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but gold, silver, china, glass, jewelled spoons and wrought out under the beautifying influences of dancrystal goblets are not eatables, and in such things ask curtains and lamplight. there must be no rivalry; for ambition is a worse In summer and spring we give ourselves holiday impediment than ignorance in the way to good din- and collect our friends for out-door enjoymeet ners.

Out-door parties are delightful things; but we must Water souché, for instance, is a very elegant dish, confine ourselves within the limits of our subas. and not a very easy one to send to table properly: and consider only those recreations that are atIt comes up, perhaps, as the first thing in a little tended by a cold collation, eaten in a dining-room; dinner, of an alarming gray color, as if the soot had not, therefore, flower-shows and picnics, but garda fallen into it; the fish is slippery; the bread and but- parties and croquet. ter you eat with it has been cut with an onioney Now, it is of the nature of these dinners that they knife. What despair! You would have liked the should be cold ; and such a dinner may be par. fish out of water so much the best ; a piece of a good taken of by a large number of people, for there is honest sole, fried. But the lady was ambitious. An no necessity for all to sit down at one time, - 107, accident would have been nothing, for human nature indeed, for anybody to sit down at all. is liable to accidents; but a mistake of that sort is a Collations should be made up of things easily crime. So, whatever you order for dinner, be sure helped. There should, in fact, be no carving that it can be done; be sure, also, that you know what Everything is on the table at one time - meats. it ought to be, and that you are a judge of whether sweets, fruit - everything but ices, if ices you are it be done or not. In a clean kitchen, with a small going to have. Further: no collation is perfect stove, or kitchen-range, and a neat-handed servant- without an auxiliary table in a convenient and acgirl, there is scarcely any dish known that cannot, cessible corner, at which some gentle victim, pinned with care and a little practice, be produced to into the angle of the wall, shall give out tel. perfection. Then, you must enforce on your servant There ought to be very little waiting of servants; this fact,- that every new dish she can make per- as little as possible. fectly well is an addition to her value, and a step on In fact, the persons principally addressed while in life; after this, to keep her hand in sufficient making these remarks on dinners are those whose practice is to do her permanent benefit.

education and requirements fit them to appreciate As to neat, cultivated cooking being an extrava- good cooking and home comfort, but who are not gance, that is quite an old-fashioned mistake. Va- at the head of large establishments. riety in the great, heavy dinners of former days was! All meat dishes in these entertainments should be no doubt costly. But the modern varieties, which either sandwiches, which can be eaten in the hand, so much depend on the skill of the cook, and the ar- or mincemeat, in balls, which can be eaten with a ranging mind of the housekeeper, are economical. fork only, and which, being made with well-boiled The cook knows how to do the pretty entrée or entre rice instead of suet, are excellent cold. There may mel, the lady housekeeper knows when they can ap- be meat served in slices, and salad. pear without any extra expenditure. Knowledge Everything, both in dinners and collations, must produces many a little elegancy out of materials be ordered for the comfort of the guests; therefore, that ignorance would throw away; so, to take the as there can be no bill of fare, the name of the most extreme case, the waste among the really poor preparation must be neatly written, and pasted on laborers, and the utterly ignorant, is known to be to the edge of the dish. No one then who has been enormous.

ordered to eschew veal will be found in the disaBut, among educated people like ourselves, our greeable predicament of having commenced on a dinners are intended to be recreations, and such they sandwich of that meat which had been mistaken for ought to be. Indeed, as recreations they are of es-chicken. This way of answering the invariable in timable value. The delightful contrast they offer to terior wish — What, I wonder, is that sandwich the labor of the day; the pleasant innocent triumph made of ?" - gives a satisfaction so great as to be which they afford, and in which, perhaps, a friend almost amusing. In fact, it is a real act of hospipartakes; the holiday air of the dining-room, - no tality, and that always answers longer, now, clad rigorously in the red flock paper, AH the paddings shonld be little puddings; eren for which let us make a passing thanksgiving; no the rice imperiale should be made in many very HE longer inhabited by the indescribable scent of the tle moulds; the tarts must be tartlets : the custards mysteries of sideboard cupboards, but bright with must be in little curs, and the jellies in glasses. The cleanlr glass, and gar with fruit and flowers; all this true theory of a collation is that people may eat gives a rual refreshment to the brain, and positively standing, bold their food in their hands, and was invigorates the creature. Actually, it raises the about if they please pulse to a balhr state, and enables the work of di- If you bare apples, they must bare been bois gestion to go on properly. The mind is medicined with sugar, lemon juice, and lemon peel, and turned and the man is fou.

