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fag-end of a sentence, the headings of a few chap- fiction. One seeking for relief from the prose of ters, or, as we have said, the title-page to mark modern life by reviving something of the chivalry down the place from which it comes. The title, of the past, and the other by picking out the queerhowever, is above all an involuntary summary of est contemporary characters that lurk in remote the whole contents of the book. It is true that nooks and corners of the present. At an equal disthe deciphering of the enigma is occasionally diffi- tance from both of these types is the domestic novel; cult. We have wondered for some time what can the best example extant has the appropriate name be the possible meaning of a title that has lately of “Emma,” which it is impossible to associate even been advertised extensively, “Cometh up as a in imagination with anything but a quiet English Flower.” We can vaguely see religious and senti- girl, belonging to the middle classes, distinguished mental tendencies in it, and also a decided repug- by no extraordinary incidents of life or character, nance to grammar; but to interpret its full signifi- but interesting simply by the delicacy of the descripcance without further aid would require more pene- tion. She is admirably supported by such names as tration than we possess. Indeed, we make no “Pride and Prejudice” and “Sense and Sensibility," pretensions to possess an art which would save us which evidently rely upon quiet scenes of commonmuch painful toil and endless wading through liter- place passions, such as are compatible with a steady ary wastes and barrens; and for that reason amongst consumption of bread and butter. Mr. Trollope, the others, we prefer to follow the prudent example of most prolific and the ablest living representative of the phrenologists, who generally lecture upon the the thoroughly realist school, is almost equally exdistinctive bumps of persons who have already compressive in some of his titles, though we must confess mitted murder, rather than upon the parallel marks | that others sound to us a little ambiguous. The on the skulls of murderers in posse. It is a much | “Bertrams” might have been a romantic novel; but more convincing plan, because the lecturer never “ The Three Clerks," “ The Small House at Allingmakes mistakes, besides avoiding other inconven- | ton,” and “ The Last Chronicle of Barset,” contain iences.

in a compressed form the essence of the books to Let us, then, take one or two notorious examples. which they are prefixed. “ Can you forgive her ?”

No one can fail to see the whole character of Mr. is a question which ought to be put before almost Dickens's works, and even the gradual change which every book he has written, except that it should has taken place in his style, in the simple catalogue sometimes be “Can you forgive him ? ” for they of names. " Pickwick” and “ Martin Chuzzlewit" generally contain the working out of some quiet dorepresent the humor and the ci aggerated oddity; mestic problem, at the solution of which we find that the “ Old Curriosity Shop” implies a stronger tinge our sympathies have not been violently carried away, of sentiment; “ David Copperfield” is still rather but are left to be calmly distributed after a cool inqueer, but is touching the ground of ordinary prose; vestigation of the circumstances. and the “ Tale of Two Cities” implies a palpable. It would be easy to carry out this inquiry much decline towards the novel of ordinary life. If we further. “ Vanity Fair," for example, is perhaps compare these titles with such names as “ Peregrine one of the best and most suggestive titles ever inventPickle” and “ Roderick Random,” we see in what ed; in another direction, the “ House of the Seven direction Mr. Dickens diverges from Smollett. Gables," and the “ Scarlet Letter,” suggest at once There is a superficial resemblance between Pickle the quiet atmosphere of mystery in which Hawand Pickwick; but a Pickle could not but be coarse thorne delighted to move; between “ Yeast, a Probwhere a Pickwick would simply be odd. Perhaps lem," through “ Two Years Ago," down to “ Hereof the two, a Pickle would keep nearest the aver-ward the Wake,” there is a history of Mr. Kingsley's age, if rather dirty, human nature; but “Pickwick” literary progress and decline; or the contrast beis redolent of the innocent exuberance of animal tween “Guy Livingstone, or Thorough," and " Sans spirits which gives vitality to the pages of that ini. Merci," on one side, and on the other “ Queechy," mitable book. The author has evidently found a “The Wide, Wide World," and " The Daisy Chain," name for his hero in pure gayety of heart, that is we may see what different forms of art are included not above an innocent and sometimes a rather small under the same name of novels. We have, howjoke. The same sort of rollicking fun breathes in ever, said enough to show what a wide field of the name Chuzzlewit, which appears to be the em- speculation is open which has hitherto found few or bodiment of an irrepressible chuckle, and yet the no professed cultivators. It is true that the pervermore sober name of Martin and certain vague sity of novelists induces them occasionally to deceive reminiscences connected with the first two syllables critics, to hang out, as it were, a false flag, and, as of the surname imply that there may be a back in the case of a notorious French novel called ground of prose and of some of the meaner vices of " Fanny," to hide very improper books under an human nature. By way of forcible contrast, these innocent seeming name. But this and the blunders names may be compared with the fine sounding of critics should throw no more doubt on the gennames of Sir Walter Scott. " Waverley; or, 'T is uine nature of the connection than the occasional Sixty Years Since,” gives at once the essence of the squabbles of men of science on the truths of geology book, — the chivalrous sentiment that was mixed or mathematics. with the miseries of 1745 ; or, again, the “ Bride of If any one doubts the significance of names in the Lammermoor,” a title in which the poetry of a hands of a genuine artist, let him read the history humble Scotch name is made perceptible, or, as a of Balzac's labors in the discovery of the name of better instance of the same, the Heart of Midlo- Z. Marcas. It was not till he had examined innuthian," which sounds at first as if some romantic his-merable directories and toiled for hours along the tory were intended, and then, in further explanation, streets of Paris that his diligence was at length shows that the romance is to centre in the Tolbooth rewarded by the discovery of that name so full of of Edinburgh. Indeed, to put the two names, for ex- hidden mystery. It will be a good test of the acuteample, of " Guy Mannering" and " Nicholas Nickle-ness of any one who wishes to follow in his steps if by” together is enough to show the contrasted char- he will profoundly meditate upon the meanings acter of the reigns of two great masters of English | which are necessarily involved in the name, and

