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others are extremely patient under very great suffering.
Saturday, Sept. 24. Another of the wounded men died to-day. He was a native of Strasburg, had been drawn in the conscription for the French navy, and came with the French naval brigade to serve at Sédan. He spoke German better than French, and when I first saw him he asked me if I was a German, and would speak it to him. He had not lost a limb, and had only received one wound in the leg, but he seemed to have felt the French defeat much more deeply than most of the privates, and the fact that he was a prisoner, and would have to go to Prussia if he recovered, weighed greatly on his mind. For a week beforehand he had assured me that he was dying, and that nothing would do him any good; and for some days past he could take no solid food.
I had some linen which I had brought with me from England to give away, and as it was not urgently required at my hospital, I called at one of the German hospitals in the town to see if it were more needed there. They have been very much overcrowded, but the wounded are fast being moved away. I saw a German Sister of Mercy, who told me that the rest were all going off the next day, and that though my linen would be very useful, it "would be abusing my confidence" to tell me that they were in great want of it. It is due to the Prussians to say that they have always given equal attention to the French and Prussian wounded in their hospitals, but in some instances they shewed great hard-heartedness as regarded their own, though perhaps, acting as they did, according to orders, from the head-quarters before Paris, they were placed in great difficulties.
At La Chapelle, within the Belgian
territories, a Dutch ambulance took in thirty-five Germans who had been left totally uncared for, except that bread and water was placed by their side; and for three days they remained without attend. ance. At Balan they also left their wounded in the same way, relying on the good offices of the International Society; and there are now two hospitals containing chiefly Bavarians, worked by some Sisters of Mercy, (I believe from All Saints, Margaret-street,) one established in the Mairie of the village, the other in a large private house.
A few houses were destroyed at Balan, when the Prussians first invaded this district, but not so many as at Bazeilles, which is literally a heap of ruins. The inhabitants attempted to oppose the Prussians at this point, and met with the fate which had been threatened to all civilians on French territory who should take up arms. The conquerors certainly kept their promises as regarded those villages which made no resistance, and some of them in the districts of Lorraine and Alsace have profited rather than otherwise by the invasion, for the Prussians have fed them when they have been completely stripped by their own troops. Finding that the German hospitals in the town had no need of linen and charpie, I took what I had to spare to the village of Fourrienes, the first out of Sédan on the Belgian road; and as nearly all the cottages there had hung out a red-cross flag, to shew that they had the charge of wounded men, I met with many poor householders who were very thankful for it. I also found two men very comfort. ably accommodated in a barn. All of these were the honoured guests of the humble homes into which they had been received, and, I fancy, were quite as well off as in the hospitals, except in the matter of medical attendance.
N these days, when there is so much talk about education, the name of William of Wykeham ought to be held in high honour. His two foun
dations, of St. Mary's College at Winchester, and St. Mary's College at Oxford, (the latter of which by some accident came to be called the New College, and though five hundred years old, still retains the name,) have played a part in the education of this country with which few foundations can compare.
William of Wykeham, for this was the name the founder took in after years when he rose to eminence, was born in that village in Hampshire in Edward the Second's
reign, and in the year 1324. In the year 1366, we find him elected Bishop of Winchester. To trace the various stages in his career is highly interesting, but it is not the purpose of the present note to dwell upon the life of this great man, but to describe one only of the many works in which his skill so eminently shewed itself, or his piety so nobly shone forth. For Wykeham was essentially an architect, and military works at Windsor and elsewhere are monuments to his genius, as the colleges of Oxford and Winchester, and the work in his cathedral, are witnesses to his generosity.
