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I beg to inform DUDIE that "mas," the termination of Christmas, Lammas, Candlemas, and Martinmas, is the same as "mass,' a word now exclusively used to denote a portion of the Roman Catholic service. Formerly, however, the word was used (see Hook's Church Dictionary) to signify the dismissal (Lat. missa) of an assembly or congregation, and afterwards it signified the assembly so dismissed. Hence it is applied to the higher festivals of the Church, -on which people assembled for worship,and has passed into a termination, as in the festivals mentioned. L. J. D.

Mr. Ingleby informs DUDIE, that "mas" appended to such words as Christmas, Michaelmas, Candlemas, Lammas, &c., is the shortened form of the word "6 mass," i. e. Holy Communion; these words, therefore, signify the observance (the great Catholic method of observance being of course the celebrations of the Holy Communion) of the festivals of "The Nativity of Christ," "St. Michael," "the conclusion of Christmas," and "Lam" or "Loaf," (alias "Harvest Thanksgiving.") The word "mass" means nothing more or less than "supper" (as will be seen in the word " 'mess"), and is therefore a very apt name for the Lord's Supper.

The word "mas" at the end of words, means a service or mass. Christmas, the mass or service on the day of Christ's nativity; Michaelmas, the mass on the Festival of St. Michael and All Angels. The term Lammasday is said to be a corruption of a Saxon word meaning the loaf-mass, the first bread from the new wheat having been on this day (August 1) offered in a loaf at the mass. A. E. C. U., M. C. Mass being the word used (in times when

the Church of England had submitted herself to the Pope's authority) to express the celebration of the Holy Communion; by the words Christmas, Michaelmas, and Martinmas, we mean the Mass, or Holy Communion, which was celebrated respectively on the feasts of Christmas, S. Michael, and S. Martin (a bishop who preached in France about 1400 years ago). The Feast of the Purification of the blessed Virgin and of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple was called Candlemas, because the churches used to be lighted up with candles, in allusion to the words of Simeon, that our Lord should be "a Light to lighten the Gentiles." Lammas is a corruption of the ancient name, Loaf-mas Day, because our Saxon forefathers used to offer the first-fruits of the year's harvest to God on that day, and the tenants were forced to bring in the new wheat to their landlord. The Feast of the Holy Innocents is sometimes called Childermas (that is, Children Mass) Day. A. K. M.

[We have printed our correspondents' replies, because they are all, to a certain extent, right. The point to be borne in mind is, that we derive the word from the Saxon Maesse, which signifies both "a feast," and "the mass." The word is used in compounds, thus: Maess-efen, "the eve of a feast;" Maess-niht, "a festival night;" Maess-daeg, "a feast day." On the other hand, Maessboc, Maess-preost, Maess-win, and Maes-sang, evidently mean the "Book of the Mass," (or as we say, a Missal), "the priest who celebrates the Mass," "the consecrated wine," and "the singing of, or celebration of, the Mass." This, however, still leaves the question open whence the Anglo-Saxon word is derived. It is quite possible that it was taken from the Latin Missa; but we believe there are grounds for considering it to be a pure Saxon word.-ED. P.P.]

95.-Can any of your musical readers tell me whether there is published any collection R. P. of the Parisian Tones?

I beg to inform R. P. that there is a very good collection of the Parisian Tones to be found at the end of a work entitled, “Organ Harmonies for the Gregorian Psalm Tones," by A. H. Brown, published by Thomas Bosworth, 198, High Holborn, W.C., price threeshillings-and-sixpence. R. P. is probably unaware that the so-called Parisian Tones are only Parisian forms of some of the Ancient Gregorians. ORGANIST.

96.-Can any of your readers give me the history of the Dagmar Cross, also where it can be purchased, and the price of it? J. E. W.

The Dagmar Cross originally belonged to the Countess Dammer, daughter of Ottocar, King of Bohemia, who was married in 1205, to Valdemar, sieir of Denmark, and dying in 1213, was buried in the church of St. Benedict, at Ringstead. Her real name was Margaret, but the Danes changed it to "Dagmaar," "Lovely maiden of the day." When her tomb was opened in the time of Christian V., this cross was found suspended round her neck, bearing a relic in its enclosure, and it has ever been preserved by the Danes as a memorial of one of their purest and best-beloved queens.


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I do not think there is a special work on the subject. It is of course a most difficult one. There are learned works on the old Canon Law, such as the Decree of Gratian, the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX., the Clementines, and the Extravagantes; but it would appear that at the dawn of the Reformation it was enacted in Parliament that a review of the Canon Law should be made, and that until this was completed, all canons and constitutions then in force, provided they were not repugnant to the law of the land, should continue to be used and executed. As this review has never been completed, the Canon Law cannot be clearly defined, as there are so many points to which objections of both custom and the law of the land may be taken.



TIBBIE asks, Who were the "Cagots," and why were they so called? There is, and always has been, much mystery about this race of Gypsies in France. We find that as a matter of history, there are amongst all nations certain restless, wandering tribes, who have never mixed with their fellow-folk, and have always been impatient of regular

labour, or subserviency to any master. But in some cases there has been a degree of clanship, which has caused them to be looked upon as a separate nation.