point out what is the inevitable character and body they desiderated, not solace for the mind; and course of life of a man called Z. Marcas. He it was, perhaps, only natural that they should treat must remark that a great part of the interest lies Mr. Lawrence's suggestions rather curtly. Not that in the mysterious initial 2. Without taking this the innkeeper was prompt to take offence. The letter into full account, he will miss the extraordi- man who rides a hobby-horse seldom heeds or pernary significance of the compound. If he should ceives the criticism of bystanders upon the paces or succeed in deducing from Z. Marcas the same proportions of his steed. Mr. Lawrence could obtain meaning as Balzac, he will confirm the art by a tri- a hearing from other quarters. Once a week he visumph similar to that which has sometimes crownedited Bath, and passed an evening in the green-room the attempts of independent interpreters to discover of the theatre there. The actors would listen to the meaning of Egyptian hieroglyphics. If he fails, him, or pretend to do so; some of them would even he may at least be put on the traces of discovery by permit him to read their parts to them, and give the study of Balzac's remarkable commentary on them counsel as to the manner in which these should his own hero.

be rendered on the stage, purposing to avenge themselves afterwards (the rogues), by availing them

selves of the comforts of the Black Bear, without YOUNG LAWRENCE,

calling for their accounts when they quitted that THE INNKEEPER's son.

| hostelry.

But even a greater celebrity at Devizes than Mr. In the last century it behooved everybody who de- Lawrence was his son Thomas, born in 1769, youngsired to be accounted “a personage," or to be ranked est of the sixteen children. He seems to have been amongst people of quality, to quit London at a cer- regarded on all hands as a sort of infant prodigy of tain season of the year, and repair to the city of great use in attracting visitors to the inn. He could Bath, or “the Bath " as it was frequently called. A stand on a chair and recite poetry, or he could journey to Bath in those days was no trifling mat- wield his black-lead pencil and take the portrait of ter; it involved frequent stoppages by the way, and any one who would condescend to sit to him. “A the inns and posting-houses upon the road became, most lovely boy," writes Miss Burney ; with long, necessarily, very important, and oftentimes very luxuriant, girl-like tresses, that tumbled down and profitable, concerns. Miss Burney, the author of hid his face when he stooped to draw. “He can * Evelina," records in her diary the particulars of take your likeness, or repeat you any speech in her journey to Bath with Mrs. Thrale, in the year Milton's Pandemonium," the proud father would 1780. She stopped the first night at Maidenhead cry, " although he is only five years old.” And at Bridge; slept at Speen Hill the second, and Devizes this age he is stated to have produced a striking the third; arriving at Bath on the fourth day of her likeness of Mr., afterwards Lord Kenyon. At seven journey. The inn patronized by Miss Burney at the portrait of the prodigy was taken, and engraved Devizes was the Black Bear, of which one Thomas by Mr. Sherwin, the artist. At eight, it seems, his Lawrence was the landlord. It is in regard to this education was finished. His recitations — he had, establishment we have to request that the reader no doubt, been carefully instructed by his fatherwill give us his attention for a few minutes. were pronounced to be a full of discrimination, feel

