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“Don't say that! don't say that!” cried Wylie, was agitated, and the timid man was cool and coln a low but eager voice. " Stone walls have ears." | lected. But one reason was, the latter had not Then rather more loudly than was necessary, “ Ship imagination enough to realize things unseen, though -prung a leak, that neither the captain, nor I, nor he had caused them. anybody could find, to stop. Me and my men, we Wylie told him how IIudson got to the bottle, all think her seams opened, with stress of weather.” and would not leave the ship. “I think I see him Then, lowering his voice again, "Try and see it as now, with his cutlass in one hand, and his rum we do ; and don't you ever use such a word as that hottle in the other, and the waves running over his vhat come out of your lips just now. We pumped poor, silly face, as she went down. Poor Hiram! aer hard; but 't warn't no use. She filled, and we he and I had made many a trip together, before we had to take to the boats.”
took to this.” “Stop a moment. Was there any suspicion ex- And Wylie shuddered, and took another gulp at cited ? »
the brandy. “Not among the crew: and, suppose there was, While he was drinking to drown the picture, I could talk 'em all over, or buy 'em all over, what Wardlaw was calmly reflecting on the bare fact. few of 'em is left. I've got 'em all with me in one "Hum," said he, " we must use that circumstance. house : and they are all square, don't you fear.” I'll get it into the journals. Heroic captain. Went
“ Well, but you said ' among the crew! Whom down with the ship. Who can suspect Hudson in else can we have to fear?”
the teeth of such a fact ? Now, pray go on, my " Why, nobody. To be sure, one of the pas good Wylie. The boats ! ” sengers was down on me; but what does that mat "Well, sir, I had the surgeon, and ten men, and ter now?"
the lady's maid, on board the long-boat; and there “It matters greatly, it matters terribly. Who was the parson, the sick lady, and five sailors aboard was this passenger ? »
the cutter. We sailed together, till night, steering “He called himself the Reverend John Hazel for Juan Fernandez, then a fog came on and we He suspected something or other; and what with lost sight of the cutter, and I altered my mind and listening here, and watching there, he judged the judged it best to beat to win'ard, and get into the ship was never to see England, and I always fancied track of ships. Which we did, and were nearly he told the lady."
swamped in a sou’wester; but, by good luck, a " What, was there a lady there?”
Yankee whaler picked us up, and took us to Buenos “Ay, worse luck, sir; and a pretty girl she was: Ayres, where we shipped for England, what was coming home to England to die of consumption; so left of us, only four, besides myself; but I got the our surgeon told me.”
signatures of the others to my tale of the wreck. It “Well, never mind her. The clergyman! This is all as square as a die, I tell you.” fills me with anxiety. A clerk suspecting us at “Well done. Well done. But, stop! the other Sydney, and a passenger suspecting us in the vessel. boat, with that sham parson on board who knows There are two witnesses against us already." all. She will be picked up, too, perhaps.” “No; only one.”
“ There is no chance of that. She was out of the “ How do you make that out?".
tracks of trade; and, I'll tell ye the truth, sir.” “ Why, White's clerk and the parson, they was He poured out half a tumbler of brandy, and drank one man."
a part of it; and, now, for the first time, his hand Wardlaw stared in utter amazement.
trembled as he lifted the glass — “Some fool bad “ Don't ye believe me?” said Wylie. “I tell ye put the main of her provisions aboard the long-boat; that there clerk boarded us under an alias. He that is what sticks to me, and won't let me sleep. had shaved off his beard ; but, bless your heart, I We took a chance, but we did n't give one. I think knew him directly."
| I told you there was a woman aboard the cutter, “He came to verify his suspicions," suggested that sick girl, sir. O, but it was hard lines for her, Wardlaw, in a faint voice.
| poor thing! I see her face, pale and calm; O "Not he. He came for love of the sick girl, and Lord, so pale and calm ; every night of my life; she nothing else ; and you 'll never see either him or kneeled aboard the cutter with her white hands a her, if that is any comfort to you."
clasped together, praying.” "Be good enough to conceal nothing. Facts "Certainly, it is all very shocking," said Wardmust be faced.”
law; “but, then, you know, if they bad escaped, "That is too true, 'sir. Well, we abandoned her, they would have exposed us. Believe me, it is all and took to the boats. I commanded one."
for the best.” "And Hudson the other?”