out of small teacups; a most delicious and refree We around on the bighest authority that a wo-ing preparation, br the by, particularly if iced. man's work is to guide the bouse. We worder your oranges which are the most impossible things sometime in women have ever ever since the in the world to eat ander any circumstances of the world began - properly measured the extent of that calty, must be prepared on purpose for the occa power which, from this, their right place, they wield. sion. To be really like our mother Eve, wisest, virtuous. This is the rar: You cut a bole in your orange est, distretest, best," in the eres of the bread-win as big as a fourpenny piece, wbere the stem gas. ner, is something worth thinking about, and it pro With a scoop vos carefully take out all the inen duces a large measure of personal happines Bat not touching the rind more than yoa can bep now that we have our faces towards summer, tere all the oranges on a dish with the holes apwary are new schis open for woman's access in her own Having made a highly flavored orange jelly, stra peculiar world, and the success of a coli dinner or it, and 6ll all the sins of the fruit i ben ook collation is quite a great and as stimulating as that the oranges in quarters sad se serve the


the only respectable way of serving oranges at colla- 1 garnish for fruit and sweet things that we have. It

grows well out of doors, planted in fine rich soil, in You must also be introduced in this paper to cro- | June or July. quet eggs, which are not eggs at all, but are very popular among croquet players. You have ready any good blanc mange, or a lemon

SOME CURIOUS FACTS ABOUT PLAYINGcream ; you have some oval patty-pans. Into each

CARDS. of these patty-pans you put a round ball, like a small | [Translated for Every Saturday from the French.) croquet ball, of wood, which has been bored, and The origin of playing-cards is an archæological has had the bored part filled up with lead to keep it question, not only dislicult to solve, but one also steady. All the patty-pans being accommodated which has been profoundly treated by learned men, with balls, you have the lemon cream poured in. notwithstanding the frivolity of the subject. When it is cold you take out the balls, and pour in- | Peignot, one of the last writers that have into the spaces they have made a strong-colored jelly quired into the different opinions propounded by made of curaçoa; when turned out, the appearance P. Menestrier, P. Daniel, Abbé Bullet, Baron von of a poached egg is presented to the croquet player, Heineben, Abbé Bertinelly, Abbé Rive, Court de and exhausted nature may be fancifully reinforced | Gebelin, Breitkopf, Jansen, Ottley and Singer, takes by it.

a neutral ground amidst their conflicting opinions, We ask forgiveness for these revelations.

which latter cannot be properly disposed of, except You perceive that there are more arts than the with the various specimens of cards in hand. art of cooking to be put in force when you are giv- Before entering into a special dissertation on ing one of these out-door entertainments, - the art later profound as well as curious and novel reof pleasing, - the art of taking care of your friends. searches, some facts shall first be stated, derived

When young people disperse after such a party from a critical comparison of ancient playing-cards with no muslin dress torn out of the belt by the feet by a great bibliophile. of confused footmen, darting hither and thither in 'The Abbé Legendre, from the Traité de la police the praiseworthy disposition to wait on every one by Lamare (who cites the narrator Polydorus Virgil at once, bot with exertion, and anguished by failure, as an authority) has repeatedly asserted that the

— when no orange juice has destroyed the fairness Lydians invented the cards during a great famine, of the Cluny lace, nor champagne taken the color which the game made them almost forget. It is out of the Japan silk; no juice from a raspberry possible that the Lydians may have known a game tart made the wearer of the white alpaca wretched, which was played by means of pictured figures - then the collation, depend on it, has been, as to tabulæ sigillatce) in imitation of the “game of the waiting and serving of food, a success.

