader of the centre would have traversed 2318 fathoms and the leader of the van 2509+960 fathons.

3469 : 2318::10 :0.7

44. The fleet being in columns of vessels abreast, by

divisions, in natural order, heading N., to form
it into column of vessels on the right division,
with the van leading, on any course to the North-
ward, from E. to W.

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The commander-in-chief signals :

On the right division, form column of vessels van in fronthead of van division N.E. (or N.W.) -heads of centre and rear divisions E.*

* Or he may signal an oblique course, when the divisions oblique into column, as shown by the dotted lines. Supposing them to steer E.N.E., to form the column to the N.E., and N. W. to get into column N. W., we have for their speed in the former case 9 to knots, and 4.1 in

Flag-ship of van division : Head of division N.E. (or N.W.)

Flag-ships of centre and rear divisions signal: Head of division E.*

The leader of the van division comes N.E. (or N.W.) at once; the leaders of the centre and rear divisions keep E., all moving at full speed. The other vessels stand on N., those of the van division keeping N.E. (or N.W.), those of the centre and rear divisions E., as they get into their leaders' wake.

When the divisions are in double columns, triple columns, etc., etc., they should be broken into columns of vessels, and then manæuvred as above.

When the commander-in-chief desires to form the column toward the fleet, at an angle of more than six points with the original course, he signals a course, making an angle of 45°, and when he finds that the leader of the fleet has gone far enough to avoid collision, changes direction to the requisite course. Supposing the fleet to be steering N., for instance, and that the column is to be formed due W., the commander-in-chief first signals: On the right division, form column of vessels-van in front-head of right division N.W. - heads of centre and rear divisions E., and afterward, head of fleet W., and the leader of the fleet proceeds as shown by the vessel marked A.

the latter, provided the speed of the division on which the column is formed be ten knots. (See Tables F and L.) When the commander-in-chief wishes to leave the manner of forming column optional with the divisional commander, he omits signalling the course to the centre and rear divisions.

* Or they may make general signal E., and move by the flank into column. In this case the signal of the commander-in-chief would be, Centre and rear divisions E. -head of van division N. E. (or N. W.)

A fleet in column of vessels abreast, by squadrons, would be similarly manoeuvred.

45. The fleet being in column of vessels abreast,

by divisions, in natural order, heading N., to form it into column of vessels, on the right division, with the van leading, on any course to the Southward from E, to W.

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The commander-in-chief signals:

On the right division, form column of vesselsvan in frontheads of centre and rear divisions E. -head of van division S.E. (or S.W.)

Flag-ship of van division signals : Head of division S.E. (or S.W.)

Flag-ships of centre and rear divisions signal: Head of division E.

The leader of the van division comes S.E. (or S.W.) at once; the leaders of the centre and rear divisions keep E., all moving at full speed. The other vessels stand on N., those of the van division keeping S.E. (or S.W.), those of the centre and rear divisions E., as they get into their leaders' wake.

So soon

as the commander of the centre division finds his leading vessel approaching the wake of the van division, steering S.E. (or S.W.), he signals, Head of division S.E. (or S.W.), etc., etc., as is apparent.

When the divisions are in double column, triple column, etc., etc., they should be broken into columns of vessels, and then manœuvred as above.

When the commander-in-chief desires to form the column to the rear, toward the fleet, he signals a four point course, and when he finds that the leader of the feet has brought the

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