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rear vessels of the centre division to bear in the direction he wishes to steer, he changes direction to this course.

Supposing that in Fig. 76, the column is to be formed due W., the commander-in-chief should signal as above, and afterward, Head of column W., when the leader would proceed as shown by the vessel marked A.

The fleet may be formed into column on the left division, with the rear in front, according to the same principles, on any course, after reversing it, as in 47, Fig. 78.

46. The fleet being in column of vessels, heading N.,

to change front to the rear, turning to starboard.

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The commander-in-chief makes general signal E., which is repeated by the divisional commanders, and as soon as he observes that the whole fleet is turning in that direction, signals S., the divisional commanders again repeating his signal.

Each vessel, putting her helm to port, swings to starboard, until heading S.

It is evident that the fleet can change front to the rear, turning to port, according to the same principles.

47. The fleet being in column of vessels abreast, by

divisions, heading N., to change front to the rear, turning to starboard.

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The commander-in-chief signals:

E., and afterward S.
Divisional commanders repeat these signals.
Performed by each division as in manouvre

46. If the fleet were in columns of vessels abreast, by squadrons, front would be changed to the rear, according to the same principles.

48. The fleet being in double column, heading N., to

change front to the rear, turning to starboard.

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Signals made and mancuvre performed precisely as in manæuvre* 46.

It is evident that front could be changed to the rear if the fleet were in triple column, column of fours, etc., etc. according to the same principles, by turning to port or starboard.

*If preferred, the feet may be broken into column of vessels, and front changed to the rear, as in Fig. 77, and then re-formed into double coluinn.

49. The fleet being in double columns abreast, by

divisions, heading N., to change front to the rear, turning to starboard.

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Commander-in-chief signals :

E., and afterward S.
Divisional commanders: E., and afterward S.

Performed by each division as in 47. If the fleet were in triple columns, columns of fours, etc., etc., abreast, by divisions, or in double column, triple column, etc., abreast, by squadrons, front would be changed to the rear, according to the same principles.*

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50. The fleet being in column of vessels, heading N.,

to GAIN SEA to the left.

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The commander-in-chief signals:

W.
Divisional commanders signal: Division W.

Each vessel putting her helm to starboard, swings to port until on the required course ; the fleet (now in line) continues on this course until it has gained the proper distance, and the commander-in-chief makes general signal N.,

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