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of a plot of which I was the principal victim. tion, but the exercise of what Mr. Mozler calls the Truly I had reached the summit of human wretch-historic imagination is a feature of our time. Men
are now accustomed to place before themselves The whole of the scheme which Miss (or Mrs.) | vivid images of the past, and when in that past a Bella so obligingly called a " harmless stratagem," miracle rises to view, they halt before the astoundunfolded itself by degrees to my mind's eye; and, ing occurrence, and realizing it with the same clearstruggle as I would, I could not banish the thought ness as if it were now passing before their eyes, they of how the designing pair must have chuckled over ask themselves, * Can this have taken place ? * In my credulity, and watched with malicious amuse- some instances the effort to answer this question has ment my tinremitting devotion to the avuncular led to a disbelief in miracles, in others to a strengthconquest. The last drop of bitterness had been ening of belief. The end and aim of Mr. Mozler's poured into my cup, a lifetime of experience had lectures is to show that the strengthening of belief been crowded into the space of a few days, and is the logical result which ought to follow the examswallowing my humiliation as best I could, I re- ination of the facts. turned to London, - a wiser, if not a better man. Attempts have been made by religious men to
It is scarcely necessary to add that long before bring the Scripture miracles within the scope of the the return of the bride and bridegroom, Mr. Mer order of nature, but all such attempts are rejeeted rick bad resigned himself to submit peaceably to by Mr. Mozley as utterly futile and wide of the mark. the inevitable, and nothing more was heard of the Regarding miracles as a necessary accompaniment terrible vengeance destined to overtake Fred Clay-of a revelation, their evidential value in his eyes ton and his guilty accomplice.
depends entirely upon their deviation from the order of nature. Thus deviating, they suggest and
illustrate to him a power higher than nature, a MIRACLES AND SPECIAL PROVIDENCES. 5 personal will”; and they commend the person in
whom this power is vested as a messenger from on BY PROFESSOR TINDALL.
high. Without these credentials such a messenger IT is my privilege to enjoy the friendship of a would have no right to demand belief, even though number of religious men, with whom I converse his assertions regarding his divine mission were frankly upon theological subjects, expressing with backed by a holy life. Nor is it by miracles alone out disguise the notions and opinions I entertain that the order of nature is, or may be, disturbed. regarding their tenets, and hearing in return these The material universe is also the arena of * special notions and opinions subjected to criticism. I find providences." Under these two heads Mr. Mozley them liberal and loving men, patient in hearing, distributes the total preternatural. One form of the tolerant in reply, who know how to reconcile the preternatural may shade into the other, as one color duties of courtesy with the earnestness of debate. passes into another in the rainbow; but while the From one of these, nearly a year ago, I received a line which divides the specially providential from note, recommending strongly to my attention the the miraculous cannot be sharply drawn, their disvolume of * Bampton Lectures” for 1865, in which tinction broadly expressed is this, that while a spethe question of miraeles is treated by Mr. Mozley.cial providence can only excite surmise more or less Previous to receiving this note, I had in part made probable, it is the nature of a miracle to give the acquaintance of that work, through the able proof, as distinguished from mere surmise of divine and elaborate review of it which appeared in the design." Times. The combined effect of the letter and re- Mr. Mozley adduces various illustrations of that view was to make the book the companion of my he regards to be special providences as distinguished summer tour among the Alps. There, during the from miracles.* The death of Arius," he says, “was wet and snowy days which were only too prevalent not miraculous, because the coincidence of the death last year, and during the days of rest interpolated of a heresiarch taking place wben it was peculiarly between days of toil, I made myself more thorough- advantageous to the orthodox faith .... was not ly conversant with Mr. Mozley's volume. I found such as to compel the inference of extraordinary it clear and strong, - an intellectual tonic, as brae- Divine agency; but it was a special providence, ing and pleasant to my mind as the keen air of the because it carried a reasonable appearance of it. mountains was to my body. From time to time I The miracle of the Thundering Legion was a jotted down my thoughts regarding it, intending special providence, but not a miracle for the same afterwards, if time permitted, to work them up into reason, because the coincidence of an instantaneous a eoherent whole. Other duties, however, interfere fall of rain in answer to prayer carried some apwith the carrying out of this intention, and what I pearance, but not proof, of preternatural agency." wrote last summer I now publish, not hoping within The eminent lecturer's remarks on this bead bring any reasonable time to be able to render my defence to my recollection certain narratives published in of scientific method more complete.
