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Southernwood hair is composed of a chain of cells, 1 body who reaches the position of of which the three lower form the stem of the hair Duke of Wellington, or 1 Cavou,
i n while the two upper are lengthened into lateral spectively of the cardinal virtues. The branches. The leaves of the Chrysanthemum and falls short of great notoriety, the more the Wallflower also bear T-shaped hairs, the former personal deficiencies are blamed. Ik hen springing from a series of cells that decrease in size down to those wito in station and in from the root to the extremity. The hair of the level with ourselves, we fall back im Tobacco-plant has a two-celled gland at the ex- moral method, and begin again to regant tremity, containing the narcotic secretion. The soberness, and chastity as natters of pars hair of the Lobelia is like a knotted club; others | tance. This laxity is most of all stowa. :3 assurae a star-like appearance, like those of the ment of great diplomatic or political Hollyhock and the Ivy. In the Geum we have admire, and quote as great, the man another example of a club-shaped two-celled hair; duced a great event, without pausing : while that of the Bean has a crook-shaped appear- ly whether he acquired his ends by train ance. The flower of the Dead Nettle bears two- simulation or lying. Perhaps, if the R. celled hairs, remarkable for the number of knobs means he used was strongly pressed apating scattered over the surface; a similar appearance is admit that they were indefensible. Staras: presented by the hairs of the Wallflower and turn to our old position of admiring the:: Chrysanthemum.
getting all that constituted the means. -* Many connecting links present themselves be- not Cavour told falsehoods to Napoleona tween hairs and scales, such as the stellate hairs of leon III. to the French Assembly beter the Deutzia scabra, which a good deal resemble those d'état, are questions about which those de se within the air-chambers of the yellow Water Lily. themselves, who, looking to the results The cuticle of the Ice-plant is covered with hairs gard the one as the greatest of modern kin that have the appearance of frozen dew-drops, and other as the greatest of modern Frenci. pun consist of very large oval-shaped cells, which lie de- Cavour will go down to future time anu tached from one another upon the surface of the political gamester who staked the unity' cuticle.
| a happy throw, and won it. And the Ear. As we have probably said enough to draw the poleon would be forgiven the dishonestida attention of young microscopists to this interesting d'état, even by French journalists, it be a branch of research, we need only add that vegetable in making France the mistress of the Cze hairs are easily preserved in weak spirit, while some Possibly it may be true that most famosa retain their natural appearance very fairly in Canada have been liars, on an emergency. We Balsam.
David said in haste about his species, he said upon reflection about monarchs
ists, himself included. There har THE MORALITY OF GREAT MEN.
course, exceptions; but no candid cru 22 Success in the history of the world has so often that scrupulousness, honesty, and unfo been achieved unscrupulously and used badly, that ity have been common characteristis cynical persons may be tempted to ask whether any great notabilities and leaders of the pas great men have ever been thoroughly moral. No! It is, of course, very shocking to this.. doubt they constantly have a conscience of their cusation so sweeping should stand ansch own, and conform more or less regularly to its in- ing even approximately true, but it sex" junctions; but what is thought ie, that the whole shoeking that history should make so longer moral code of heroic personages is laxer than that vices and immoralities of its heroes. :which obtains among their Liliputian contempora it appears as if society, by such untera.. ries. A certain school of philosophers even become to wicked men, placed itself in a dilemmis indignant with anybody who pokes too inquisitively one might argue, morality does not realinto the privacy of the illustrious dead, to see wheth- much as society pretends, or else it is miz** er or not they conformed strictly to the Ten