| goose "current among the Athenians; but assuredly In these parties the servants' business is to be they were not the cards of our modern game of perpetually putting clean things in the place of piquet. Cards doubtless came to us from the Orient, dirty ones, and seeing that exhausted dishes are together with the game of chess; this origin seems immediately replenished. The waiting at a colla- incontestable, without, however, adopting the dreamy tion has nothing to do with waiting at dinner. accounts of Court de Gebelin, who gives Egypt the

When people enter the room where the cold col- honor of the invention of cards, and who explains lation is spread, the first impression ought to call them after the fashion of hieroglyphs. There is a up thoughts of fairyland.

certain relation between cards and chessmen, which It has to stand the trial of sunlight, which is a can hardly be attributed to mere accident. There serious ordeal. Take my advice, and do not be is even reason to suppose that cards were originally anxious to exhibit your silver. It is also ugly by exact representations of chessmen. In order to leave daylight. Keep to glass, which for the purpose of something to luck, and to better equalize the chances, a cold, daylight repast is far prettier. I would say the bishops, knights, and castles were no doubt repalways prefer beauty to display. The colored china resented in the earliest games of cards, which were shell-dishes, ornamented with red coral and sea- neither more nor less than a double game of chess, weed, are very pretty by daylight, and by lamplight most probably played by four persons, each adverof doubtful loveliness; but pink glass is always sary having his own color, and, as it were, his own pretty, and alternate dishes of pink and of white army, to maneuvre with. glass' have an excellent effect. A good deal of This analogy between cards and chess is almost thought may be well bestowed on the things to go distinctly proved by an inspection of the ancient into each, and on the quantity and color of the tarots (spotted cards) of the fifth century, in which flowers that are to be used.

appear a bishop and a castle, the latter called the Large growing plants, if in luxurious flower, and house of God. As regards the allegorical sense, it little fruit-trees from an orchard house, look very is almost identical in both games, which are an well down the middle of a long table at collation; image of war. In the tarots there is also found a and if biscuits of many sorts are put down the card, which, to judge from its appearance, must have table on each side at regular distances, in small been intended as an equivalent to the checkmate. saucer-shaped glass dishes, which are placed in It is Death mounted on the white horse given him other glass dishes a size larger, and the space be in the Apocalypse. tween filled closely with flowers of one sort, the Originally, therefore, the number of cards in a effect of such colored fairy rings all down the ta- pack was no greater than that of the chessmen, ble is very good. These rings might be alternately divided into two sets, one red, the other black. pink rosebuds and the large forget-me-not.

An increased number of cards soon required new I cannot close this paper without saying that even combinations, and the two games were afterwards a lady's garden ought (in her secret heart) to have no longer subject to identical rules. Did the Arabs, reference to her dinner-table.

those great players of chess, give this new form to I hope all who can are putting in the seeds of the their favorite game? ice-plant, for it is undoubtedly the prettiest summer! Be that as it may, cards were in use long before

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iba Abonicle of Purit Jahun de Saintre, in It is, therefore, to the reign of Charles VII tast which are found the following entence, Vous qui we have to ascribe the invention of the Freneb for salg taubat de jumeut le contes et de dés, that cards and the game of piquet, which latter was most chuonide ubic hero was a page at the court of likely an imitation of the German game of lansquenet. Charles Vin 1367, cannot be quoted in evidence, Cards ceased at last to be a somewhat more cheerful since the author, Antoine de la Sale, born in 1398, repetition merely of the danse macabre, which bad wrulu only under Charles VII.

bitherto saddened the faces and thrown a dark Feil It has been lungg and vainly discussell, whether of mourning over diversions of all descriptions,- that canis sro # French, German, Spaniali, or Italian | burlesque and yet terrible dance, which was traced invouliou. It appears curtain that they are not on the borders of missals, chiselled on the handles ul For unlim, at last not the durats. An old of poniards, painted on the walls of churches, palbouk, the film frams, printunt at Augsburg in aces, and cemeteries, set in rhyme by poets and to 1672, suria that the outsinaid in Germany about music by fiddlers. Still, death did not entirely disthuhe 131409; The Hive thinks they word in-appear from the game of cards, which became, what