The Cagots are of this class, and seem to have been looked upon and treated with the same kind of hatred and contempt with which we read the Jews were treated in the middle ages. They are referred to in several medieval edicts; it seems that they were forced to wear a peculiar dress, and were forbidden to practise all but the most menial trades, and obliged to live in separate villages, or detached quarters of the towns. They were even not allowed to enter the church by the same door as ordinary persons. The reason and origin of this contempt do not appear. Their history is involved in obscurity, and their language, as far as can be judged from the slight remnant remaining to within some years past in Brittany, (where they were called "Caqueux,") only implies a Teutonic origin, as it is for the most part corrupted into a mere patois of the surrounding district. The theory mostly received is, that they are the descendants of the Visigoths, some of whom remained in France after their defeat by Clovis in the fifth century.

As to the origin of their name, it appears impossible to arrive at any definite conclusion. As said before, in Brittany they appear to have been called (and there may be some remaining still) Caqueux. Ducange gives a short article on them, under the name Cagoti, and he says "they were not monks, nor anchorites, nor lepers, as some have thought, but a race of men odious to the rest." It seems Cagot is the Gascon name, elsewhere they were called Capoti; at Bordeaux they were called Gaheti. In the Basque country, and the kingdom of Navarre, they were called Agots. He also gives the decrees made at Bordeaux concerning their dress and mode of life; and gives references to certain edicts in Brittany during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries concerning the Cacosi, which are probably the same. As belonging to the "outcast races," all the light that diligent research can throw upon them will be found in the work by M. Francique Michel, entitled Histoire des Races Mandites de la France et de l'Espagne. Paris, 1847. It can be referred to, probably, in all the public libraries.


FATHER, Thou hast made the day, For thy sons to do Thy will; Thou dost send the light away,

And our wearied limbs are still; Now, our daily faults confest, Give us pardon, peace and rest.

Holy Jesu, Thou didst pass

Days of toil and nights of prayer, Kneeling on the dew-cold grass, Taking for Thyself no care: Us, forgetting Thee in sleep, Do not Thou forget to keep.

Blessed Spirit, Light Divine,
Ere the darkness closes round,
Seal our ransomed souls for Thine;
Let no foe Thy work confound.
Lord of Love and Life and Light,
Shine within us day and night.

Father, Saviour, loving Guide,

We to Thee ourselves entrust, Safe with Thee, whate'er betide, Rest in bed or sleep in dust. So may we, when life is o'er, Sleep, to wake, to sleep no more. Amen. H. CANDY.


8vo. (pp. 144), price 1s.





1. Introduction, by the Author of "The Heir of Redclyffe."

2. The Maid of Honour's Christmas; by EUPHEMIA BUSSELL, Author of "The Christ

mas Guest,"

3. Nelly's Slippers.

4. " Judge Not."

5. Ireland's Sorrow; a Tale of the County Donegal.

6. Félicité. By the Author of "Lost in the Snow."

7. What is Poetry? A Spanish sketch; by the Author of "Patrañas." 8. Lady Dumbleton's Pig; or, A Story that did not Lose in the Telling. 9. Duchess Hadwig's Serfs; or, The Story of Andifax and Hadumoth. 10. "Sweetly Pretty;" by SOPHIA FIRMIN.

11. Snap-dragons: a Tale of Christmas Eve; by JULIANA HORATIA EWING.. LONDON: JOHN and CHARLES MOZLEY, 6, Paternoster-row.


LAGE CHURCHES. Two Parts in One, with Two Coloured Plates and Diagrams. 18mo., cloth, 1s.; separately, 6d. each.

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THE DAILY SERVICES OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. With an Introductory Preface by the LORD, BISHOP OF OXFORD. Complete in One Vol. Crown 8vo. The Fifth Thousand. Roan, 12s.; antique calf, red edges, 18s.; best morocco, 18s. DAILY STEPS TOWARDS HEAVEN. A small Pocket Volume, containing a few Practical Thoughts on the Gospel History, with Texts for Every Day in the Year, commencing with Advent. Sixteenth Edition. Roan, gilt edges, 2s. 6d. ; morocco, 4s. 6d.

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Patron-The LORD BISHOP OF ROCHESTER. President-The EARL OF DARNLEY, Missionary Curate-Rev. WILMOT BUXTON, M.A. (Of Brasenose College, Oxford).

"There is an exceedingly pretty account in the February number of the PENNY POST, of St. An-drew's Waterside Mission at Gravesend, which we recommend to the special notice of our readers. Emigrant ships on their outward passage, colliers who furnish them with fuel, fishermen who supply the luxuries of Gravesend holiday-keepers, all profit in their turn by its good offices. And the work, which was very discouraging at first, is now just beginning to be crowned with visiblesuccess."-Guardian, Feb. 16, 1870.

The first stone of the new Chapel was laid on St. Peter's Day.

Donations for the Building Fund may be sent to either of the following Members of the Building Committee:

Rev. C. E. R. ROBINSON, M.A., Rural Dean, The Castle, Gravesend, Kent.

Rev. J. SCARTH, Cranborne, near Windsor. Rear-Admiral INGLEFIELD, C.B., 10, Grove Endroad, London, N.W.

Small Donations are very welcome.

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