Methodist magazines, under the title, if I remember Mr. Mozley refers at the outset of his task to the arigbt, “ The Providence of God asserted," and movement against miracles which of late years has which I used to read with avidity when a bor. In taken place, and which determined his choice of a these chapters the most extraordinary and exciting subject. He acquits modern science of having bad escapes from peril were recounted and ascribed to any great share in the production of this movement. prayer, while equally wonderful instances of caThe objection against miracles, he says, does not lamity were adduced as illustrations of Divine retriarise from any minute knowledge of the laws of bution. In such magazines or elsewhere, I found nature, but simply because tbey are opposed to that recorded the case of the celebrated Samuel Hick, plain and obvious order of nature which everybody which, as it illustrates a whole class of special prori. sees. The movement against miracles is, he thinks, dences, approaching in conclusiveness to miracles, is to be ascribed to the greater earnestness and pene- worthy of mention here. It is related of this holy tration of the present age. Formerly miracles were man, — and I for one, have no doubt of his holiaccepted without question, because without reflec-ness, — that flour was lacking to make the sacra
mental bread. Grain was present, and a windmill | providence, it would cease to be a special providence was present, but there was no wind to grind the and become a miracle. There is not the least cloudcorn. With faith, undoubting Samuel Hick prayed iness about Mr. Mozley's meaning here. A special to the Lord of the winds: the sails turned, the corn providence is a doubtful miracle. Why, then, not was ground, after which the wind ceased. Accord use the correct phraseology? The term employed ing to the canon of the Bampton Lecturer, this, conveys no negative suggestion, whereas the negathough carrying a strong appearance of an imme- tion of certainty is the peculiar characteristic of the diate exertion of Divine energy, lacks by a hair's thing intended to be expressed. There is an apparbreadth the quality of a miracle. For the wind ent unwillingness on the part of Mr. Mozley to call might have arisen, and might have ceased, in the a special providence what his own definition makes ordinary course of nature. Hence the occurrence it to be. Instead of speaking of it as a doubtful did not " compel the inference of extraordinary Di- miracle he calls it “an invisible miracle." He vine agency." In like manner Mr. Mozley consid speaks of the point of contact of supernatural power ers that“ the appearance of the cross to Constantine with the chain of causation being so high up as to was a miracle, or a special providence, according to be wholly, or in part, out of sight, whereas the eswhich account of it we adopt. As only a meteoric sence of a special providence is the uncertainty appearance in the shape of a cross it gave some whether there is any contact at all, either high or token of preternatural agency, but not full evi- low. By the use of an incorrect term, however, a dence."
