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bious title of curiosity, because in comparison | external, and tends constantly to become more so. th this wider endeavor of such great and plain But above all in our own country has culture a ility it looks selfish, petty, and unprofitable. wcighty part to perform, because here that mechanAnd religion, the greatest and most important of ical character, which civilization tends to take e efforts by which the human race has manifested everywhere, is shown in the most eminent degree.
impulse to perfect itself, — religion, that voice of | Indeed nearly all the characters of perfection, as e deepest human experience, does not only enjoin culture teaches us to fix them, meet in this country id sanction the aim which is the great aim of cul- with some powerful tendency which thwarts them re, the aim of setting ourselves to ascertain what and sets them at defiance. rfection is and to make it prevail, but also, in de- The idea of perfection as an inward condition of rmining generally in what human perfection con- the mind and spirit is at variance with the mechanits, religion comes to a conclusion identical with ical and material civilization in esteem with us, and at which culture seeking the determination of nowhere, as I have said, so much in esteem as with is question through all the voices of human expe- us. The idea of perfection as a general expansion ence which have been heard upon it, art, science, of the human family is at variance with our strong petry, philosophy, history, as well as religion, in individualism, our hatred of all limits to the unrerder to give a greater fulness and certainty to its strained swing of the individual's personality, our blution — likewise reaches. Religion says: The maxim of “every man for himself." The idea of ingdom of God is within you; and culture, in like perfection as an harmonious expansion of human Tanner, places human perfection in an internal con- nature is at variance with our want of flexibility, ition, in the growth and predominance of our hu- with our inaptitude for seeing more than one side of nanity proper, as distinguished from our animality, a thing, with our intense energetic absorption in the n the ever-increasing efficaciousness and in the gen- particular pursuit we happen to be following. So ral harmonious expansion of those gifts of thought culture has a rough task to do in this country; and ind feeling which make the peculiar dignity, wealth, its preachers have, and are likely long to have, a ind happiness of human nature. As I have said on hard time of it, and they will much oftener be re
former occasion, “ It is in making endless addi- garded, for a great while to come, as elegant or sputions to itself, in the endless expansion of its pow- rious Jeremiahs, than as friends and benefactors. ers, in endless growth in wisdom and beauty, that That, however, will not prevent their doing in the the spirit of the human race finds its ideal. To end good service if they persevere; and meanwhile, reach this ideal culture is an indispensable aid, and the mode of action they have to pursue, and the sort that is the true value of culture.” Not a having of habits they must fight against, may be made quite and a resting, but a growing and a becoming, is the clear to any one who will look at the matter attencharacter of perfection as culture conceives it; and tively and dispassionately. here, too, it coincides with religion. And because Faith in machinery is, I said, our besetting danmen are all members of one great whole, and the ger; often in machinery most absurdly disproporsympathy which is in human nature will not allow tioned to the end which this machinery, if it is to do one member to be indifferent to the rest, or to have any good at all, is to serve; but always in machina perfect welfare independent of the rest, the ex-ery, as if it had a value in and for itself. What is pansion of our humanity, to suit the idea of perfec- freedom but machinery? what is population but tion which culture forms, must be a general expan- machinery? what is coal but machinery ? what are sion.
railroads but machinery? what is wealth but maPerfection, as culture conceives it, is not possible chinery? wlrat are religious organizations but mawhile the individual remains isolated: the individ- chinery? Now almost every voice in England is ual is obliged, under pain of being stunted and en- accustomed to speak of these things as if they were feebled in his own development if he disobeys, to precious ends in themselves, and therefore had some carry others along with him in his march towards of the characters to perfection indisputably joined perfection, to be continually doing all he can to en-to them. I have once before noticed Mr. Roebuck's large and increase the volume of the human stream stock argument for proving the greatness and hapsweeping thitherward : and here, once more, it lays piness of England as she is, and for quite stopping on us the same obligation as religion. Finally, per- the mouths of all gainsayers. Mr. Roebuck is never fection — as culture, from a thorough disinterested weary of reiterating this argument of his, so I do not study of human nature and human experience, know why I should be weary of noticing it. “May learns to conceive it — is an harmonious expansion not every man in England say what he likes?” – of all the powers which make the beauty and worth Mr. Roebuck perpetually asks; and that, he thinks, of human nature, and is not consistent with the is quite sufficient, and when every man may say over-development of any one power at the expense what he likes, our aspirations ought to be satisfied. of the rest. Here it goes beyond religion, as reli But the aspirations of culture, which is the study of gion is generally conceived by us.