Mr. Lawrence had been by turns a solicitor, a ing, and humor, set off by the various tones of a poet, an artist, an actor, a supervisor of excise, a voice full, harmonious, and flexible.” Pretty well farmer and innkeeper, and, of course, a bankrupt. this, for such a mere baby as he was at the time! Probably he might have retired from the Black He recited on various occasions before Garrick, Bear with a fortune, but that he had a numerous Foote, John Wilkes, Sheridan, Burke, Johnson, family of sixteen children to support, and that he was Churchill, and other famous people, resting for the not particularly well qualified to succeed as an inn- night or to change horses at Devizes on their road keeper. He seems to have set up for being “a char- to Bath. Old Lawrence lost no opportunity of acter," and his neighbors were inclined to ridicule talking to his customers, and of exhibiting his wonderand censure him for giving himself airs. A bustling, ful son. All are alleged to have been charmed with active, good-humored man, he was prone now and him. Mr. and Mrs. Garrick, passing through the then to play the scholar and the fine gentleman, the town, would retire to a summer-house in the garden while he lost sight of his more recognized position of the Black Bear, and amuse themselves for some as a landlord. He wore a full-dress suit of black, time with the recitations of the little fellow. * Tomstarched ruffles, and a very grand periwig; was cere my has learnt one or two new speeches since you monious and stately in his manners, affected an inor were here, Mr. Garrick," the father would exclaim, dinate love of literature and an air of connoisseur- bringing forward his precocious boy. “There was ship that contrasted rather strangely with his calling. something about him," says an authority, * which Certainly there was not such another landlord to be excited the surprise of the most casual observer. seen upon the road between London and Bath; if, He was a perfect man in miniature ; his confidence indeed, anywhere else. He was proud of his elocu- and self-possession smacked of one-and-twenty." tional powers, and in a full, sonorous voice he would Young Lawrence, however, was not able at this read aloud select passages from Shakespeare and time to read at random any passages from the poets Milton to all such persons as evinced an inclination that might be selected for him. He had been into listen to him, — sometimes, indeed, to people who structed in particular speeches, and to these, as a did not in the least wish to hear him. It is hardly rule, he was obliged to restrict his efforts. For a to be wondered at that divers of the Black Bear's long time he had been wishing to learn · Satan's customers occasionally felt indignant and outraged, Address to the Sun," a farorite recitation of his when, travel-worn and hungry, eager for the bill of father's; but old Lawrence had declined to intrust fare and supper, they were met by the landlord's him with so important a subject. Nevertheless, the proposal to expatiate for their benefit opon the beau- bor had acquainted himself with the tope and manties of the poets, or to recite for their entertainment ner appropriate to the piece, and announced that he certain most elegant extracts. It was food for the was prepared to deliver it in imitation of the elder