grave danger is avoided. For the idea of doubt, if In the Catholic cantons of Switzerland, in one of kept systematically before the mind, would soon be which these lines are written, and still more among fatal to the special providence as a means of edificathe pious Tyrolese, the mountains are dotted with tion. The term employed, on the contrary, invites shrines, containing offerings of all kinds, in acknowl- and encourages the trust which is necessary to supedgment of special mercies, - legs, feet, arms and plement the evidence.' hands, of gold, silver, brass and wood, according as This inner trust, though at first rejected by Mr. worldly possessions enabled the grateful heart to ex- Mozley in favor of external proof, is subsequently press its indebtedness. Most of these offerings are called upon to do momentous duty with regard to made to the Virgin Mary. They are recognitions miracles. Whenever the evidence of the miracuof " special providences," wrought through the in- lous seems incommensurate with the fact which it strumentality of the Mother of God. Mr. Mozley's has to establish, or rather when the fact is so amazbelief, that of the Methodist chronicler, and that of ing that hardly any evidence is sufficient to estabthe Tyrolese peasant, are substantially the same. lish it, Mr. Mozley invokes " the affections.” They Each of them assumes that Nature, instead of flow- must urge the reason to accept the conclusion from ing ever onward in the uninterrupted rhythm of which unaided it recoils. The affections and emocause and effect, is mediately ruled by the free hu- tions are eminently the court of appeal in matters man will. As regards direct action upon natural of real religion, which is an affair of the heart, but phenomena, man's will is confessedly powerless, but they are not, I submit, the court in which to weigh it is the trigger which, by its own free action, liber- allegations regarding the credibility of physical facts. ates the Divine power. In this sense, and to this These must be judged by the dry light of the intelextent, man, of course, commands nature. Did the lect alone, appeals to the affections being reserved existence of this belief depend solely upon the ma- for cases where moral elevation, and not historic conterial benefits derived from it, it could not, in my viction, is the aim. opinion, last a decade. As a purely objective fact It is, moreover, because the result, in the case we should very soon see that the distribution of under consideration, is deemed desirable that the natural phenomena is unaffected by the merits or affections are called upon to back it. If undesirable, the demerits of man ; that the law of gravitation they would, with equal right, be called upon to act crushes the simple worshippers of Ottery St. Mary, the other way. Even to the disciplined scientific while singing their hymns, just as surely as if they mind this would be a dangerous doctrine. A favorwere engaged in a midnight brawl. The hold of ite theory – the desire to establish or avoid a certhis belief upon the human mind is due to the inner tain result — can wrap even such a mind so as to warmth, force, and elevation with which it is com- destroy its power of estimating facts. I have known monly associated. It is plain, however, that these men to work for years under a fascination of this feelings may exist under the most various forms. kind, unable to extricate themselves from its fatal They are not limited to Church of England Prot influence. They had certain data, but not, as it estantism, — they are not even limited to Christi- happened, enough. By a process exactly analogous anity. Though less refined, they are certainly not to that invoked by Mr. Mozley they supplemented less strong, in the heart of the Methodist and the the data, and from that hour blinded their intellects Tyrolese than in the heart of Mr. Mozley. Indeed, to the perception of adverse phenomena which might those feelings belong to the primal powers of man's have led them to the truth. If, then, to the discireligious nature. A “ sceptic” may have them. plined scientific mind, this incongruous mixture of They find vent in the battle-cry of the Moslem. proof and trust be fraught with danger, what must They take hue and form in the hunting-grounds of it be to the indiscriminate audience which Mr. the red Indian ; and raise all of them, as they raise Mozley addresses ? In calling upon this agency he the Christian, upon a wave of victory, above the ter-acts the part of Frankenstein. It is the monster rors of the grave.
thus evoked that we see stalking abroad, in the soThe character, then, of a miracle, as distinguished called spiritualistic phenomena of the present day. from a special providence, is that the former fur-Again, I say, where the aim is to elevate the mind, nishes proof, while in the case of the latter we have to quicken the moral sense, to kindle the fire of only surmise. Dissolve the element of doubt, and religion in the soul, let the affections by all means the alleged fact passes from the one class of the pre- be invoked; but they must not be permitted to ternatural into the other. In other words, if a spe- color our reports, or to influence our acceptance of cial providence could be proved to be a special reports of occurrences in external nature. Testimony as to natural facts is usually worthless when goodness in all cases or in none. If Mr. Mozler wrapped in this atmosphere of the affections, the accepts Christ's goodness as transcendent, because most earnest subjective truth being rendered by he did such works as no other man did, he ought, them perfectly coinpatible with the most astounding logically speaking, to accept the works of those who, objective error.