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Labire, the bravest warrior of Charles VII., and the tent, as we are told by Hubert-Thomas in his Life knave of clubs, who considered himself entitled to of Palatine Frederick II. ; Pantagruel, says Rabelais, appear in so valiant a company, by virtue of being found some of his sailors playing sixty-six on the the inventor or reformer of the game of cards. The forecastle. knave of clubs has also been dignified by the name The kings, queens, and knaves, who preside over of Nicolaus Pepin, from which Abbé Rives has the game, have been subjected in France to so many adopted a strange etymology of the Spanish word transformations, both in name and costume, that the naipes for cards, pretending that the Italian cards cards actually seem to have participated in the mewere so named in Spain, because they bore the tempsychosis of their prototypes ! The reign of initials of that manufacturer “N. PO."

Charles IX, introduced valets de chasse, de noblesse, There is reason to believe that this thoroughly de cour, and de pied, to accompany the kings AuFrench game was first imitated by the Germans, gustus, Constantine, Solomon, and Clovis, and the who appropriated it with slight modifications. They Queens Clotilde, Elizabeth, Penthesilea, and Dido. suppressed the names of the picture-cards; and, The reign of Louis XIV., who moreover ordered, four knaves not being deemed a sufficient num that all the cards should bear the motto: “J'aime ber, four others were added, representing either l'amour et la cour, vive la reine! vive le roi ! ” was knights or pages; diamonds were replaced by rab not satisfied with the preceding royal illustrations, bits, hearts by parrots, spades by violets, clubs re- and chose in preference: Cæsar, Ninus, Alexander, mained unchanged. These German cards were and the Great Cyrus,– Pompeia, Semiramis, Roxround and engraved. Later, a new change was ane and Helena, — Roger, Renaud, and Roland, made by introducing the bells and the acorn or green, the fourth knave, that of clubs, bearing simply the making hearts stand for love, the bells for folly, name of the card-maker. the acorn for agriculture, and the clubs for science. One might fill a whole book with these successive The cards thus altered were of oblong shape and changes and revolutions from their origin down to ornamented with designs illustrative of their differ- the patriotic cards of the great French Republic, ent meanings; they were current at the end of the one and indivisible. In these the four queens were fifteenth and in the beginning of the sixteenth cen- replaced by four republican virtues, the four knaves tury.

supplanted by four republican requisitors, and the Engraving in wood not having been invented four kings dethroned by four philosophers: Voltaire, until 1423, cards, previous to that time, were illu Rousseau, La Fontaine, and Molière. minated in the same way as were manuscripts, etc., and hence were very expensive. In 1430 Visconti, duke of Milan, paid a French painter 1,500 gold

STAGE COSTUME. pieces for a single pack. As soon, however, as the

BLUNDERS OF THE PAST. new invention enabled the manufacturers to repro A SHORT historical sketch of the anachronisms duce from one rough print almost any number of of our stage costume will serve best to show how copies, German engravers scattered their manufac- slow but steady has been the progress of realism, tures all over Europe at a price which made these natural as it now seems, that actors should wear the cards very popular. The city of Ulm traded so ex- correct dress of the time and place which the author tensively in cards as to send them in large bales to has used in the play he bas given them to represent. both Italy and Sicily, in exchange for spices and In Shakespeare's day there was no attempt to dress other merchandise. These cards were called briefe characters correctly. The Earl of Southampton, (in Latin, epistolæ) and their manufacturer a brief- Raleigh, and such patrons, gave their court-suits to maker. It is a certain fact, that lansquenet was in the players. Hamlet was enacted in the peascod vented in Germany, piquet in France.