orator. A family in Devizes, known to the Law- from his pencil of Mrs. Siddons and Admiral Barrences, giving a party one evening, requested that rington were now engraved, the artist being as yet the boy might be permitted to attend and entertain only thirteen years of age. His success as a portraitthe company with his readings and recitations. Old painter seemed quite assured; he was making money Lawrence consented, on condition that the child was rapidly, largely contributing to the support of his not asked to read other than the pieces with which family. Yet he was not satisfied. He was greatly he was acquainted, and cautioned his son by no tempted to try his fortune on the stage. His view means to attempt anything in which he was not was that he could earn more, and so could further perfect, and particularly to avoid the address of assist his father, by deserting the studio for the theaSatan. In the evening young Lawrence walked to tre. Possibly, too, the display and excitement and the house, with Shakespeare and Milton under his applause which pertain to the career of the successarm, and went through his performances amid gen- ful player — and of course he thought he should suceral applause. He was then asked which was his ceed — were very alluring to the young gentleman. favorite recitation in Milton ? He replied that he He was now little more than sixteen. He took counpreferred “ Satan's Address to the Sun," but that sel of a friendly actor, Mr. John Bernard, and favored his father would not permit him to repeat it. On him with a private recitation of the part of Jaffier this account, and to ascertain whether the child in the tragedy of “ Venice Preserved.” Mr. Bermerely performed, parrot-fashion, the company were nard, it seems, was not much impressed by this perespecially anxious to hear the forbidden reading. formance; at least, he did not detect sufficient Young Lawrence's dutiful scruples, however, were dramatic ability in the young man to justify his not overcome until all present had promised to in-proposed change of profession. The actor, howtercede on his behalf and obtain for him his father's ever, did not openly express his opinion on the forgiveness. As he turned to the interdicted page subject, but merely said he would bear the case a slip of paper fell from the book. A gentleman in mind and speak to his manager, Mr. Palmer, picked it up and read aloud,—“Tom, mind you in regard to it. Meanwhile, he disclosed what had don't touch Satan." It was some time before the passed to old Lawrence. Acquainted by experience astonished boy could be induced to proceed ; yet he with the precariousness of an actor's fortunes, and is said to have eventually dealt with the subject appreciative also of the value of his son's talents very creditably and discreetly.

as an artist, Lawrence entreated Bernard to exert As Garrick said of him, young Lawrence's walk all his influence in dissuading the young man from in life was at this time “poised between the pencil his design. It was determined at last to cure the and the stage.” To which did he incline? Would stage-struck hero by means of a trick: to prearrange he be a player, or a painter ? It was hard to say. his failure, in fact. Palmer, the manager, entered He had been taken to town on a visit to Mr. Hugh into the plan. An appointment was made at BerBoyd, (who at one time was supposed to be one of nard's house, in order that young Lawrence might the authors of “ Junius,”) introduced to the great have a private interview with the manager. In an painters of the day, and most kindly received by adjoining room were secreted his father and a party them. Sir Joshua Reynolds had pronounced him of friends. Bernard introduced the young man to “the most promising genius he had ever met with.” Palmer, who presently desired a specimen of the Mr. Hoare had been so charmed with the boy's aspirant's dramatic abilities, and took his seat at the drawings that he proposed to send him to Italy end of the room in the character of auditor and with his own son. On the other hand, he had been judge. A scene from “ Venice Preserved” was sea frequent visitor in the green-room of the Bath lected, and young Lawrence commenced a recitaTheatre. Placed upon the table there, the centre tion. For several lines he proceeded perfectly, but of a group of amused actors, he would recite “Ham- soon he became nervous, confused; he stammered, let's Advice to the Players," and other passages. coughed, and at last stopped outright. Bernard had On one of these occasions, Henderson, the trage- the book in his hand, but he would not prompt; he dian, was present, and expressed warm approval of withheld all assistance. Young Lawrence began the child's efforts. Then, in return for the civil again, but his self-possession was gone; his failure ities and compliments be received, young Lawrence was more decided and humiliating than before. At would beg that he might take the portraits of his this juncture his father abruptly entered the room, friends among the company. We are told of his crying out, “You play Jaffier, Tom ? Hang me if attempt to draw the face of Edwin, the comedi- you're fit to appear as a supernumerary!” — or an, who, the while, grimaced and distorted his fea- some such speech - and then young Lawrence tures, constantly shifting the expression of his found that his mortification had not been without countenance, greatly to the bewilderment of the witnesses. boy artist. Finally, young Lawrence stood silent It was very trying to his vanity. He had to lisand motionless, watching his model with a kind ten to remonstrances and appeals of all kinds. of despair, until it became necessary to explain Palmer, the manager, assured him that he did not the joke that had been practised. It should be possess the advantages requisite for success on the said, however, that stories are current in relation stage. Bernard spoke with bitter truthfulness of to similar jokes played by humorists upon other | the trials and sorrows of an actor's life. Other artists.