Com ble that irregularities and crimes should mandments. Surely, they hint, men of genius are condoned wholesale. If morality meat : not to be tested by the Ten Commandments. They all, we have no business, we shall be tube! consider such invidious criticism as a sort of discred-famous characters with false weights. Ins itable snuffing about in the dirty places of the past, or unchastity are vital questions with me and the doggeries" is a term invented by Mr. Car-conduct of Brown and Jones, and there Tyle to express his disgust at the people who rake been a bagatelle in Cæsar or Alexande! up scandals about the moral conduct of great men. when we get to the case of notabilities tika It is remarkable, indeed, how very slight importance immediately to find out that flesh is WEL posterity attaches to certain of their failings; even not be too severely scrutinized? Ali where similar default on the part of the living would are willing to make allowances. Kings not be easily tolerated. When men arrive at a con- and statesmen, we suddenly discover, buat siderable degree of eminence and power, the world temptations. And thus the moralist, they seems to throw aside its usual tape and measure, and comes an historian, ceases to be a morato to take down from the shelf exceptional standards of er. No doubt such contrarieties in a morality by which to judge them. Famous mon-criticism stand in need of explanation. archs, statesmen, generals, and to some extent fa- | as we have observed, at first sight inca mous authors too, are dealt with on broader and unintelligible. There is, however, some larger principles than ordinary. Historians do not advanced in their favor; and though ** set themselves to praise or condemn them according from saying that an increase of moral sever as they were faithful or unfaithful to their wives, or part of historians would not be a bez with reference to their veracity, or any other quality | world, yet, on the whole, it will be found which in private life is so rigidly canvassed. “Any- tory could hardlly be written at all excepto
e a bener be found the
ewhat akin to those of which strict ethical of the dead. Except in the case of the few who eem to have a title to complain.
outrage all propriety, it is not easy for the outside ► first place, it is to be remembered what are world to know much about a man's inner life. We amount interests of society with respect to are at the mercy of rumor and gossip, and all of us orical examination and criticism of the lives know by every-day experience how monstrous is the ; or powerful people. Society is principally inaccuracy of scandal-mongers when great reputaed with the question whether, on the whole, tions are at stake. As common report could not be st opportunities have been employed for the trusted, history, if it were to attempt to turn itself happiness of the community. This is a mat- into a tribunal of pure ethical criticism, would soon t touches mankind more nearly than the descend to the level of private chronicles and scana whether or not the private conduct of such dalous historiettes, and alternate between piquant has been sinful or the reverse. The domestic truth and gross libel. Its real work, however, is
the great, when they become notorious and not to educate the rising generation in moral virtue, t, are public evils, because they are an injury but to educate it in political virtue, to show by exo the cause of virtue ; but they are far less ample and illustration what 'merits and demerits fic evils than bad government, or tyranny, or affect the progress of countries and races on a large ition. Nero's bestialities would have been of scale, and only to touch private affairs when they consequence to the race, if life had not be- are inextricably interwoven with public. There is, nsecure under his rule; and, at the present of course, one way in which this limit must be often it, whenever it can be shown that his cruelties transgressed. In the delineation of the character of d only the select few, and that the great mass great men it is desirable to be complete and accu
Roman people were happy and thriving un rate, and anything that throws light on their nature im, a democratic age would soon consent to or habits is so much valuable matter for the future.