Wylie looked at him with wonder. “Ay," said “ Hudson! No."
he, after staring at him in wonder; " you can sit * Why, how was that? and what has become of here at your ease, and doom a ship and risk her him ?”
people's lives : but, if you had to do it, and see it, “What has become of Hudson ? ” said Wylie, and then lie awake thinking of it, you 'd wish all with a start. “There's a question! And not a the gold on earth had been in hell, before you put drop to wet my lips, and warm my heart. Is this a your hand to such a piece of work.” tale to tell, dry? Can't ye spare a drop of brandy Wardlaw smiled a ghastly smile. “In short," to a poor devil that has earned ye £150,000, and said he, "vou don't mean to take the three thourisked his life, and wrecked his soul, to do it?". sand pounds I pay you for this little job." ;
Wardlaw cast a glance of contempt on him, but “() yes, I do ; but, for all the gold in Victoria, got up, and speedily put a bottle of old brandy, a I would n't do such a job again. And, you mark tumbler, and a caraffe of water, on the table before my words, sir, we shall get the money, and nobody
will ever be the wiser.” Wardlaw rubbed his hands Wylie drank a wine-glassful neat, and gave a complacently: his egotism, coupled with his want sort of sigh of satisfaction. And then ensued a of imagination, nearly blinded him to everything but dialogue, in which, curiously enough, the brave man | the pecuniary feature of the business. “But,” con
tinued Wylie, “we shall never thrive on it. Wel In the capacious womb of the clouds the vapor have sunk a good ship, and we have as good as mur- deluge does not lie to snow congealed, even in the dered a poor dying girl."
utmost severity of a winter snow storm. The “Hold your tongue, ye fool!" cried Wardlaw, tention of water-vapor in the air, and the conderlosing his sang froid in a moment, for he heard some- sation of it into clouds, or fog, or in its precipitatem body at the door.
as dew, rain, bail, snow, or hoar-frost, are process It opened, and there stood a military figure in a very different from that wbich — even with the etravelling cap, - General Rolleston.
most practical license – can be understood by a vapory deluge to snow congealed. The lines which
follow are however so true to nature that they me CHAPTER XVI.
be quoted as an example of beautiful descriptive
poetry, well adapted to be the motto to the present · As some eggs have actually two yolks, so Arthur
essay : Wardlaw had two hearts; and at sight of Helen's father, the baser one ceased to beat for a while.
" Through the hushed air the whitening shower descends,
At first thin wavering ; till at last the flakes He ran to General Rolleston, shook him warmly
Fall broad and white and fast, dimming the day by the hand, and welcomed him to England with With a continual flow. The cherished fields sparkling eyes.
Put on their winter robe of purest white." It is pleasant to be so welcomed, and the stately
It appears necessary, especially for the benefit of soldier returned his grasp in kind.
the younger class of our readers, who may be is “Is Helen with you, sir?” said Wardlaw, making duced to give a little attention to the wonders of s a movement to go to the door: for he thought she snow-flake this winter, that the conditions, as far as must be outside in the cab.'
they are known, under which water is disseminated “No, she is not,” said General Rolleston.
through, and held suspended in the air, should be “ There, now," said Arthur, " that cruel father of examined. mine has broken his promise, and carried her off to Around the earth, like “ a great green se Elm-trees !"
pent twining," we have the wilderness of waters At this moment Wardlaw senior returned, to tell called the sea. The ocean covers about the Arthur he had been just too late to meet the Rolles- fourths of the surface of the globe, or it occupe tons. “0, here he is !” said he; and there were nearly 110,849,000 square British miles, and, equafresh greetings.
ly over both sea and land, the vast atmospherr "Well, but,” said Arthur, “where is Helen!”