friends drew attention to the brilliant prospect Old Lawrence had been compelled to abandon open to the successful painter. Young Lawrence the Black Bear, and had retreated to Bath with his gave away at last; he renounced the stage forever. family. “Bath," we are informed," was at that time Once in his life, long years afterwards, he took part London, devoid of its mixed society and vulgarity. in certain private theatricals, when no less an auIt contained its selection of all that was noble, afflu- thority than Sheridan said of him that he was the ent, or distinguished in the metropolis; and amongst best amateur actor in the kingdom.” But he never this circle our artist was now caressed.” It became a more thought of acting as a profession. The theatre kind of fashion to sit to him for oval crayon like- may thus have lost an agreeable player, but, thanks nesses at a guinea and a half a piece. "Portraits to the manæuvre of old Lawrence, Bernard, and


Palmer, a famous portrait-painter was secured for | sider our 13-inch rifled gun a success, but it was fired the world of art.

several times with 100 pounds of strong English In a few words may be told his subsequent powder without bursting, and when two shot struck career.

near each other the second passed through the HerHe quitted Bath for London, and thrived great-cules target, which is probably the strongest yet conly. In 1791, at the express desire of George the structed. Third and his queen, he was, after one defeat, ad- It is very necessary in the comparison of difmitted an Associate of the Royal Academy by a ferent artillery systems to distinguish between the suspension of the law prohibiting the admission of many different questions involved. In the present an Associate under the age of twenty-four. In 1795 | almost international competition the principal queshe was elected a full member of the Academy, hav- tions are, - 1st. Racking v. punching; 2d. Compaing previously succeeded Sir Joshua Reynolds as rative penetration ; 3d. Rifled v. smooth-bore guns ; painter in ordinary to the king. In 1815 he was 4th. The material of which the national ordnance is knighted by the regent, and on the death of Ben- to be made. The difference between gunpowder is jamin West, in 1820, he was elected President of hardly a question, because, though ours is stronger the Academy. He died on the 7th June, 1830. than the American, we do not claim any advantage He had been for some months in ailing health; but in that respect, but rather the contrary, because had been painting, on the previous day, a portrait quick-burning powder is too severe on the gun. The of King George the Fourth in his coronation name by which the American powder used in the robes.

late experiments is known to the United States' "Are you not tired of those eternal robes ? " authorities is hardly settled yet, for there are many asked some one. It had fallen to Lawrence to gunpowders in their list, and though the present paint many portraits of the sovereign in his state sample is not the largest mammoth powder, such as

| was meant when we were told that 50 pounds of it "No," answered the painter; “I always find va- only equalled in strength 35 pounds of No. 7 cannon riety in them. The pictures are alike in outline, - powder, neither does it appear to correspond with never in detail. You would find the last the best." (the size of grain laid down for this latter. It is per

In the night he was taken alarmingly ill. He haps something between the two, and its name is was bled, and then seemed better. But presently still uncertain. “ American service powder” was the bandage slipped, and he fell off his chair into the the name used in contracting for it, and “ American arms of his valet, Jean Duts, a Swiss.

service powder” it is, of a strength one sixth less “This is fainting," said the valet, in alarm. than English powder for heavy guns, whatever may

“No, Jean, my good fellow," Sir Thomas Law- be its exact title. rence politely corrected him, “it is dying." And No one at all acquainted with the subject can so he breathed his last.

deny, in the face of all experiments made throughout the world, that elongated shot are better calcu

lated for penetration than round ones, nor did the EXPERIMENTS AT SHOEBURYNESS. Americans deny this when they first produced their