ven his persecution of Christians and of sena But when all this matter has been collected and s a peccadillo. The first thing needed is to added to the great man's biography, history and it the multitude who are weak against the popular feeling come back again to the broadest lessness and rapacity of the strong. History standard, and weigh him, not by his conjugal or his, and though it has generally been written parental excellences, but by his merits as a public o interest of the educated, rather than of the man. No heresy, however, can be so mischievous
classes, still, the canon it applies is meant to as that which teaches that there is, for different debroad one, and kings and statesmen are con- grees of genius, a different moral code. Moral dised or praised according as they are thought tinctions are a barrier erected by society between ve rendered those dependent on their tender itself and danger, and are assiduously inculcated by ies happy or unhappy. And posterity, accord- legislators and educators to that end; and this bar, when it discusses the character and posthu- rier is nowhere needed more than in the case of
reputation of a conqueror or a king, visits with genius. Great intellectual or material strength, unverest censure those who have been guilty of accompanied by moral sensibility, is an enemy to ss violence or cruelty. Did he plunder or mankind's happiness, quite as much as a wild beast h, and how many people did he put to death ? | is to the repose of an African village. For society
his subjects miserable during his reign ?-such to treat genius and power as if they had nothing to the broad inquiries it makes about the famous do with ethical rules, is to abandon ethical rules t men in former times. It is of the most serious where they are most imperatively wanted. All ethequence to the world that those who have un-ical rules, however, are not alike, nor are they all ed power should use it well. History is soci- of equal moment in the eyes of an historian. His
weapon of defence against the powerful; and torians have principally, if not solely, to do with imary, though unconscious, instinct of self-pres- such of them as constitute a safeguard to the world tion leads us, in criticising the past, to attach against the aberrations of the powerful. They can utmost weight to such vices and defects as would afford to pass over others cavalierly; but there is a vholly intolerable in the present. In compari- portion of the moral law which they should enforce with these transcendent questions, little curiosi- as inflexibly in the case of the great as in the case and scandals about vices of a private sort are of the small. al, or beside the mark. What one cares chiefly now is whom a tyrant beheaded, or how many
LACE. he sacrificed in a campaign; not to how many hen he had made love. His illegitimate children, I SOMEBODY has said there is nothing new but bottles of wine, his gambling tastes, unless his what has once been old, — and assuredly the caduct was in open defiance of all decency and price of Fashion in our own time has justified the orum, are things about which posterity troubles saying. What revivals have we not seen in these nead very little. It is not affected by them, nor days of change ? Etruscan jewelry, Roman jewelry, ts own existence and comfort dependent on its Pompadour skirts, taste for red hair, medievalism cess in frightening great men into domestic vir- | in furniture and architecture; and perhaps, if we · History, in a word, does not write its criti- had the Journal des Modes of Nineveh or Babylon ns from a domestic point of view. It does not in the days of Salmanassar, one might discover a use Robespierre because he was chaste, nor precedent for the latest fashion in bonnets out, — that ise to recognize the political genius of Talleyrand which places it on the nose. It is hardly possible ause of his ainours, his lies, and his devotion to to characterize the caprices of that mutable authorzself.
ity Fashion more truly than Voltaire has done in History has, indeed, scarcely got at its command the following vivid lines : resources which would enable it to act on any
« Elle est une déesse inconstante, incommode, Terent plan. It may be doubted whether society
Bizarre dans ses goûts, folle en ses ornements,
Qui parait, fuit, revient et renaît en tout temps : vuld not lose far more than it gained by a system
Protée était son père, et son nom est la Mode." rigid scrutiny into the private vices and virtues Why is there not a museum devoted to a collec
tion of articles of the feminine toilet, arranged in never have declaimed against it is the chronological order, and beginning with the wives to Mrs. Piozzi. “A Brussels trimmie of the Pharaohs, - the earliest known period of he said, " is like bread sance; it taks civilization ? for savages have dressed pretty much glow of color from the gown, and give ra alike all over the world. Why should we not see instead of it; but sauce was invented : arrayed in goodly series, — according to the march the flavor of our food, and trimming's e. of ages, - all the little arts and artifices which have to the manteau, or it is nothing. I supplied the armory of beauty with the means of however, who has written a delights. Tu conquest ?
history of lace, observes with prope 0. “ The powder, patches, and the pins,
man whose culinary ideas did not sour The ribbon, jewels, and the rings,
bread sauce could scarcely pronounce The lace, the paint, and all the things
But perhaps the temporary eclipesa That make up all their magazines."
judgment passed upon it for the enter It would be as interesting as a museum of artil- which it had enticed both men e lery, and excite a good deal more commotion in about three centuries. Ladies were se some quarters. As to which comparison the ladies devoted to it, in the beginning of the sg may retort that woman is not more changeable in that they could not rest in their gut the choice of her implements of warfare than man Who does not know the lines of Posa in his, and that when men can make up their minds Oldfield, the actress ? as to what form of armor-plated ship they prefer to
Odious! in woollen ! 't would saint sink each other in, or as to whether the Snider rifle,
(Were the last words which poor Narcom
No, let a charming chintz and Brussel the Chassepot, or the Zundnadel is the prettiest
Wrap my cold limbs and shade my life instrument for taking each other's lives away, then
One would not sure be frightful when a u they may begin to direct heavy sarcasms at the
And, Betty, give these cheeks a liste fugitive form of the bonnet.