ocean flows. If we place perfectly dry air, contained “I think it is I who ought to ask that question," in a bell-glass, over water, we shall find that water said Rolleston, gravely. "I telegraphed you at vapor will rapidly ascend and diffuse itself through Elm-trees, thinking of course she would come with it, the quantity being regulated by the temperayou to meet me at the station. It does not much ture of the apartment in which the experiments matter, a few hours; but her not coming makes me made. At all temperatures, down to that at which uneasy, for her health was declining when she left water freezes, the air takes up water-vapor; and me. How is my child, Mr. Wardlaw ? Pray tell this process is facilitated by the constant movement me the truth."
of the sea and the currents of the atmosphere Both the Wardlaws looked at one another, and Therefore, we learn that the envelope surrounding at General Rolleston, and the elder Wardlaw said this earth is an atmosphere of permanently elacur there was certainly some misunderstanding here. fluid, mixed with aqueous vapor in constantly vary “ We fully believed that your daughter was coming ing proportions, the variations being regulated by home with you in the Shannon."
the temperature. Meteorologists have found it be “Come home with me? Why, of course not. cessary to a clear understanding of the phenomena She sailed three weeks before me. Good Heavens! which are brought under their consideration, Has she not arrived ?"
study the conditions which would prevail, if the $ “ No," replied old Wardlaw, “ we have neither mospheric elastic fluid - air - existed in a perfect seen nor heard of her."
ly dry state. The air does not derive much beat “Why, what ship did she sail in ?” said Arthur.
from the sun-rays passing through it, but it “ In the Proserpine."
warmed by its contact with the earth; and this hea [To be continued.)
is conveyed from particle to particle, – this process being known as convection, the act of carrying
conveying. The solar rays fell with different de THE SCIENCE OF A SNOW-FLAKE. grees of intensity on the equatorial and polar BY ROBERT HUNT, F. R. S.
gions; we have in the former the maximum and !
the latter the minimum of heat absorbed from the “Thick clouds ascend ; in whose capacious womb A vapory deluge lies, to suow congealed.
sun. As a particle of air becomes heated it expand Heavy they roll their fleecy world along.
and becoming specifically lighter than the particle And the sky saddens with the gathered storm.”
above it, it ascends, giving place to the colder and The poet of “ The Seasons " was a close observer beavier ones. Thus the heating power of the mu of natural phenomena, and no one described more becomes the mainspring of all the motions of the ats lucidly than Thomson did the varying aspects of mosphere, and, indeed, of those of the ocean. Ihr the year. But whenever the poet attempted the the lands under the equator an upward current part of a natural philosopher he invariably failed. air is thus generated, and the space occupied by the The lines quoted above are a fair example of that air thus removed, is supplied by currents of coldes imperfect knowledge of science which Thomson pos- air flowing in from the poles. The aerial current sessed; indeed they may be said to exemplify the are complicated by the motion of the earth and ! kind of information which was common amongst the other conditions, which cannot be considered her educated classes at the commencement of the eigh- Sufficient for the present purpose that we unde teenth century.
stand that they are, in the main, the result of firem esses of heating and cooling which are regulated by tain the vapor in its transparency, is brought into in unvarying law.