The late trials of the 15-inch American gun and heavy guns. They said that they did not wish to the English rifled mountain gun for the Abyssinian perforate or “punch" targets, but to smash them expedition have been full of interest. The heaviest to pieces or “rack” them. Their ships were prosmooth-bore and the lightest rifled gun in England tected with “ laminated” armor, by which is meant were fired side by side. The experiments with the armor composed of several one-inch plates laid American gun have not led to any desire on the part upon each other and bolted together. This is of English artillerists to adopt the system, but we a kind of structure easily shattered, and even far hasten to admit that the huge Rodman is a magnifi. more vulnerable to punching guns than solid plates cent gun of its kind, and shows a progress in the or a lesser number of thicker plates. English conmanufacture of cast-iron which does the gallant structors saw no difficulty in building ships that officer who has devoted himself to that branch of could not be racked by guns of the powers set forth artillery science infinite credit. It is curious that in American publications, and the result of the late both American and English pieces of heavy ordnance experiments has proved the truth of the assertion. are showing signs of far greater endurance than was It was only at close quarters and with charges of foretold by their respective backers. When first the 60 pounds, – too much for continued firing, acRodman guns were issued for service, 60 pounds of cording to their own authorities, – that officers their service powder, whatever it may be called, was were allowed to attempt to penetrate a strong ironconsidered the highest charge that could be fired clad ship. The contest between the advocates of from it with safety, and that only for a few rounds. racking and punching was hot, and we were unpreThe English 9-inch gun in the same manner was pared for the vexation exhibited throughout the allowed only 150 rounds, with its battering charge, United States when it was found that their castand 400 rounds were named as constituting its prob- iron and even our steel shot fired from their gun able life if the whole 150 battering charges were to failed to penetrate the target. If penetration and be used in it. Since then the Rodman has been not racking merely be now claimed for their guns, fired at Fortress Monroe with 100 pounds of powder, the only points to be assured of are these. Is the and a like trial at Shoeburyness has shown that the average strength of a 15-inch gun sufficient to feat can be repeated, but we have yet to learn how enable their naval and military authorities to auoften with the same gun. One of our 9-inch rifled thorize the employment of 100 pound charges, and, guns has stood 1,043 rounds, 680 of which were with if so, will the projectiles which they use hold tobattery charges, some as high as 50 pounds, and the gether long enough to get through when they gun, though much eaten away in the interior, is still strike? A steel shot with 1,500 feet of relocity capable of offence. Two other 9-inch guns have will penetrate the 8-inch plate and Warrior backbeen fired 500 rounds each with battering charges, ing. A cast-iron shot may or may not, according and are still in excellent condition. We do not con- to the excellence of its material. Probably, but


not certainly, it will penetrate. Certainly neither | tional charges are to be burnt in the former, we can of them will perforate the Hercules.

hardly be denied the right to put a little extra powIt is very instructive to look back a little and see der into the latter. The 15-inch, with its service how short a time has elapsed since the object of battering charge, fails to penetrate the target which iron-clads was supposed to be the keeping out of is pierced by the 9-inch with such a charge that shells. Mr. Whitworth's achievement when he several hundred rounds can be fired without destroyfired a steel shell through the Warrior target ranging the gun. through Europe, and now chilled shells with ogival From the roar of the Rodman to the tiny ringing heads have a power of penetration superior to that voice of the mountain gun is a great downward of shot. The 9-inch gun sends its shells through the jump, but the little steel piece is soon to do its duty 8-inch target, and we know that no round shells in actual war, unless wise and peaceful counsels from the 15-inch Rodman have a chance of piercing prevail at last in Abyssinia Steel, while treacherit, whatever may be the success of their shot. And ous in large masses, from the difficulty of casting then, be it remembered, this 15-inch gun weighs and working it equally, is a perfect, though rather seven tons and a quarter more than the English 9. expensive material for small guns, and has been inch.