in His name, had cast out devils, as demonstrating There are questions in judging of which the af- a proportionate goodness on their part. But people fections or syınpathies are often our best guides, the of this class are consigned to everlasting fire preestimation of moral goodness being one of these. pared for the Devil and his angels. The zeal of Mr. But at this precise point, where they are really of Mozley for miracles threatens, I think, to eat his retase, Mr. Mouley excludes the affections, and de- ligion up. The truly religious soul needs no such mands a miracle as a certificate of character. He proof of the goodness of Christ. The words adwill not accept any other evidence of the perfect dressed to Matthew at the receipt of custom regoodness of Christ. - No outward life or conduct," quired no miracle to produce obedience. It was he says, ** however irreproachable, could prove His by 'no stroke of the miraculous that Jesus caused perfect sinlessness, because goodness depends upon those sent to seize him to go backward and fall the inward motive, and the perfection of the inward to the ground. It was the sublime and holy efmotive is not proved by the outward act." But fluence from within, which needed no prodigy to surely the miracle is an outward act, and to pass commend it to the wonder and worship even of his from it to the inner motive imposes a greater strain foes. upon logic than that involved in our ordinary As regards the function of miracles in the foundmethods of estimating men. There is, at least, ing of a religion, Mr. Mozley institutes a comparison moral congruity between the outward goodness and between the religion of Christ and that of Mahomet, the inner life, but there is no such congruity between and he derides the latter as “ irrational” because it the miracle and the life within. The test of moral does not profess to adduce miracles in proof of its goodneng laid down by Mozley is not the test of supernatural origin. But the religion of Mahomet, John, who says, “ He that doeth righteousness is notwithstanding this drawback, has thriven in the righteous"; nor is it the test of Jesus, - * By their world, and at one time it held sway over larger popfruits shall ye know them ; do men gather grapes of ulations than Christianity itself. The spread and thorns, or figs of thistles ?” But it is the test of influence of Christianity are, however, brought for another: " If thou be the Son of God, command ward by Mr. Mozley as “ a permanent, enormous, that these stones be made bread.” For my own and incalculable practical result" of Christian mirapart, I prefer the attitude of Fichte to that of Mr. cles; and he actually makes use of this result to Mozley. The Jesus of John," says this noble and strengthen his plea for the miraculous. His logical mighty thinker, " knows no other God than the True warrant for this proceeding is by no means clear. God, in whom we all are, and live, and may be It is the method of science, when a phenomenon blessed, and out of whom there is only Death and presents itself, to the production of which several Nothingness." And he appeals, and rightly appeals, elements may contribute, to exclude them one by in support of this truth, not to reasoning, but to the one, so as to arrive at length at the truly effective inward practical sense of truth in man, not even cause. Heat, for example, is associated with a knowing any other proof than this inward testi- phenomenon ; we exclude heat, but the phenomenon mony, - If any man will do the will of Him who sent remains : hence, heat is not its cause. Magnetism me, he shall know of the doctrine whether it be of is associated with the phenomenon; we exclude God."
magnetism, but the phenomenon remains : hence, Accepting Mr. Mozley's test, with which alone I magnetism is not its cause. Thus, also, when we am now dealing, it is evident that, in the demonstra- seek the cause of the diffusion of a religion, — whethtion of moral goodness, the quantity of the miracu- er it be due to miracles, or to the spiritual force of lous comes into play. Had Christ, for example, its founders, — we exclude the miracles, and, findlimited himself to the conversion of water into wine, ing the result unchanged, we infer that miracles are Ile would have fallen short of the performance of not the effective cause. This important experiment Jannes and Jambres, for it is a smaller thing to con- Mahometanism has made for us. It has lived and vert one liquid into another than to convert a dead spread without miracles; and to assert, in the face rod into a living serpent. But Jannes and Jam- of this fact, that Christianity has spread because of bres, we are informed, were not good. Hence, if miracles, is not more opposed to the spirit of science Mr. Mozley's test be a true one, a point must exist, than to the common sense of mankind. on the one side of which miraculous power demon- The incongruity of inferring moral goodness from strates goodness, wbile on the other side it does not. miraculous power has been dwelt upon above ; in How is this point of contrary flexure” to be de- another particular also the strain put upon miracles termined ? It must lie somewhere between the by Mr. Mozley is, I think, more than they can bear. magicians and Moses, for within this space the In consistency with his principles, it is difficult to power passed from the diabolical to the Divine. But see how he is to draw from the miracles of Christ how to mark the point of passage, - how, out of a any certain conclusion as to his Divine nature. He purely quantitative difference in the visible manifesta-dwells very forcibly on what he calls the argument tion of power we are to infer a total inversion of from experience," in the demolition of which he quality, it is extremely difficult to see. Moses, takes evident pleasure. · He destroys the argument, we are informed, produced a large reptile, Jannes and repeats it for the mere purpose of again and and Jambres produced a small one. I do not pos- again knocking the breath out of it. Experience, Ness the intellectual faculty which would enable me be urges, can only deal with the past; and the moto infer from those data either the goodness of the ment we attempt to project experience a hair'sone or the badness of the other; and in the highest breadth beyond the point it has at any moment recorded manifestations of the miraculous I am reached, we are condemned by reason. It appears equally at a loss. Let us not play fast and loose to me that when he infers from Christ's miracles a with the miraculous; either it is a demonstration of Divine and altogether superhuman energy, Mr.