contact with a cold belt of air, – that is, below the The habitudes of an atmosphere of pure aqueous va- freezing-point of water, — the vapor is frozen as it or have also been, necessarily, the subject of close and is condensed, and each particle forms a spicula of Lttentive study; but we have to consider only the ice, and these spiculæ combining form snow. When, 'abitudes of a gaseous atmosphere mixed with vapor, by a reduction of temperature, a condensation of hat vapor being derived from the oceanic waters in vapor takes place, a multitude of infinitely fine he first instance, and from the evaporation, which is drops form a cloud, a mist, or a fog. These minute onstantly going on over the land, of the waters particles of water descend very slowly through the which have fallen from the air. Dr. Dalton discov- air, and if they enter into a stratum of air - which, ered that the evaporation of water has the same being warmer, has a capacity for imbibing vaporimits in air as in a vacuum. Hence it is only ne- they may be, and often are, rapidly reabsorbed, ressary to know the quantity of vapor which rises in and the cloud which they produced may disapo a vacuum at any particular temperature, — the pear. ame quantity rises in air. Thus the vapor which It is exceedingly interesting to watch the formarises into a vacuum at 80° has a tension equal to tion of the clouds in summer. A cloud, like a floatone thirtieth of the usual tension of the air. *Or, if ing feather, gradually increases in size, and ever water at 80° be allowed to diffuse itself into dry air varying in form floats slowly on, relieved against it increases its bulk by 1.30th if the air is free to ex- the deep blue of space; it falls and it rises, and pand, or it increases its tension by 1:30th if the airperchance even while we are watching its dreambe confined. The spontaneous evaporation of water like changes it is gone, - the vapory wreath has is therefore influenced by three circumstances. 1st. been absorbed by a warmer belt of air. On the By the previous dryness of the air, — for the air will other hand, if the condensation goes forward, and only, under any circumstances, hold a given, and the lower region of air has its quantity of vapor, now well-determined, quantity of moisture. 20. the small particles meeting one another will coalesce By warmth, - the higher the temperature the more and form drops to fall as rain on the earth's surface. considerable is the quantity of water-vapor which | The rain particles are ever fluid; those which form rises into any accessible space; therefore humid hot snow are frozen, ere by coalescing they arrange air contains a much greater portion of moisture than themselves — in obedience to some mysterious law humid cold air. 3d. The evaporation of water is of crystallization - into the beautiful snow-flake. greatly accelerated by the constant removal of the If the capability of the atmosphere for absorbing air from its surface. Currents of air — winds — moistures remained the same at all temperatures, are favorable to evaporation, because each portion or were its capability increased in an exact ratio of air takes its quantity of water-vapor; it is re- with the increase of heat, no change produced by moved, and another portion sweeps on to take its the admixture of two streams of air, of different dose of humidity. The atmosphere may be regarded temperatures, could occasion the formation of rain as a series of concentrated zones of air, each one or snow. But as was first shown by Hutton, and having, according to its distance from the earth, its confirmed by Leslie, “ while the temperature adown density and its own temperature; therefore vances uniformly in arithmetical progression, the each zone will possess its peculiar capacity for wa- dissolving power which this communicates to the ter-vapor. Air, for example, may become saturated air mounts with the accelerating rapidity of a geowith water-vapor within a short distance of the sur- metrical series, and this in such a ratio that the air face of the land and sea, and remain perfectly trans- has its dryness doubled at each rise of temperature parent, - free from cloud. This belt of air being answering to 27° of Fahrenheit. Hence, whatever warmer than the belt above it, rises; and as it parts may be the actual condition of a mass of air, there with its warmth, which it will do by expanding as must always exist some temperature at which it the pressure is diminished, and also by its contact would become perfectly damp.” Whenever two with colder air, some of the vapor is condensed and streams of air, saturated with moisture, of different clouds are formed.
temperatures are mixed together, or float in contact It has been determined that over the land the with each other, in the form of different currents of cloud region varies from about three to five miles, wind, there must be a quantity of moisture precipibut this is greatly influenced by the configuration of tated, cloud formed, and if the temperature of one the land itself. Over the sea this region of vapor is of the aerial currents falls below 32°, snow must be more constant. Balloon ascents have shown that the result. We know that electricity appears to over England the cloud region has a thickness vary- produce the condensation of cloud-vapor into ice, ing from 1,500 to 3,000 feet, and that the tempera- hail, and the devastating hail-storms of southern ture at the top is not lower than it is at the bottom, Europe are evidently of electrical origin. But it notwithstanding its thickness:
must be remembered, that the electricity acts by The influences which effect - and are constantly producing a rapid reduction of aerial temperature, disturbing the solution of water in air — its reten- probably by the expansion of the gaseous fluid, and tion as invisible vapor, or its precipitation or con- that therefore the hail-storm is directly produced by densation as visible vapor or cloud, are numerous ; | the abstraction of heat alone. but if it be distinctly understood that these influen- The snow-flake must now engage our attention. ces are dependent upon solar and terrestrial radia- In the colder regions of the earth, when the external tion it will suffice for the present purpose.