perfection, are not satisfied, unless what men say, If culture, then, is a study of perfection, and of when they may say what they like, is worth saying, harmonious perfection, general perfection, and per- — has good in it, and more good than bad. In the fection which consists in becoming something rather same way the Times, replying to some foreign strictthan in having something, in an inward condition of ures on the dress, looks, and behavior of the English the mind and spirit, not in an outward set of circum- abroad, urges that the English ideal is that every stances, – it is clear that culture, instead of being one should be free to do and to look just as he likes. the frivolous and useless thing which Mr. Bright, But culture indefatigably tries, not to make what and Mr. Frederic Harrison, and many other liber- each raw person may like the rule by which he als suppose, has a very important function to ful fashions himself, but to draw ever nearer to a sense fil for mankind. And this function is particularly of what is indeed beautiful, graceful, and becoming, important in our modern world, of which the whole and to get the raw person to like that. civilization is, to a much greater degree than the In the same way with respect to railroads and civilization of Greece and Rome, mechanical and coal. Every one must have observed the strange language current during the late discussions as to rious in them; as if the British Philistine med the possible failure of our supplies of coal. Our have only to present himself before the Great Jade coal, thousands of people were saying, is the real with his twelve children, in order to be recair basis of our national greatness; if our coal runs among the sheep as a matter of right! short, there is an end of the greatness of England. Bodily health and vigor, it may be said, are u But what is greatness ? --culture makes us ask. to be classed with wealth and population as Greatness is a spiritual condition worthy to excite machinery; they have a more real and esset love, interest, and admiration; and the outward value. True; but only as they are more intimer proof of possessing greatness is that we excite love, ly connected with a perfect spiritual condition to interest, and admiration. If England were swal- wealth or population are. The moment we do lowed up by the sea to-morrow, which, a hundred them from the idea of a perfect spiritual condit years hence, would most excite the love, interest, and pursue them, as we do pursue them, for the and admiration of mankind, — would most, there own sake and as ends in themselves, our wors fore, show the evidences of having possessed great of them becomes as mere worship of machine ness,--the England of the last twenty years, or the as our worship of wealth or population, and as a England of Elizabeth, of a time of splendid spiritual intelligent and vulgarizing a worship as that: effort, but when our coal, and our industrial opera- Every one with anything like an adequate idea: tions depending on coal, were very little developed ?human perfection has distinctly marked this subr Well then, what an unsound habit of mind it must dination to higher and spiritual ends of the cultiva be which makes us talk of things like coal or iron as tion of bodily vigor and activity. - Bodily exerck constituting the greatness of England, and how sal- | profiteth little ; but godliness is profitable unto : utary a friend is culture, bent on seeing things as things,” says the author of the Epistle to Timot they are and on fixing standards of perfection that | And the utilitarian Franklin says just as explicit] are real!