Mozley places himself precisely under this condem- | come to the conclusion that the order of nature was nation. For what is his logical ground for conclud- secure. ing that the miracles of the New Testament illustrate What we mean, he says, by our belief in the Divine power? May they not be the result of ex- order of nature, is the belief that the future will be panded human power? A miracle, he defines as like the past. There is not, according to Mr. Mozsomething impossible to man. But bow does he ley, the slightest rational basis for this belief. know that the miracles of the New Testament are “ That any cause in nature is more permanent impossible to man? Seek as he may, he has abso- than its existing and known effects, extending furlutely no reason to adduce save this, – that man has ther, and about to produce other and more instances never bitherto accomplished such things. But does besides what it has produced already, we have no the fact that man has never raised the dead prove evidence. Let us imagine," he continues, " the octhat he can never raise the dead? “ Assuredly not,"currence of a particular physical phenomenon for must be Mr. Mozley's reply; " for this would be the first time. Upon that single occurrence we pushing experience beyond the limits it has now should have but the very fainteșt expectation of anreached, - which I pronounce unlawful.” Then a other. If it did occur again, once or twice, so far period may come when man will be able to raise from counting on another occurrence, a cessation the dead.* If this be conceded - and I do not see would occur as the most natural event to us. But how Mr. Mozley can avoid the concession - it de- let it continue one hundred times, and we should stroys the necessity of inferring Christ's divinity find no hesitation in inviting persons from a distance from his miracles. He, it may be contended, ante- to see it, and if it occurred every day for years, its dated the humanity of the future; as a mighty tidal occurrence would be a certainty to us, its cessation wave leaves high upon the beach a mark which by a marvel. .... But what ground of reason can we and by becomes the general level of the ocean. assign for an expectation that any part of the
Turn the matter as you will, no other warrant will course of nature will be the next moment what it be found for the all-important conclusion that has been up to this moment?.... None. . . . . No Christ's miracles demonstrate Divine power, than reason can be given for this belief. It is without a an argument which has been stigmatized by Mr. reason. It rests upon no rational grounds and can Mozley as “a rope of sand,” — the argument from be traced to no rational principle." experience.