When Oxford first grew into a Univer
sity, the students lived in separate halls, many of them little better than lodginghouses, some even scarcely worthy of the name, though there were often stringent laws passed by the Chancellor and Masters of the University relative to the letting of these lodgings to the students. Merton College had been an exception, but it was rather the bringing of the Merton fraternity to Oxford, so that the youths might have the benefit of the teaching of the professors and learned Franciscans who were then lecturing in Oxford. In Wykeham's foundation there was a more definite system, a training from the beginning to the end; it was of a religious character, and yet there was a wide scope in the kind of knowledge which the College imparted, for the founder himself had studied both architecture and law before, and indeed instead of (as it was urged against him by his detractors) theology. The distinctive feature, however, was, that the student was dependent more upon his college, and less left to the chances and dangers of the miscellaneous teachings of the professors, as was the case with the scholars of Merton, or of other halls.
Already, in 1369, he had conceived an idea of aiding scholars in Oxford, and providing proper accommodation for them, but he had not concluded all his purchases till 1378. In 1379 we find the patent granted from the King "Willelmo de Wykeham Episcopo Wintoniensi includendi quosdam locos in Civit. Oxon, ad edificandum novum Collegium." And it was in the year 1382 we find the charter granted from King Richard II., which begins as usual, "Rex omnibus ad quos, &c., salutem Sciatis, quod gratia nostra speciali, et ad supplicationem venerabilis in Christo patris Willelmi Wykeham, Episcopi Wintoniensis, concessimus, &c.," and which before its conclusion grants the lands in Winchester for his college there.
But it will not interest many of our readers to give all the legal particulars of these charters. They will understand the matter better from the summary thus given in Sir Roundell Palmer's striking ballad, composed on the anniversary in 1843:
"But when gracious Edward slept, and Richard wore the Crown,
Forth came good William Wykeham, and meekly knelt him down;
Then out spake young King Richard: 'What boon can Wykeham ask,
Which can surpass his worth, or our bounty overtask?
For art thou not our chancellor? and where in all the realm
Is a wiser man or better, to guide the labouring helm ?
And thou knowest the holy lore, and the mason's cunning skill;
So speak the word, good Wykeham, for thou shalt have thy will.'
"I ask not wealth nor honour,' the bishop lowly said,
'Too much of both thy grandsire's hand heaped on a poor priest's head:
This world it is a weary load, it presses down my soul:
Fain would I pay my vows, and to heaven restore the whole.
Grant me that two fair colleges, beneath thy charters sure,
At Oxford and at Winchester, for ever may endure, Which Wykeham's hands shall raise upon the grassy sod,
In the blessed name of Mary, and for the love of God.'
"The king he sealed the charters, and Wykeham traced the plan,
And God, Who gave him wisdom, prospered the lowly man;
So two fair colleges arose,-one in calm Oxford's glade,
And one where Itchen sparkles beneath the plane-tree shade."
The foundation-stone of the College at Oxford was not laid till March 5, 1380. The founder was then in his fifty-sixth year, and he had been eleven years Bishop of Winchester. On April 14, 1386, the Warden and Fellows-who, till this day, while their College was building, had been housed elsewhere-entered in in grand procession, preceded by the cross. The College at this time was not entirely finished; for we find that for some year or so afterwards he was purchasing adjacent property, in order to complete the circuit of the College, and build the cloister as we now see it.
And this is the brief outline of the history of the splendid building which remains to us almost intact to the present day. The chapel, hall, and kitchen have undergone but little change. The roof of the Hall was, indeed, not what it ought to have been
some few years ago; but now, under Mr. Scott's direction, it has been restored to its pristine, perhaps more than its pristine, beauty. But the Chapel is the glory of the place; and the glory is still retained in all its parts by a service which, for the perfection of the music, vies with any in the kingdom. The first quadrangle, on entering, is disappointing, its ancient character having been spoilt, and square windows put in instead of the pointed ones. All this was done in the seventeenth century; and the second quadrangle, built about the same time, is of somewhat the same character. When, however, we reach the gardens, surrounded by the old city walls, we find all left in its old state; and as we wander round them, we seem again to live in the times when the high walls and frequent bastions were considered necessary for the protection of a town in England.