Mrs. Oldfield, indeed, was an enthusias. • Amid all the revivals in matters of feminine she bought and treasured a fine statue : attire, the re-adoption of lace strikes us as one of the by Grinling Gibbons, of the Earl of S7 most elegant and defensible. It is the most subtle, the beauty alone of its lace Vandyke as graceful, and aërial of human fabrics, and it is a previous to her interment in Westmine manufacture in which the delicate fingers of woman she lay in state in the Jerusalem Cm have almost a complete monopoly. Lace, at the very fine Brussels lace hood, a Holland beginning of this century, had become quite a thing tucker of double ruffles, and a pair us of the past, as obselete almost as chain-mail and gloves. Mrs. Oldfield, however, was to bows and arrows. Ladies are still living who re- her desires ; in those days it was the member with unspeakable feelings of anguish and fashion of all fine people to be buried : remorse how they used, when in short clothes, to clothes. The Duc de Luynes writes in PE dress their dolls up in the finest Alençon point. “The Curé of Saint Sulpice related : Lace, rotting in old family wardrobes, was given fashion in which the Duke of Alva (*) away to servants and dependants, and bestowed Paris in 1739) was by his own will upon children for the toilet of their dolls, as of shirt of the finest Holland, trimmed with less value than plain muslin. It was out of fashion. lace; a new coat of Vardez cloth, entrar Douglas Jerrold has given us the History of a Feather. silver; a new wig; his cane in the right If we could but have the History of the sen- in the left, of his coffin." At Palermo, iss sations of a rare piece of Venice or Alençon point-combs of the Capuchin convent, which lace, which might perhaps have been on the neck quality of preserving the dead, you mabao of Queen Anne, nay, even on the ruff of Queen coffins through glass lids, and see grisly 3 Elizabeth, when it first found itself out of fashion, with painted faces, robed in the finest 5 they must almost have equalled the bitterness of tricked out with lace; and at Quells. spirit of the great diamond of Charles the Bold, shrivelled parchment form of the once be. picked up on the field of Nancy, and sold by a frail Aurora von Köningsmarck still liesine German Landsknecht as a piece of glass. It was swathed in folds of lace of immense value. the French Revolution, which has so many sins to ing to her last directions, no expense of answer for, that upset and dethroned the dynasty gleterre, Malines, or guipure, was to be of fine lace fabrics. Lace fell with the Bourbons the adornment of her worthless body,'.' .and the old order of things, and no foreign nation jewels she has about her would form 3 made a stand in its favor. All over the civilized tune. world the form and fashion of feminine trimmings But even before this the use or abuse of have long followed the doctrine of passive obedience declined, from the extravagance it haulikato the scissors of the dressmakers of the Rue Saint the days of William and Mary and Quran Denis or the Rue de la Paix ; and gauze and the for Postlethwait in his Dictionary of (el guillotine, India muslin and Robespierre, bad a published in 1766, writes, “ 'Tis but are synchronous supremacy in the French capital. since England expended upon foreign *
It was, however, the adoption of the classic style linen not less than two millions yearly, in female dress, the scanty drapery of the Muses i particular is the manufacture of nuns, 02" ** and the Graces suiting ill with the old stiff point- ladies may as well endow monasteries * laces, but in harmony with the Brutus style of Flanders lace, for these Popish nuns are oratory of the Assemblée Constituante, and the by Protestant institutions." Plutarchian heroism of Madame Roland, which was "Protestant Postlethwait! Who MOL the cause of the disappearance of lace from the thought that Protestantism would have had toilet. Doctor Johnson, had he by prophetic in- rel with foreign lace on religious groues stinct been aware of the association of revolution-lace has always been largely mannfactured in ary ideas with the decline of lace, would certainly ian and Spanish nuns, and the elaborate CZ
put into copes and albs and altar-cloths | ing the ground of lace squares or cut-work. After been surpassed. English ladies, travelling the ruff we have the gorget, - the ruff cut away in ntinent not long ago, were well aware of front and standing up stiff behind, like a screen and used in Italy to be eager in hunting to the head to prevent draughts, then the falling col
church lace in secret corners; and they lar, the Vandyke collar of Charles I., with its geometx up every kind of texture and lace of rical elaborate pattern, the whisks, falling bands,
together, — point coupé of the fifteenth, rebatoes, ruffles, &c., about each of which a little içon of the eighteenth century. The late treatise might be written. For the apparel proSyracuse used to say, “ The English ladies claims the age as well as the man and the woman. ap of lace as a souvenir of every town they! The dainty use of lace by man is, we imagine, a ugh till they reach Naples, then sew it on thing altogether impossible for the future; but woses, and make a grand toilet of the whole man has taken to it again with ardor, and we imagour first ball at Academia Nobile.”