Our nature, though endowed with reason, conThe Bampton Lecturer would be in this position tains, according to Mr. Mozley, “large irrational even if he saw with his own eyes every miracle re- departments”, and to this region of unreason he corded in the New Testament. But he did not see relegates our belief in the order of nature. these miracles; and his intellectual plight is there. But the belief, though irrational is widely diffore worse. He accepts these miracles on testimony. fused, and this fact is thus accounted for: * It is Why does he believe it? How does he know that necessary, all-important for the purposes of life, but it is not delusion; how is he sure that it is not even solely practical, and possesses no intellectual charfalsehood ? He will answer that the writing bears acter. .... The proper function of the inductive the marks of sobriety and truth; and that in many principle, the argument from experience, the belief cases the bearers of this message to mankind sealed in the order of nature — by whatever phrase we it with their blood. Granted, but whence the value designate the same instinct — is to operate as a of all this? Is it not solely derived from the fact practical basis for the affairs of life and the carrythat men, as we know them, do not sacrifice their ing on of human society," To sum up Mr. Mozlives in the attestation of that which they do not ley's views, the belief in the order of nature is believe? Does not the entire value of the testimony general, but it is “an unintelligent impulse, of of the apostles depend ultimately upon our experi which we can give no rational account." It is inence of human nature ? Thus those who are al serted in our constitutions solely to induce us to till leged to have seen the miracles based their infer- our fields, to raise our winter fuel, and thus to meet ences from what they say on the argument from the future on the perfectly groundless supposition experience; and Mr. Mozley bases his belief in their that that future will be like the past. testimony on the same argument. The weakness of “ Thus, step by step," says Mr. Mozley, with the his conclusion is quadrupled by this double insertion emphasis of a man who feels his position to be a of a principle of belief to which he flatly denies strong one, " has philosphy loosened the connection rationality. His reasoning, in fact, cuts two ways; of the order of nature with the ground of reason,
- if it destroys our belief in the order of Na- befriending in exact proportion as it has done this ture, it far more effectually abolishes the basis on the principle of miracles." For “this belief not which Mr. Mozley seeks to found the Christian re- having itself a foundation in reason, the ground is ligion.
gone upon which it could be maintained that miraOver this argument from experience, which at cles, as opposed to the order of nature, are opposed bottom is his argument, Mr. Mozley rides rough- to reason." When we regard this belief in connecshod. There is a dash of scorn in the energy with tion with science, “in which connection it receives which he tramples on it. Probably some previous a more imposing name, and is called the inductive writer had made too much of it, and thus invited principle," the result is the same. “ The inductive his powerful assault. Finding the difficulty of be- principle is only this unreasoning impulse applied to lief in miracles to arise from their being in contra- a scientifically ascertained fact..... Science has diction to the order of nature, he sets himself to led up to the fact, but there it stops, and for conexamine the grounds of our belief in that order. verting this fact into a law, a totally unscientific With a vigor of logic rarely equalled, and with a principle comes into play, the same as that which confidence in its conclusions never surpassed, he generalizes the commonest observation of nature." disposes of this belief in a manner calculated to We have had already an illustration of Mr. startle those who, without due examination, had Mozley's dissent from the maxim, " By their fruits
shall ye know them," and his substitution of an# He has of late produced numberless organic subetauces, which were long deemed impossible save to vital action.
other test for goodness and truth. It is, therefore, in no degree surprising that he should pass over his thought had forestalled a fact never before rewithout a word the results of scientific investigation vealed to human eyes. The column sank, but ceased as proving anything rational regarding the princi- to sink at a height of thirty inches, leaving the Torples or methods by which such results have been ricellian vacuum overhead. From that hour the achieved. Perhaps the best way of proceeding here theory of the pump was established. The celebrated will be to give one or two examples of the mode in Pascal followed Torricelli with a still further deducwhich men of science apply the unintelligent im- tion. He reasoned thus, - If the mercurial column pulse with which Mr. Mozley credits them, and be supported by the atmosphere, the higher we aswhich shall illustrate the surreptitious method by cend in the air the lower the column ought to sink, which they climb from the region of facts to that of for the less will be the weight of the air overbead. laws.