doublet and bolstered hose of James the First's The Spanish character, always keenly alive to court; and the pretty pages or chorister-boys, who distinctions of rank and state, became plainly per- played Juliet and Imogene, played in large fardinceptible in the substitution of copas, espadas, oros, gales and white quilled ruffs. There was no more and bastos for the four colors of the French cards, attention to correctness then than there is now in which owed their origin to the profession of arms drawing-room charades. That great tragedian Betsolely. The four classes of the Spanish people were terton played Hamlet and Alexander tlre Great in represented as follows: the clergy by the copas the stiff square-cut dress of William of Orange, with (chalices), the nobility by the espadas (swords), the tufts of ribbon on his shoulders and on his swordmerchants by the oros (gold-pieces) and the agricul- bilt, knee-breeches, and square-cut shoes. He pointed tural class by the bastos (clubs).

his periods with waves of his cocked hat and tossing In like manner it has been endeavored to inter- of the huge powdered mane of his court wig. Over pret the figures of the French cards, making cour his manly breast streamed a broad steenkirk of Flemstand for the clergy, that sit in the choir (chour); ish lace; he not improbably took snuff and made a pique for the nobility who wield the lance or pike; I point of dropping bis snuff-box when he saw his carreau for the burgesses, on account of the square father's ghost. As for the stage murderer, he always paving-stones used in cities; and trèfle for the coun- scowled from under a black Charles the Second try people, on whose fields the trefoil grows in abun- wig. Quin played the gay lover in a heavy scarlet dance.

coat and waistcoat, black velvet breeches, and long In spite of the civil and clerical decrees that have half-powdered wig, flowing down upon his breast. frequently renewed the prohibition of playing cards, Garrick, a scholarly man, and the friend of schol. the game of cards, in a variety of combinations, has ars, was no better. He dressed Hamlet in a black maintained its place in the same rank with chess court suit and short bag-wig: he had ruffles on his and checkers. Lansquenet, piquet, trumps, primero, wrists and buckles in his shoes. His cravat was of flush, trente-el-un, sixty-six, and a number of other the time of William the Third, and streamed over games, were successively in vogue at wayside tav- his chest. Woodward, as the gay Mercutio, was still erns as well as at the most elegant courts. Louis more incorrigible. The rashness of the delightful XII. of France played flush in camp in front of his young Veronese gallant was indicated by a care

lessly-tied laced cravat, and a three-cornered gold-minations. The long-toed Polish boots tied up with laced hat, cocked gayly on one side. His waistcoat chains to the knee, the jagged fringed sleeves, the came down nearly to his knees, and into one of its parti-colored surcoats, were all as true as they were profound pockets he thrust his hand when he began picturesque; equally true was the Henry VIII. ani his arch description of Dreamland and Queen Mab. the Hamlet. Another actor of the same period played Charles I., There is one curious fact about stage costume, whose style of hair is so familiar to us, in a stream- mentioned by an excellent writer on the subject, ing full-bottomed flaxen wig of Pope's time.

that is, that many of the stage dresses of old to Talking of Pope, we learn from a passage in the had been celebrated court dresses. The first villig works of that satirist, that Booth played the vener- at Covent Garden wore for a whole century a black able Cato in a large fashionable wig and a richly wig that Charles the Second had given Killighet, flowered dressing-gown. But to return to Garrick, It afterwards belonged to Dicky Suett, wbo cried that excellent and versatile actor made Macbeth a like an infant when it was destroyed in a fire sort of Scottish sergeant-major; his Romeo wore the Quick used to wear a coat of James the Second's court dress so familiar to us in Hogarth's pictures; and King Arthur's dress in Tom Thumb had be in Richard the Third he was, however, a little dar- longed to Lord Northumberland when English aning, and ventured on an ermine-trimmed cloak, brig- bassador at Venice. Theatrical costumes were often and boots, and slashed James the First breeches; handed down for generations. Dr. Doran says that but Buckingham, Hastings, and Catesby were not Mathews, as Old Foresight, used to wear the dres allowed to go beyond bag-wigs, cocked hats, and in which Wilkes played the fashionable Sir Harry the stiff regulated costume of the time.

