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61. The fleet being in column of vessels, in close

order, to form it in open order on any vessel which may be designated.

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Close order

13*

The commander-in-chief makes signal :

On the van* vessel, form in open order.
Which is repeated by the divisional commanders.

The leader of the fleet continues onward at full speed; all the other vessels slow to steerage-way, two resuming her speed, and hoisting the position pennant, when one has gained the proper distance from her, three when two has gained her proper distance, and so on to the last vessel. To form in open order on the rear vessel, the

commander-in-chief makes signal : On the rear vessel, form in open order.

The rear vessel slows to steerage-way; all the other vessels continue onward at full speed, twenty-three slowing to steerage-way, and hoisting the position pennant when she has gained the proper distance from the rear vessel, twentytwo doing the same when she has gained her proper distance, and so with the rest of the fleet.

When the commander-in-chief signals one of the intervening vessels † as the one to form on, the vessel designated (say No. 12 in this case) slows to half-speed, and the vessels astern of her to steerage-way, while the rest of the fleet keep at full speed. When eleven and thirteen find themselves in open order with respect to twelve, they regulate their speed by this vessel's, and hoist the position pennant as a signal to ten and fourteen, which now form in open order upon them, and hoist the position pennant as a signal to nine and fifteen, etc., etc., etc.

* The distinguishing pennant of the vessel upon which the fleet is to form, is, of course, to be hoisted by the commander-in-chief.

| It is best to form from close to open order, and from open to close order on the van or rear vessel. The signal close order or open order, without the designation of any particular vessel, is always to be understood as an order to close or open on the leader of the column, whether the van or rear be in front.

When all are in open order, the fleet resumes its speed. The fleet may be formed in open order or close order from half-distance, in a similar manner

62. The fleet being in column of vessels, in open

order, to form it into close order, on any vessel
that may be designated.
To form it on the leading vessel.

(See Fig. 96.)
The commander-in-chief makes signal :

On the van vessel, form in close order.
Which is repeated by the divisional commanders.

The leader of the fleet slows to steerage-way; all the other vessels continue onward at full speed, two slowing to steerage-way, and hoisting the position pennant as a guide to three, when

1.

she is in position, and so on, in succession, to the last vessel.

When the column is to close on the rear vessel, this vessel alone preserves her speed, the other vessels slowing to steerage-way. When twenty-three finds that the rear vessel is about closing up to close order, she resumes her speed, and hoists the position pennant as a signal to the next ahead, and so on to the van vessel.

To close upon one of the intervening vessels, number twelve, for instance :*

Twelve steams at half-speed, the vessels astern of her at full speed, and the vessels ahead under steerage-way. When eleven and thirteen find themselves in close order with respect to twelve, they regulate their speed by that vessel's, and hoist the position pennant as a signal to ten and fourteen, which in turn, when in position, hoist the position pennant as a signal to nine and fifteen, etc., etc., etc.

When all are in close order, the fleet moves at a uniform rate of speed.

It is evident that the fleet could be closed, to half distance, from open or close order, in a similar manner.

* See note to 61.

63. The fleet being in double column, in close order,

to form it in open order upon any vessel that may be designated.

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