He ascended the Puy de Dome, carrying with him It was known before the sixteenth century that a barometric column, and found that as he ascended when the end of an open tube is dipped into water, the column sank, and that as he descended the on drawing an air-tight piston up the tube the column rose. And thus Pascal verified the result of water follows the piston, and this fact had been Torricelli. turned to account in the construction of the com- Between that time and the present, millions of mon pump. The effect was explained at the time experiments have been made upon this subject. by the maxim, “ Nature abhors a vacuum.” It was Every village pump is an apparatus for such experinot known that there was any limit to the height to ments. In thousands of instances, moreover, pumps which the water would ascend, until, on one occa- have refused to work; but on examination it has insion, the gardeners of Florence, while attempting to fallibly been found that the well was dry, that the raise the water a very great elevation, found that pump required priming, or that some other defect the column ceased at a height of thirty-two feet. in the apparatus accounted for the anomalous action. Beyond this all the skill of the pump-maker could In every case of the kind the skill of the pumpnot get it to rise. The fact was brought to the maker has been found to be the true remedy. In notice of Galileo, and he, soured by a world which no case has the pressure of the atmosphere ceased ; had not treated his science over kindly, twitted the constancy, as regards the lifting of pump-water, has philosophy of the time by remarking that nature been hitherto the demonstrated rule of nature. So evidently abhorred a vacuum only to a height of "also as regards Pascal's experiment. His experience thirty-two feet. But Galileo did not solve the prob- has been the universal experience ever since. Men lem. It was taken up by his pupil Torricelli, who have climbed mountains, and gone up in balloons ; pondered it, and while he did so various thoughts but no deviation from Pascal's result has ever been regarding it arose in his mind. It occurred to him observed. Barometers, like pumps, have refused to that the water might be forced up in the tube by a act; but instead of indicating any suspension of the pressure applied to the surface of the water external operations of nature, or any interference on the part to the tube. But where, under the actual circum- of its Author with atmospheric pressure, examinastances, was such a pressure to be found ? After tion has in every instance fixed the anomaly upon much reflection, it flashed upon Torricelli that the the instruments themselves. atmosphere might possibly exert the pressure; that Let us now briefly consider the case of Newton. the impalpable air might possess weight, and that a Before his time men had occupied themselves with column of water thirty-two feet high might be of the problem of the solar system. Kepler had dethe exact weight necessary to hold the pressure of duced, from a vast mass of observations, the general the atmosphere in equilibrium. There is much in expressions of planetary motion known as “ Kepler's this process of pondering and its results which it is Laws." It had been observed that a magnet attracts impossible to analyze.
iron; and by one of those flashes of inspiration It is by a kind of inspiration that we rise from the which reveal to the human mind the vast in the wise and sedulous contemplation of facts to the minute, it occurred to Kepler, that the force by principles on which they depend. The mind is, as which bodies fall to the earth might also be an atit were, a photographic plate, which is gradually traction. Newton pondered all these things. He cleansed by the effort to think rightly, and which had a great power of pondering. He could look when so cleansed, and not before, receives impres- into the darkest subject until it became entirely sions from the light of truth. This passage from luminous. How this light arises we cannot explain; facts to principles is called induction, which in its but, as a matter of fact, it does arise. Let me rehighest form is inspiration ; but, to make it sure, mark here, that this power of pondering facts is one the inward sight must be shown to be in accordance with which the ancients could be but imperfectly with outward fact. To prove or disprove the in-acquainted. They found the exercise of the pure duction, we must resort to deduction and experiment. imagination too pleasant to expend much time in Torricelli reasoned thus, - If a column of water gathering and brooding over facts. Hence it is that thirty-two feet high holds the pressure of the atmos- when those whose education has been derived from phere in equilibrium, a shorter column of a heavier the ancients speak of "the reason of man," they are liquid ought to do the same. Now, mercury is thir-apt to omit from their conception of reason one of teen times heavier than water; hence, if my induc- its greatest powers. Well, Newton slowly marshalled tion be correct, the atmosphere ought to be able to his thoughts, or rather they came to him while he sustain only thirty inches of mercury. Here, then, “intended his mind," rising one after another like a is a deduction which can be immediately submitted series of intellectual births out of chaos. He made to experiment. Torricelli took a glass tube a yard this idea of attraction his own. But to apply the or so in length, closed at one end and open at the idea to the solar system, it was necessary to know other, and filling it with mercury, he stopped the the magnitude of the attraction and the law of its open end with his thumb and inverted it in a basin variation with the distance. His conceptions first filled with the liquid metal. One can imagine the of all passed from the action of the earth as a whole, feeling with which Torricelli removed his thumb, to that of its constituent particles, the integration of and the delight he experienced when he found that which composes the whole. And persistent thought