air is allowed to enter into a heated apartment, When a condensation of vapor takes place, if the which is consequently charged with water-vapor, temperature of the air be above 32°, the matter con- a very fine snow is at once formed. As the warm densed is liquid, or in form of rain. If the drops of air of a first-class railway carriage, full of passengers, rain pass through a stratum of air, having a temper- moves towards the ice-covered windows, it is not ature below the freezing-point of water, they are unusual to witness this phenomenon, — the producfrozen into ice, and form hail. If a band of humid | tion of snow in fine powder. This may be regarded air having a temperature sufficiently high to main- | as the elementary state of snow. These particles,
when viewed under a microscope, although they are are separated by an angle of 60°. If we mate da transparent particles of ice, have not the appearance freezing of moisture on the window-pane, we sea! of any regularly crystallized form; but they possess see the same process; resulting eventually in the power of arranging themselves into compound formation of fern-like figures, mimicking the gree crystalline forms of exquisite beauty, and of almost of the most exquisite productions of the vegetables infinite variety. There is little doubt but careful world.. Sometimes a sheet of frost is formel, examination under favorable circumstances would rapid congelation, over one portion of a windoa lead to the discovery of a primary form, constant to pane, and the arborescent forms are generate? the snow-crystal, in this snow powder..
above it, by a slower process of solidification: M. Quételet has endeavored to show that there is at other times, the full sheet is covered with a far a relation between the density of the snow particles vegetation, the temperature determining the one e and the forms which by coalescing they assume. the other state. The same condition is observed The density of well-formed small stars being about under other circumstances, especially on the surface
- water, from a constant mass of snow being of a pavement. Hessell and Luke Howard bare regarded as unity — the temperature varying from both observed the formation of hexagonal crystus 29° 7' to 18° 5'. Unformed flakes at a temperature on the window-pane; and Howard remarks the of 33° had a density of about 12, and fine snow, the the air next the earth is “sometimes loaded with temperature varying from 320 to 30° 2', was found particles of freezing water, such as in the bigwi with a density of and a.
regions would produce snow. These attach them Dr. Nettis, of Middleburgh, was the first to de- selves to all objects, crystallizing in the most ree scribe snow crystals. In the severe winter of 1740 lar and beautiful manner. Shrubs, covered wit the cold was most intense. Dr. Nettis collected spreading tufts of crystals, look as if they were i the snow on plain surfaces of glass. The crystals blossom, while others, more firmly incrusted, appes were hard and pellucid ; by means of a pencil they like gigantic specimens of white coral. The leare were removed to the microscope and examined. of evergreens are found with a transparent varas. Eighty different figures were obtained, the size of of ice, and a delicate white fringe around. Onsec which varied from to 4 of an inch. To the late an occasion the whole face of nature seems drevi Dr. Scoresby we are, however, especially indebted out in frost-work." Thus we have evidence that to for an extensive examination of those exquisite same law, which regulates the formatioa of snow i productions of nature (Account of the Arctic Re- the higher regions of the atmosphere, is in operait gions, &c. 1820). He tells us that nine days out in the formation of frost upon the surface of the of ten during the months of April, May, and June, earth. We also now know, from the experimers snow falls in the Arctic regions. With southerly of Dr. Tyndall, that "every atom of the solid in winds, near the borders of the frozen sea, or in which sheets the frozen lakes of the North Las met situations where humid air blowing from the sea fixed according to this law," — the law which de assimilates with a gelid breeze from *..ice, the termines the structure of the snow-crystal which we heaviest falls of snow occur. When the imperature have been considering. The beauty latent in of the air is within a degree or two of the freezing block of ice has been prettily described by its do point, the snow is usually in large irregular flakes, coverer as “stars, each one possessing six mys, esa such as fall in this country. Sometimes it exhibits one resembling a flower of six petals; then the per small granular or large rough white concretions; at als become serrated and spread themselves out is others it consists of white spiculæ, or flakes composed fern-leaves." of coarse spiculæ, or rude stellated crystals, formed! Such is the science of the snow-flakes, which mak2 of visible grains. “But in severe frosts, though the winter drear, and which do not usually give er sky appears perfectly clear, lamellar flakes of snow, dence of those forms of beauty that belong to s of the most regular and beautiful forms, are always simply, because those geometric figures have dira seen floating in the air, and sparkling in the sun- the driving onward of the cloud which beams; and the snow which falls in general is of the
"Lifts the snow on the mountains below," most elegant texture and appearance."