* Eat and drink such an exact quantity as a Wealth, again, that end to which our prodigious the constitution of thy body, in reference to the key works for material advantage are directed, — the rices of the mind.” But the point of view of cu commonest of commonplaces tells us how men are ture, keeping the mark of human perfection simp always apt to regard wealth as a precious end in it- and broadly in view, and not assigning to this per self; and certainly they have never been so apt fection, as religion or utilitarianism assign to thus to regard it as they are in England at the a special and limited character, - this point present time. Never did people believe anything view, I say, of culture, is best given by these wurde more firmly than nine Englishinen out of ten at the of Epictetus: “It is a sign of apvia," says he present day believe that our greatness and welfare that is, of a nature not finely tempered, - * to gre are proved by our being so very rich. Now, the yourselves up to things which relate to the bout use of culture is that it helps us, by means of its to make, for instance, a great fuss about exercise, spiritual standard of perfection, to regard wealth as great fuss about eating, a great fuss about drinkin. but machinery, and not only to say as a matter of a great fuss about walking, a great fuss about 1 woris that we regard wealth as but machinery, but ing. All these things ought to be done merely & really to perceive and feel that it is so. If it were the roay: the formation of the spirit and character not for this purging effect wrought upon our minds must be our real concern." This is admirable; and br culture, the whole world, the future as well as the indeed, the Greek words, advia. ei ovia, a finely tellipresent, would inevitably belong to the Philistines. pered nature, a coarsely tempered nature, give efThe people who believe most that our greatness and actly the notion of perfection as culture brings to weifare are proved by our being very rich, and who to conceive of it: a perfection in which the characmost gire their lives and thoughts to becoming rich, ters of beauty and intelligence are both present, are just the very people whom we call the Philis- which unites * the two noblest of things," as Sri tines. Culture says: “Consider these people, then, who of one of the two at any rate, had himself al their way of life, their habits, their manners, the too little, most happily calls them in his Battle of the very tones of their voice; look at them attentirely; Books, -- "the two noblest of things, sweetness anal oderve the literature they read, the things which 191." The coins is the man who tends towards give them pleasure, the words which come forth out sweetness and light; the advýs is precisely our Preof their mouths, the thonghts which make the furni- listine. The immense spiritual significance of the ture of their minds; would anr amount of wealth Greeks is due to their baving been inspired with be worth haring with the condition that one was to this central and happr idea of the essential care heroine jast like these people br haring it?" And, ter of human pertection; and Mr. Bright's miscono thas entre begats a dissatistaction which is of the cention of culture, as a smattering of Greek ada highest le value in stemming the common tide Larin, tones itself. arter all, from this wonderful of men's toong is in a wealthr and industrial com-'gitcance of the Greeks having affected the very munitr, and which are the future, as one mar minert of onr elavation, and it is in itself a kind Supe me being rularised, even if it cannna areia bonato it. de paseai
It is br thus making sweetness and light to be Pannlation, an, aad bollr health ani rir characters of section that enlture is of like spint ny things are norbere treated in such an with IT, forms one law with poetry. I have a n eating, ratei war as in alle region a more important mani estation of En lan! Bir ir malzet: met bom banan niture than T. because it has NOTEER maar nie arcand domes in them on a bowler ser proton, and with Teatr asi ai nok broad im W2r. I bareban
k en Biry the of beauty and of ཀྱང མ་, ཀྐཱ ཀཱ རྒྱུ སུ སྐྱེས་ཀ དཀ – ལ ག སྨn ara T ཀ ཀཱ ཀ ཀ ཀཱ ཙ
:s c91 ད་ཀྱ ༢༠》 p? Tses on K artiers rytaras of Bandera S
ortry, is a true and invaluat Sith this cantry, bo wirid taikos
bad the success that the 212 pun strain, as itberkad idea ac e ste obria faults of our animas O g nis bosstrain clerating, ani nesten. itr,
s oa natare periect on the more