ine the lace display of the products of Brussels and en in 1778 lace, however, was abundantly Alençon, at the Paris Exhibition in 1867 would have I especially at christenings, as one poor rivalled, if not surpassed, in elegance and magnifind to her cost, for the infant daughter of cence any that might have been made in bygone e and Duchess of Chandos was enveloped times. The show of Brussels lace was astonishing; i mountain of it when she was christened, the fine folds of gossamer tissue interwoven with delorge III. and Queen Charlotte standing icate tracery of outlines of roses and carnations, that she fainted; the duchess, her mother, looked as though woven by the tiny fingers of fairies, the state of the infant, but would not dis out of the impalpable hair of the dandelion or filamajesty of a royal christening, and when ments of vapor, while the Alençon lace presented a ibishop of Canterbury gave back the infant harmony of rich broidery and airiest tissue which arse, he remarked it was the quietest child / was equally wonderful. Brussels lace is too well ever held. The poor babe, indeed, was known in England to detain us; but the Alençon et, for it died shortly afterwards - of lace. lace, which our Nottingham lace-makers call point ps the times of William and Mary were the of Lincoln, is an ambitious rival, which, in these digal of all in the wearing of this expensive gaudy days of the second empire, is outrunning its - the taste being probably set by the sov- more modest competitor, and is less familiar to us. who acquired it in Flanders, the great lace Both in 1867 and in 1855, there were magnificent ng country. The effigies of William and robes displayed in the Paris Exhibitions, entirely made
Westminster Abbey were adorned with re- of Alençon lace; one of these was valued at $8,000. ly fine lace; Queen Mary's tucker and double Point d'Alençon is made wholly by hand, worked being of the finest raised Venice point, and with the finest of needles on parchment patterns in illiam was magnificent with a rich lace cra- pieces, afterwards united together by invisible seams. ruffles. William III, was, indeed, a terrific Formerly it required eighteen different hands to er of lace, and his lace-bills are something complete a single piece of Alençon lace; these are ensurable; lace for twenty-four of his night- now reduced to twelve, – the piqueuse, the traost 4991, 10s., and he spent on an average ceuse, the réseleuse, the remplisseuse, the fondeuse, jan 2,0001. a year in lace. But if we were to &c., every special workwoman having a name from vugh all the variations of expenditure and the portion of the work she performs. The whole 3 of lace of the various sovereigns, we should design is engraved on a copper-plate, then printed ) write a disquisition on history. For with off upon pieces of green parchment ten inches long,
crowd of associations is not lace connected, each numbered in a given order. The pattern is lat a mass of obsolete expressions and articles pricked upon the parchment by the piqueuse; then Irel arises to the memory and to the eye, when comes the traceuse, who traces the pattern of the ak of it. Have we not passement, cut-work, parchment with thread upon a piece of coarse linen work, crown lace, bone lace, Spanish chain, stitched to the parchment; next comes the réseleuse, parchment, pillow, billament, diamond lace, who makes the ground netting of the lace; then the resse? Do we not think of Queen Elizabeth, flower-worker takes it in hand, and so on. When the Archduchess Isabella Clara Eugene, regent of lace is completed on the pattern, it is a work of great w Countries, with their heads jammed tight in delicacy to cut the finished lace off from it with a ntre of that wonderful circular starched gossa- sharp razor, and none but the head of the fabric is ield of lace in three folds, called the three-piled intrusted with this. Then comes the joining togethWith what denouncing anger did the prelates er of the pieces. The last operation of all is per