Let us examine, by the lights which we have, the been hurried into irregular flaky masses. phenomenon of the snow-flake; and to do this we Professor Leslie supposed that a tlake of snor, must observe the conditions of freezing water in all taken as nine times more expanded than water, it its aspects. A little experiment will assist us. If a scends thrice as slow; hence the tendency of :po* saturated hot solution of sal-ammoniac is allowed to to be driven onward, and to accumulate into the cool in a tall glass, it will be seen that, as the sur drifts which so entirely block up roads, and gather face, which is the first part to cool — being exposed into great and dangerous masses under the abdis to the currents of air passing over it - solidifies, of any obstructing object, often burying both E feathery crystals, like those of snow, fall through and beast. Sometimes, when a strong wind blow the fluid. Here, with a little care, we may watch over the surface of snow, portions of it are raised the accretion of particle to particle, to form eventu- its power, and passing onward gathers other ally, ere it reaches the bottom, the resulting crystal, tions, which by attrition assume globular forms which is not unlike a snow-flake, and thus learn how a severe snow-storm in 1814 Mr. Howard saw seter nature builds up her crystalline forms.
al thousands of these natural snowballs formes, la If we freeze water in a transparent vessel, we in my own gården I observed their formation shall at first see needle-like points of ice shooting Sunday, December 8. Mr. Sherriff records an out from the sides : that is, from hair-like crystals stance of balls being found by him, in 1830, in Las just visible, we may observe them enlarging into Lothian, varying from a foot to eighteen inches needles, or small blades of ice. By and by, the diameter, which left hollow tracks in the process of refrigeration going forward, it will be These are striking examples of the peculiar adben perceived that these needles or blades combine. character of snow, which results from its needle Here, as in the snow crystals, we may detect the crystalline structure. Every boy knows how same law of combination ; every two of the spiculæ he can make his snowball by squeezing it; and
pressure is applied with sufficient force a ball of ice winter, that, off the Scilly Islands, the western coast will result. In this case, however, something more of Ireland, and of Cornwall, the sea is some ten than the mere adhesion of the snow particles takes degrees warmer than the land. Hence it is that place. Some of the snow is, by the development of snow is rare in those parts, and that it seldom lies i small increment of heat, liquified ; this immediate- upon the ground many hours. The warın air comy freezes, and thus unites the mass. This process is ing with the Gulf Stream spreads over the United • known as reuelation. When a considerable thick- Kingdom, and mitigates that severity of winter ness of snow falls upon the surface of the earth, the which belongs to our latitude. ower portion consolidates by the combined influen- Let the Gulf Stream be interrupted, and the conces described; and if this takes place upon a moun- ditions of the Glacial epoch would be renewed. tain, the consolidated portion is pressed downwards If Plato's dream of a New Atlantis were realized, ind onwards, forming
and a tract of land should arise out of the ocean
between us and America, cutting off the warm wa“ The glacier's cold and restless mass ”
ters of the Gulf, Snowdon and Ben Lomond would which "Moves onward day by day."