le, which is the dominant idea of religion, has | There is sweetness and light, and an ideal of comen enabled to have ; and it is destined, adding to plete harmonious human perfection! One need elf the religious idea of a devout energy, to not go to culture and poetry to find language to ansform and govern the other. The best art and judge it. Religion, with its instinct for perfecJetry of the Greeks, in which religion and poetry tion, supplies language to judge it: “Finally, 'e one, in which the idea of beauty and of a hu- be of one mind, united in feeling," says St. Peter. an nature perfect on all sides adds to itself a relig- There is an ideal which judges the Puritan ideal ! us and devout energy, and works in the strength - " The dissidence of Dissent and the Protesti that, is on this account of such surpassing inter- antism of the Protestant religion.” And religit and instructiveness for us, though it was, - as, ious organizations like this are what people believe aving regard to the human race in general, and, in, rest in, and would give their lives for! Such, ideed, having regard to the Greeks themselves, I say, is the wonderful virtue of even the begine must own, - a premature attempt, an attempt nings of perfection, of having conquered even the hich for success needed the moral and religious first faults of our animality, that the religious orbre in humanity to be more braced and developed ganization which has helped us to do it can seem han it had yet been. But Greece did not err in to us something precious, salutary, and to be propaaving the idea of beauty, harmony, and complete gated, even when it wears such a brand of imperfecTuman perfection so present and paramount; it is tion on its forehead as this. And men have got mpossible to have this idea too present and para- such a habit of giving to the language of religion nount ; only the moral fibre must be braced too. a special application, of making it a mere jargon, And we, because we have braced the moral fibre, that for the condemnation which religion itself tre not on that account in the right way, if at the passes on the shortcomings of their religious organisame time the idea of beauty, harmony, and com- zations they have no ear; they are sure to cheat plete human perfection is wanting or misapprehend- themselves and to explain this condemnation away. ed amongst us, and evidently it is wanting or mis. They can only be reached by the criticism which apprehended at present. And when we rely as we culture, like poetry, speaking a language not to be do on our religious organizations, which in them- sopbisticated, and resolutely testing these organizaselves do not and cannot give us this idea, and think tions by the ideal of a human perfection complete we have done enough if we make them spread and on all sides, applies to them. prevail, then, I say, we fall into our common fault of But men of culture and poetry, it will be said, overvaluing machinery.
are again and again failing, and failing conspicuousNothing is more common than for people to con- ly, in the necessary first stage to perfection, in the found the inward peace and satisfaction which fol- subduing of the great obvious faults of our animality, lows the subduing of the most obvious faults of our which it is the glory of these religious organizations animality with what I may call absolute inward to have helped us to subdue. True, they do often peace and satisfaction, — the peace and satisfaction so fail: they have often had neither the virtues nor which are reached as we draw near to complete the faults of the Puritan; it has been one of their spiritual perfection, and not merely to moral per- dangers that they so felt the Puritan's faults that fection, or rather to relative moral perfection. And they too much neglected the practice of his virtues. no people in the world have done more and strug- I will not, however, exculpate them at the Puritan's gled more to attain this relative moral perfection expense; they have often failed in morality, and than our English race has; for no people in the morality is indispensable; they have been punished world has the command to resist the Devil, to over- for their failure, as the Puritan has been rewarded come the Wicked One, in the nearest and most ob- for his performance. They have been punished vious sense of those words, had such a pressing force where they erred; but their ideal of beauty and and reality. And we have had our reward, not sweetness and light, and a human nature complete only in the great worldly prosperity which our on all its sides, remains the true ideal of perfection obedience to this command has brought us, but also, still; just as the Puritan's ideal of perfection reand far more, in great inward peace and satisfac- mains narrow and inadequate, although for what he tion. But to me nothing is more pathetic than to did well he has been abundantly rewarded. Notsee people, on the strength of the inward peace and withstanding the mighty results of the Pilgrim satisfaction which their rudimentary efforts towards Fathers' voyage, they and their standard of perfecperfection have brought them, use concerning their tion are rightly judged when we figure to ourselves incomplete perfection and the religious organiza- | Shakespeare or Virgil, - souls in whom sweetness tions within which they have found it, language and light, and all that in human nature is most huwhich properly applies to complete perfection, and mane, were eminent, - accompanying them on their is a far-off echo of the human soul's prophecy of it. / voyage, and think what intolerable company ShakeReligion itself supplies in abundance this grand speare and Virgil would have found them! In the language which is really the severest criticism of same way let us judge the religious organizations such an incomplete perfection as alone we have yet which we see all round us. Do not let us deny the reached through our religious organizations.