wisely chosen for mountain service. The carriage Many honest inquirers who are watching the re- is also of steel, except the wheels, and nothing could sults of the trials may say, “There is something be simpler than its general construction. It stood very odd about this matter. What is the virtue of the force of recoil very well generally, though the the English gun that it can send its lighter projec- wheels suffered a little from the recoil of the piece tiles with lighter charges through a target that when fired at high angles of elevation. This mite resists a far greater expenditure of ammunition on of a gun which a man might easily carry in his arms, the part of the American gun? Is it quite fair not for it weighs only 150 pounds, sent its pretty little to use chilled shot or shells which are so cheap and 7 pound projectile 2,944 yards, or more than a mile strong in both cases ? ” It is fair, and, indeed, it and two thirds, with a charge of 6 ounces of powder would be very unfair to the American gun to put and an elevation of 32 degrees. Such long range chilled projectiles into it, and estimate its force by work is not, however, likely to be required of it, but their effect. One chilled, or rather white iron shot rather shrapnel practice at ranges up to 1,000 yards, was fired from it at the 8-inch target, and did least or less. At 500, 520, and 540 yards more than half damage of the three hurled against it on the same the bullets in the shrapnel shell struck a target repday, as would have been predicted beforehand by resenting a column of men. With ounce of powall who understand this not very abstruse question. der and the same elevation the projectile ranged White iron projectiles are very brittle, and are of 478 yards. The recoil, which was very lively when little use unless they have sharp points, and are full charges were used, was brought under control driven point foremost, which can only be done if the by hobbling the carriage, a small rope being fixed gun is rifled.

from the point of the trail to one of the wheel The range at 32 degrees elevation and with 100 spokes. pounds charge was 7,680 yards, the initial velocity The so-called 64-pounder gun converted on Palabout 1,538 feet a second; 1,600 feet a second is a liser's principle, proved its value by sending its common velocity for smooth-bores, and much higher shells through the Warrior plates, breaking once out speed has been attained in the wrought-iron guns of three rounds through the skin and setting the constructed some years ago for the navy. The wooden backing on fire. The charge was 16 Rodman gun is probably too short to burn all the pounds, range 500 yards. The 8-inch converted powder before the shot leaves the muzzle, and a fur- gun did even more work at 70 yards range, at an ther increase of charge would not give proportionate angle of about 26 degrees to the face of the target. velocity Sixty pounds gives 1,170 feet per second, The first round at 30 degrees angle set the target 100 pounds only increases it to 1,538 feet, quite on fire, the second at nearly 26 degrees passed enough, however, to force an entrance into any of through all, bursting just as it cleared the inner our ships at present afloat, if the range is short, and skin. Here are three instances of the value of rifled if the gun is fired at right angles to the side of the guns. Shell-fire either penetrates the target opship. The least angle will affect your round shot posed to these comparatively light pieces, or sets the more than the pointed one, because the former will backing in flames. glance, while the latter digs in its point and then Let us once more put the state of the case before turns at right angles to the target. This was well our readers. The sinooth-bored gun, with its sershown on Thursday last, when an 8-inch shell from vice-pattering charge, and an expensive steel shot, a converted Palliser gun pierced the Warrior target fails to damage seriously a target which the rifled at an angle of about 26 degrees, the weight of the gun, less than two thirds the weight of its antagoshell being 180 pounds, that of the charge 22 nist, penetrates with shells of a cheaper material. pounds. We hope that many interesting experi- With an increased but dangerous charge the ments will yet be made with the American gun, and smooth-bore will probably penetrate the target with we sincerely congratulate Major Rodman on the shot, but never with shell. The rifled gun can be excellence of his cast-iron, while we still adhere by used in broadsides, the smooth-bore only in turrets. preference to our own material, which is still strong- Given the same weight of rifled gun, the effect will er, especially for rifled guns, because grooves in a be much greater. If the material of which the guns gun cast on Rodman's method, would vitally affect are made be compared, we take the actual results its strongest part, the interior. Let us pay every obtained at Charlestown, and fearlessly assert the respect to a very formidable weapon, but we can do superior strength of our ordnance, for the Federal so without crying down our own lighter but even rifled pieces were declared by General Gilmore to more destructive ordnance. We cannot admit 100 be unable to fire 500 rounds with charges of only pounds to be a service charge till the American War one tenth the weight of the projectile. Our 9-inch Office gives us a right to do so, and if the 15-inch rifled guns outlive many more than 500 rounds with gun is to be compared with our 9-inch, and excep- charges of about one sixth the shot's or shell's

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