Amongst so much change that has gone on around us, there is a peculiar charm in
visiting a great building of this kind, the walls of which were reared by a pions founder some five hundred years ago. There is something real, as well as grand, in the concourse of the buildings-the Chapel and Hall forming one side of the great quadrangle, the Warden's house the greater part of another, and the Students' rooms the remaining two; to the east of the Hall the offices, all laid out in complete and systematic order; to the west of the Chapel, the cloister and its bell-tower. All seems to speak the mind of a man who was not only zealous and earnest in the work he set about, but definite and sure as to his object, and determined to carry it out in its entirety.
Taking New College as a whole,-the oldest College in Oxford as far as its buildings go, except Merton College,-it is one of the four glories of that ancient City of Colleges, if not the chief of them.
THE CHORISTER OF BURGOS.
THROUGH Burgos' proud Cathedral town
An orphan youth was singing;
In Burgos' proud Cathedral choir
In Heaven's exalted Paradise,
R. F. H.
Tender consciences, whether of the clergy or laity, need not be grieved with the words of the Burial Office, if they consider that it is owing entirely to the laxity of discipline that evil livers-whether their life be evil on the side of doctrine or practice- -are ever buried with the Church's blessing. It is not the Office which is at fault, that Church is to blame which allows her godly discipline to sink into abeyance. Were that restored, a person of evil life would be excommunicate, and therefore, of course, denied the blessing of Christian burial. W. B. C.
89.-Can you inform me where I can find the Greek original of the hymn commencing, "Art thou weary, art thou languid ?" which I am told is a translation by the late Dr. Neale? G. R. H.
I have not any of the books to which Dr. Neale refers, in his preface to the little volume, as containing the originals whence he made the translations of the Hymns of the Eastern Church. He speaks of the "Menæa" as comprising twelve out of the sixteen volumes. Probably G. R. H. has access to some library, and I may therefore assist him by giving the following memoranda relating to the books to which Dr. Neale refers in his little volume. There was a work printed in Venice in 1843, in 4to., entitled Menæum Ecclesia Greca. Also I find that at Venice, in 1853, there was printed a single 4to. volume, entitled Paraclitica Ecclesiæ Greca. This probably contains the poem in question, as Dr. Neale speaks of it as being in the "Octoechus." The Triodion was printed at Venice in 1830. I do not know that the Pentecostarion, which is the fourth book Dr. Neale refers to, was even printed there. J. P.
90.-Can any of your correspondents oblige me with the origin of the proverb, "Cleanliness is next to godliness?" A SUBSCRIBER.
I saw it alleged lately, I cannot now remember where, that the original version of the proverb in question was, "Cleanliness is next to goodliness," comeliness, or good looks, that is: whether the statement be correct or not I cannot say, but the said' version seems to me nearer the truth than that commonly adopted.
A. M., M. A., A. P., M. A. J.
92.-Can you, or any of your correspond-ents, inform me where the following quotation is to be found, and who wrote it?—
"God gives us love: something to love He lends us; but, when love is grown To ripeness, that on which it throve Falls off, and love is left alone."
This is a verse from one of Tennyson's earlier poems, and may be found in most, if not all, collections of his shorter pieces. It is addressed to his friend J. S., on the death of his brother, and is full of tender sympathy. The poem begins:
"The wind, that beats the mountain, blows
The remainder of the poem is too long for insertion, or I would anscribe it. L. K.. J. L. G., F. U. H. S., NELLIE B.,. M. A. J., A. A. H.
93. Can you, or any of your correspondents, kindly inform DUDIE the reason why
mas" is used at the end of words, Christmas, Michaelmas, Lammas, &c., and the meaning of the word?
In answer to DUDIE'S question, I beg to say, that, according to Johnson's Dictionary, "mas "2 means a feast. Christmas is composed of "Christ" and "mas," the two words together signifying, "The Feast of Christ's Nativity." In Barnaby Googe's translation of Naogeorgus the following is part of an account of the, customs of that