good and the happiness which they have accomThe impulse of the English race towards moral plished; but do not let us fail to see clearly that development and self-conquest has nowhere so pow- their idea of human perfection is narrow and inadeerfully manifested itself as in Puritanism ; nowhere quate, and that the dissidence of Dissent and the has Puritanism found so adequate an expression as Protestantism of the Protestant religion will never in the religious organization of the Independents. bring humanity to its true goal. As I said with reThe modern Independents have a newspaper, the gard to wealth, - let us look at the life of those Nonconformist, written with great sincerity and who live in and for it; - so I say with regard to the ability, which serves as their organ. The motto, the religious organizations. Look at the life imaged in standard, the profession of faith which this organ of such a newspaper as the Nonconformist; — a life of theirs carries aloft is: “ The dissidence of Dissent jealousy of the Establishment, disputes, tea-meetand the Protestantism of the Protestant religion." ings, openings of chapels, sermons; and then think
of it as an ideal of a human life completing itself organization, -- oppose with might and main on all sides, and aspiring with all its organs after tendency to this or that political and religion o sweetness, light, and perfection !
ganization, or to games and athletic exercises, a Another newspaper, representing, like the Non- to wealth and industrialism, and try violently to conformist, one of the religious organizations of this it. But the flexibility which sweetness and I country, was, a few days ago, giving an account of give, and which is one of the rewards of cult the crowd at Epsom on the Derby day, and of all pursued in good faith, enables a man to see the the vice and hideousness which was to be seen in tendency may be necessary, and as a prepara u that crowd; and then the writer turned suddenly for something in the future, salutary, and yet ! round upon Professor Huxley, and asked him how the generations or individuals who obey this is he proposed to cure all this vice and hideousness dency are sacrificed to it, that they fall short of without religion. I confess I felt disposed to ask hope of perfection by following it; and that its the asker this question: And how do you propose chiefs are to be criticised, lest it should take tootz to cure it, with such a religion as yours? How is a hold and last after it has served its purpose. the ideal of a life so unlovely, so unattractive, so Gladstone well pointed out, in a speech at Pax narrow, so far removed from a true and satisfying and others have pointed out the same thing, ET ideal of human perfection, as is the life of your re- necessary is the present great movement towa:) ligious organization as you yourself image it, to con- wealth and industrialism, in order to lay broad fook quer and transform all this vice and hideousness? dations of material well-being for the society of tx Indeed, the strongest plea for the study of perfec- future. The worst of these justifications is, tha tion as pursued by culture, the clearest proof of the they are generally addressed to the very people actual inadequacy of the idea of perfection held gaged, body and soul, in the movement in question by the religious organizations, -expressing, as I at all events, that they are always seized with a have said, the most wide-spread effort which the hu- greatest avidity by these people, and taken by the man race has yet made after perfection, is to be as quite justifying their life, and that thus therte found in the state of our life and society with these to harden them in their sins. Calture admits / in possession of it, and having been in possession of necessity of the movement towards fortune-making it I know not how many years. We are all of us and exaggerated industrialism, readily allows the enrolled in some religious organization or other; the future may derive benefit from it; but insists, we all call ourselves, in the sublime and aspiring the same time, that the passing generations of is language of religion which I have before noticed, dustrialists — forming, for the most part, the start children of God. Children of God, - it is an im main body of Philistinism are sacrificed to it mense pretension !