next reign thunder against this monstrous formed by the aficoteuse, who polishes up the flower cion. “Fashion," cried King, Bishop of Lon- with an instrament called an aficot. James I.'s favorite preacher, “has brought in But we would have our readers follow the exruffs and shallow ruffs, thick ruffs and thin ample of the Court, and patronize our home-made double ruffs and no ruffs. When the Judge of lace, in which Devonshire, formerly called the land quick and the dead shall appear, he will not of bone-lace and cider, is favorably distinguished. It those who have so defaced the fashion he hath is a pleasant thing to see the wife of a South Devoned.” And another good bishop, Hall of Exeter, shire peasant busy over bobbin-lace at her door in nouncing the fashions of the times, associated summer-time, and adding a very grateful sum to wearing with face-painting, and cried, “ Hear the slender wages of her husband by the nimble ye plaister-faced Jezabels; if ye will not leave play of her fingers; it has its pictorial aspect, as jur daubs and your washes, heaven will one day Cowper has seen :them off with fire and brimstone!” But even
" Yon cottager, who weaves at her own door, then, Ben Jonson said, thought nothing of
Pillow and bobbins all her little store, ning four or five hundred acres of land into two
Content though mean, and cheerful is not gay, ree trunks of apparel.” Twenty-five yards of
Shufiling her threads about the livelong day,
Just earns a scanty pittance, and at night ace were required to edge a ruff, without count-|
Lies down secure, her heart and pocket light."
hinde bent fra *** , Alain, Cosjetup has a pleasing stick one was eligible for tim e il compitome it lare inaking with the needle, the drama called the - De 5 * domalaiturit of lauk having evidently attracted his at his theatre, for ins ne rien .
thousand hearts is red
inscribed with the ai
directed his agents 75
came across. This s ite. 2I a liis its by rövili brada and leaves and sprigs, And wucht kends, gradefully dispersed,
found this touching : EZ w the unitatile flangers of the fuir
every direction. - pe te A wit atk that cannot fade, of towers that blow
trees in the park. Doc e 0. Watte SU3 when all benea dooey."
men's backs when :
10 I Aud those who have any sympathy with Cowper's I oblivions mood.
Z E: sinple tantos and innocent heart will, no doubt, teel mediate attention
I 122 a plusuru tu spending their lace-noney so as to la sensational trama.
S e in prolonged existence to the scenes which pleased advertising it's 00
D IT his ope and fixed his fancy, in wearing Honiton! There are in-oni or other home-made lace, which may be found ! For the former, e osebe avqusite onough, in spite of the superior elegance or far the best der 33: of the Brussels, and richer magnificence of the ' in the papers i de 1 ILI Alençon.
've may onetimes eet TLT
brat we now see = "te 0.5 cm THE ART OF ADVERTISING.
Sain wuer - fort a t I Nou G seems easier han to put un uvertise- tuet : si presel CIST ment in the paper, but nothing is more intitut run ?" 21:PE 1. lerin fp put the thung dvertised into ' U' 1° min. 5. Test: mames C EL There are ad eiusements and use! !**11*$. - LIL TOP 10 ces 1 329 those which are read file * s str. 1.
ss . De the Waach are vezes e
re . pat pra lice the atler ihtilou But
" le 2 -105 TEST a ne. When we 7 Etui s
eu Te "erran 2002 um dia...) Weet hell!
uere Se Ta.