Wildair, and Peg Woffington's coat for that favorKemble was innovating, but his errors, too, were ite character was afterwards worn by Dicky Suett outrageous. He put Hamlet into a black velvet when playing ridiculous old men. Vandyke dress, powdered black curly wig, and diamond shoe-buckles. Below his knee he wore the Garter, and the broad blue ribbon of the order in

THE VIRTUES OF BORES. stituted by Edward the Third was conspicuously THERE are certain persons of whom we say, isscarfed across his breast. Charles the First as Ham- stinctively but emphatically, that we hate them. let, — that was what he appeared to all educated Subsequent reflection may induce us to clothe the people. The stage of the Kemble period kept pace same sentiment in more Christian or more judicio exactly with the art knowledge of those days. language, but the fact remains the same. Their Fuseli, Northcote, and Stothard dressed their his presence vexes us. We find them at a dinner torical characters just as well, but no better. In party, and know that a shade will be cast over ou Mortimer's drawings you perpetually see half-naked spirits for the evening; we meet them at a club, men with nothing on but breastplates and flaps of and retire precipitately to the safest corner of the armor reaching to their knees. The absurd abomi- building. In some cases, the motives of our avernable brigand boot was clapped on every one, war-sion are plain enough; in others, it is impossible rior or prince, David Rizzio or murderer in the to explain even to ourselves why nature should Tower.

have implanted so powerful an impulse in our How did Lewis play Earl Percy — in coat of mail bosoms. "Doubtless, like other instincts, it has its O dear me, no!- in a jerkin and knee-breeches uses; it enables us to escape from a humiliating of summer silk; while his flowing hair, plentifully sense of inferiority, it helps us to keep up a gooi powdered (Dr. Doran tells us), was bound with light healthy party spirit, which might grow faint withblue streamers. This same graceful actor played out a concrete symbol upon which to expend our Hippolytus, the son of Theseus, a hero of the ante- wrath. It is pleasant to have an acquaintance Homeric days, in a silk jacket, silk knee-breeches, by whose image we may excite our fading animositight thin boots, and a court sword.

ties, as Mr. Quilp relieved his feelings at all Mrs. Crouch sang as one of the Witches in Mac- moments by belaboring an antiquated figure-head. beth, disdaining hump, ruddled wrinkles, tow hair, As a rule, however, antipathies do not depend, ex. and brown-paper nose, in a charming broad-brimmed cept in a very slight degree, upon party prejudices. fancy hat, ber hair powdered, and her snowy bosom Amin need not live very long to find out that there emerging from airy clouds of lace and maslin. are some unmitigated scoundrels and hypocrites

Edmund Kean more things a little. Daring and upon his own side of the question, — whatever that passionate in everything, be tried to be trae in dress. may be, - and some very excellent persons on the He it was who discarded the traditional red wig side most apprl to him. It is only in the very (Judas color) of Shriock; he and scrady turned first flush and arior of youthful enthusiasin that the Macbeth into the grim Highland chieftain, now so can seriously imagine that the division of parties in well known to us. Mr. Charles Kean, we beliere, this world correspoads accurately to the division be first introduced the earlier sem - Norse dress, which tween the virtuous and the wicked. The prevail at once carries us hack to the earlier times of Scot- ing grounds of our instinctive aversions must be tish history, and is correct enough for even the songht elsewhere. sternest critic. To Mr. Charles Kean, indeed (in- Perhaps the most promising path of inquiry 13 10 sufñcient as an actor in all bat melodrama), we owe investigate the qualities denoted by the title of bore: mach. His adviser, Mr. George Scharf (an excellent Any other term of abuse is compatible with the pose antiquarian and no mean artist), with great research session of certain agreeable qualties by its objecte and the best taste, superintended his great historical We may be glad to meet a man who is notoriou! revivals. It is unfair to say that in them Shake immoral, an utter snob, or hopelessly stupid., bu speare was buried under heads of fine dresses and to call him a bore means that he is surrounded by hidden away behind scenery. It was not Mr. Kean's kind of repalsive atmosphere, which chills the fault, bat nature's if the actor did not rise abore the umflinching philanthropy, and qoenches anyth dresses and the scenery. The Richard the Second short of maternal affection. He is in society was was admirable in costume and very true to old illa- the organ-grinder is in our streets; be jars upon our

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