- and how are we to justify it ? the same way, the result of all the games and sport By the works which we do, and the words which we which occupy the passing generation of boys it. speak? And the work which we collective chil- l young men may be the establishment of a better and dren of God do, our grand centre of life, our city, sounder physical type for the future to work with is London! London, with its unutterable external Culture does not set itself against the games 2! hideousness, and its internal canker of publicè eges- sports ; it congratulates the future, and hopes it tas, priratin opulentia, - to use the words which make a good use of its improved physical basis ; ba Sallast puts into Cato's mouth about Rome,- une- it points out that our passing generation of boys and qualled in the world! The word which we chil- young men are sacrificed. Puritanism was necessary dren of God speak, the voice which most hits our to develop the moral fibre of the English race, Norcollective thought, the newspaper with the largest conformity to break the yoke of ecclesiastical dotcirculation in England, nay, with the largest cirere ination over men's minds and to prepare the way lation in the whole world, is the Daily Telegraph ! for freedom of thought in the distant future; stil I say, that when our religious organizations culture points out that the barmonious perfection of which I admit to express the most considerable effort generations of Puritans and Nonconformists have after perfection that our race has yet made- land been in consequence sacrificed. Freedom of speer's us in no better result than this, it is high time to is necessary for the society of the future, but the examine carefully their idea of perfection, to see young lions of the Daily Telegraph in the mean white whether it does not leave out of account sides and are sacrificed. A voice for every man in his coun forces of human nature which we might turn to try's government is necessary for the society of the great use; whether it would not be more operative future, but meanwhile Mr. Beales and Mr. Bradlauga if it were more complete. And I say that the Eng- are sacrificed. lish reliance on our religious organizations and on We in Oxford, brought up amidst beauty and their ideas of human perfection just as they stand, sweetness, have not failed to seize the truth that is like our reliance on freedom, on muscular Chris-beauty and sweetness are essential characters of tanity, on population, on coal, on wealth, - mere / complete huinan perfection. When I insist on to belief in machinery and unfruitful; and is whole truth, I am all in the faith and tradition of Oxfor somely counteracted by culture bent on seeing I say boldly that this our sentiment for beauty am things as they are, and on drawing the human race sweetness, our sentiment against hideousness and onwards to a more complete perfection.
rawness, has been at the bottom of our attachment Culture, bomerer, shows its single-minded love of to so many beaten causes, of our opposition to so perfection, its desire simply to make reason and the many triumphant inorements. And the sentime will of Gol prevail, its freedom from fanaticism, br' is true, and bas never been wholly defeated, and a its attitude towards all this machinery, even while shown its power even in this detest. Tye have to it insists that it is machinery. Fanates, seeing the won our political battles we have not carried ou mischief men do themselves by their blind belief in main points, we have not stopped our adversaries some machinery or other, - whether it is wealth and advance; but we have told silat's upon the mi industrialisin, or wbether it is the cultivation of the country, we have prepared currents of ieee bodir strength and activity, or whether it is a poi ing which sapour adversaries' position when it seems litical organization, or whether it is a religious gained, we have kept up our own communication
rith the future. Look at the course of the great it has itself yet developed. But meanwhile it has zovement which shook this place to its centre some plenty of well-intentioned friends against whom culhirty years ago! It was directed, as any one who ture may with advantage continue to uphold steadieads Dr. Newman's Apology may see, against what | ly its ideal of human perfection; that it is an inward n one word may be called "liberalism." Liberalism spiritual activity, having for its characters increased prevailed ; it was the appointed force to do the work sweetness, increased light, increased life, increased of the hour; it was necessary, it was inevitable that it sympathy. Mr. Bright, who has a foot in both hould prevail. The Oxford movement was broken, worlds, the world of middle-class liberalism and the t failed; our wrecks are scattered on every world of democracy, but who brings most of his ideas hore:
from the world of middle-class liberalism in which “Quæ regio in terris nostri non plena laboris ?”