have an everlasting diadem of snow, and the glacier
would again move, in its cold but solemn grandeur, A very curious condition of the conversion of falling down the valleys, where now the rose and the lily now into ice sometimes occurs in those severe hail- | find a genial home. torms, in which really oval-shaped masses of ice fall o the earth, doing great damage. It' those are examnerl, they will be found to have a nucleus of snow,
TABLE-TALK. ind over this a layer, sometimes two or three layers It has, I believe, been gravely asserted by a Rusof ice. These have evidently been formed rapidly, sian author, that whenever a Russian has his pocket ind there is no doubt but that they are the result of a picked in England, he is always sentenced to four'efrigeration of layers of air by electrical disturban- teen days' imprisonment, whilst the thief is allowed jes. Snow has been first produced ; then, the fall- to go free. However absurd this assertion may ng flakes have passed through air saturated with seem, there is, or at least there may be, some :old moisture, and lastly through air below the freez- ground for it. It is related that some years ago, ng temperature. It has been already shown, that before the Criminal Justice Act came into operahe snow which clothes the mountain-tops with a tion, the captain of a Russian mercbant vessel, permanent robe of whiteness, has been lifted to whilst passing through Cheapside, had his pocket hose heights from the surface of the ocean by the picked and his handkerchief stolen. The supposed iction of the sun's rays. Water has been vaporized thief, a lad, was arrested and taken before a magisby the solar lieat, and borne to the upper regions of trate. He was committed for trial, and the withe air, where, meeting with a temperature below nesses had to be bound over to appear that day he freezing-point of water, is it condensed as snow. fortnight and give evidence. The form of recogThe limits of perpetual snow are fixed by the tem- nizance is to appear or to forfeit £100 to the perature of those elevated regions, and of course the Queen. . To this the Russian objected. His vessel now-line varies greatly as we pass from the equator was to sail next day for Odessa. Her crew was on owards the pole.
board, and by the terms of his charter-party he Humboldt fixed the altitude of perpetual snows pust sail. The magistrate bad no choice. He inder the equator at 15,748 feet. On the northern could not try, neither would he discharge the prisides of the Himalaya mountains it is about 17,000 oner. The Russian must enter into the recognicet, and on Chimborazo 15,802 feet. On the Alps zance or go to prison. The latter alternative he ind the Pyrenees it is about 8,850 feet; at the preferred, for then the owners of the vessel would North Cape, in latitude 71°, it is estimated at little know he was not to blame; and thus to prison he more than 2,000 feet. But, beside the constant was sent. On the other hand, the friends of the data of latitude and elevation, the position of the prisoner, alleging bis innocence, went before a judge now-line depends on variable causes ; such as the at chambers, and procured his liberation on bail. form of summits, the comparative altitude, and other At the termination of the fourteen days the sittings physical features, of the surrounding country; the at the Central Criminal Court were held. The particular exposure of the mountains, and even the Russian captain was brought up in custody. The character of the neighboring vegetation; therefore accused, forfeiting his bail, did not appear, whereno general rule can be given for fixing the limits of upon, without explanation, the Russian was disperpetual snow in any given latitude. Our own charged after having suffered fourteen days' impristemperate island, upon which we have no mountains onment. Surely a foreigner would be justified, if bigh enough to be constantly snow-clad, is an exam- he judged our law by its anomalies, in doubting its ple in illustration of this. The evidence exists, wisdom and justice. which tells us with unmistakable force, that there! We talked of suicide last week. There is an was a time, however, when the inountains of Scot-l excellent French saving: “I do not understand land and Wales were within the limits of the line suicide. Life is too short for one to have time for of perpetual snow, when, indeed, glaciers moved impatience with it.” down the vale of Llanberris, and, according to some geologists, scooped out the lakes of North Wales
I“ To despise men as they deserve one must be a and Scotland. We are not in a position to say at
woman, and know them as women know them,”. what period this state of things existed, but we do
said Madame N. “And women ? ” replied Monknow under what conditions it might be renewed.
" sieur B., "to esteem women at their proper value?” The present temperature of the British Isles is “ Still,” says Madame, “ you must be a woman.” mainly due to the action of the Gulf Stream. This METEOROLOGISTS have labored hard to verify great river of water, flowing through the sea, comes the popular belief regarding the moon's influence warmed by a tropical sun from the shores of Central on the weather; but their researches bave generally America, and washes our land. It is found in the led to negative results. Mr. Park Harrison, one of