he was bred, always inclines to inculcate that faith in And what was this liberalism, as Dr. Newman saw machinery to which, as we have seen, Englishmen
t, and as it really broke the Oxford movement ? It are so prone, and which has been the bane of midwas the great middle-class liberalism, which had for dle-class liberalism. He complains with a sorrowful the cardinal points of its belief the Reform Bill of indignation of people who appear to have no 1832, and local self-government, in politics; in the proper estimate of the value of the franchise”; he social sphere, free-trade, unrestricted competition, leads his disciples to believe, - what the Englishman and the making of large industrial fortunes; in the is always too ready to believe, — that the having a religious sphere, the dissidence of Dissent and the vote, like the having a large family, or a large busiProtestantism of the Protestant religion. I do not ness, or large muscles, has in itself some edifying and say that other and more intelligent forces than this perfecting effect upon human nature. Or else he were not opposed to the Oxford movement: but this cries out to the democracy, — “ the men,” as he was the force which really beat it; this was the force calls them,“ upon whose shoulders the greatness of which Dr. Newman felt himself fighting with ; this England rests”- he cries out to them: “ See what was the force which till only the other day seemed you have done! I look over this country and see to be the paramount force in this country, and to be the cities you have built, the railroads you have in possession of the future; this was the force whose made, the manufactures you have produced, the achievements fill Mr. Lowe with such inexpressible cargoes which freight the ships of the greatest meradmiration, and whose rule he is so horror-struck to cantile navy the world has ever seen! I see that see threatened. And where is this great force of you have converted by your labors what was once a Philistinism now? It is thrust into the second rank, wilderness, these islands, into a fruitful garden ; I it is become a power of yesterday, it has lost the know that you have created this wealth, and are a future.
nation whose name is a word of power throughout A new power has suddenly appeared, a power all the world.” Why, this is just the style of laudwhich it is impossible yet to judge fully, but which ation with which Mr. Roebuck or Mr. Lowe deis certainly a wholly different force from middle- bauch the minds of the middle classes, and make class liberalism ; different in its cardinal points of such Philistines of thein. It is the same fashion of belief, different in its tendencies in every sphere. teaching a man to value himself not on what he is, It loves and admires neither the legislation of mid not on his progress in sweetness and light, but on dle-class Parliaments, nor the local self-government the number of the railroads he has constructed, or of middle-class vestries, nor the unrestricted compe- the bigness of the tabernacle he has built. Only tition of middle-class industrialists, nor the dissidence the middle classes are told they have done it all with of middle-class dissent and the Protestantism of mid- their energy, self-reliance, and capital, and the dedle-class Protestant religion. I am not now praising mocracy are told they have done it all with their this new force, or saying that its own ideals are bet- hands and sinews. But teaching the democracy to ter; all I say is, that they are wholly different. And put its trust in achievements of this kind is merely who will estimate how much the currents of feeling training them to be Philistines to take the place of created by Dr. Newman's movement, the keen desire the Philistines whom they are superseding; and for beauty and sweetness which it nourished, the they too, like the middle class, will be encouraged deep aversion it manifested to the hardness and vul- to sit down at the banquet of the future without garity of middle-class liberalism, the strong light it having on a wedding garment, and nothing excelturned on the hideous and grotesque illusions of lent can come from them. Those who know their middle-class Protestantism, — who will estimate how besetting faults, those who have watched them and much all these contributed to swell the tide of secret listened to them, or those who will read the excellent dissatisfaction which has mined the ground under account recently given of them by one of themselves, the self-confident liberalism of the last thirty years, the Journeyman Engineer, will agree that the idea and has prepared the way for its sudden collapse which culture sets before us of perfection — an inand suppression ? It is in this manner that the creased spiritual activity, having for its characters sentiment of Oxford for beauty and sweetness con increased sweetness, increased light, increased life, quers, and this manner may it long continue to con increased sympathy — is an idea which the new quer!
democracy needs far more than the idea of the blessIn this manner it works to the same end as cul-edness of the franchise or the wonderfulness of their ture, and there is plenty of work for it yet to do. I own industrial performances. have said that the new and more democratic force Other well-meaning friends of this new power are which is now superseding our old middle-class liber- for leading it, not in the old ruts of middle-class alism cannot yet be rightly judged. It has its main Philistinism, but in ways which are naturally alluring tendencies still to form: we hear promises of its giv- to the feet of democracy, though in this country ing us administrative reform, law reform, reform of they are novel and untried ways. I may.call them education, and I know not what; but those promises the ways of Jacobinism. Violent indignation with come rather from its advocates, wishing to make a the past, abstract systems of renovation applied good plea for it and to justify it for superseding mid-wholesale, a new doctrine drawn up in black and dle-class liberalism, than from clear tendencies which white for elaborating down to the very smallest de