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through the public streets, with whips in their hands, lashing their naked bodies with the most astonishing severity, with a view to obtain the divine mercy for themselves and others, by their voluntary mortification and penance. This sect made their appearance anew in the fourteenth century, and taught, among other things, that flagellation was of equal virtue with baptism and other sacraments; that the forgiveness of all sins was to be obtained by it from God, without the merit of Jesus Christ; that the old law of Christ was soon to be abolished; and that a new law, enjoining the baptism of blood, to be administered by whipping, was to be substituted in its place.

A new denomination of Whippers arose in the fifteen century, who rejected the sacraments and every branch of external worship, and placed their only hopes of salvation in faith and flagellation.


The followers of Jemima Wilkinson, who was born in Cumberland, R. I. In 1775, she asserted that she was taken sick, and actually died, and that her soul went to heaven. Soon after, her body was reanimated with the spirit and power of Christ, upon which she set up as a public teacher; and declared she had an immediate revelation for all she delivered, and was arrived to a state of absolute perfection. It is also said, she pretended to foretell future events, to discern the secrets of the heart, and to have the power of healing diseases: and if any person who had made application to her was not healed, she attributed it to his want of faith. She asserted that those who refused to believe these exalted things concerning her, will be in the state of the unbelieving Jews, who rejected the counsel of God against themselves; and she told her hearers that was the eleventh hour, and the last call of mercy that ever should be granted them: for she heard an inquiry in heaven, saying, "Who will go and preach to a dying world?" or words to that import; and she said she answered, "Here am I-send me ;" and that she left the realms of light and glory, and the company of the heavenly host, who are continually praising and worshipping God, in order to descend upon earth, and pass through many sufferings and trials for the happiness of mankind. She assumed the title of the universal friend of mankind.

Jemima made some converts in Rhode Island and New York, and died in 1819. She is said to have been a very beautiful, but

artful woman.



As we have given the sentiments of the ancient Bereans, Pelagians and Sabellians, we think it proper to notice those of Agricola, an eminent doctor in the Lutheran church, who flourished about the middle of the sixteenth century. The word Antinomian is derived from two Greek words, signifying against law.

It will be observed that the above names are used to denote sentiments or opinions, rather than sects or denominations.

The principal doctrines of the Antinomians, together with a short specimen of the arguments made use of in their defence, are comprehended in the following summary:

I. That the law ought not to be proposed to the people as a rule of manners, nor used in the church as a means of instruction; and that the gospel alone was to be inculcated and explained, both in the churches and in the schools of learning.

For the Scriptures declare, that Christ is not the law-giver; as it is said, "The law was given by Moses; but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ." Therefore, the ministers of the gospel ought not to teach the law. Christians are not ruled by the law, but by the spirit of regeneration; according as it is said, "Ye are not under the law, but under grace." Therefore the law ought not to be taught in the church of Christ.

II. That the justification of sinners is an immanent and eternal act of God, not only preceding all acts of sin, but the existence of the sinner himself.

For nothing new can arise in God; on which account he calls things that are not as though they were; and the apostle saith, "Who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places, in Christ Jesus, before the foundation of the world." Besides, Christ was set up from everlasting, not only as the head of the church, but as the surety of his people; by virtue of which engagement, the Father decreed never to impute unto them their sins. See 2 Cor. 5: 19.

III. That justification by faith is no more than a manifestation to us of what was done before we had a being.

For it is thus expressed, in Heb. 11: 1, "Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen." We are justified only by Christ; but by faith we perceive it, and by faith rejoice in it, as we apprehend it to be our own,

IV. That men ought not to doubt of their faith, nor question whether they believe in Christ.

For we are commanded to "draw near in full assurance of faith,” Heb. 10: 22. "He that believeth on the Son of God, hath the witness in himself," 2 John 5: 10; ì. e. he has as much evidence as can be desired.

V. That God sees no sin in believers; and they are not bound to confess sin, mourn for it, or pray that it may be forgiven.

For God has declared, Heb. 10: 17, "Their sins and iniquities I will remember no more." And in Jer. 50: 20, "In those days, and in that time, saith the Lord, the iniquity of Israel shall be sought for, and there shall be none; and the sins of Judah, and they shall not be found: for I will pardon them, whom I reserve."

VI. That God is not angry with the elect, nor doth he punish them for their sins.

For Christ has made ample satisfaction for their sins. See Isa. 53: 5, "He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities," &c. And to inflict punishment once upon the surety, and again upon the believer, is contrary to the justice of God, as well as derogatory to the satisfaction of Christ.

VII. That by God's laying our iniquities upon Christ, he became as completely sinful as we, and we as completely righteous as Christ.

For Christ represents our persons to the Father; and we represent the person of Christ to him. The loveliness of Christ is transferred to us. On the other hand, all that is hateful in our nature is put upon Christ, who was forsaken by the Father for a time.


2 Cor. 5: 21, "He was made sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him."

VIII. That believers need not fear either their own sins or the sins of others, since neither can do them any injury.

See Rom. 8: 33, 34, "Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God's elect?" &c. The apostle does not say, that they never transgress; but triumphs in the thought, that no curse can be executed against them.

IX. That the new covenant is not made properly with us, but with Christ for us; and that this covenant is all of it a promise, having no conditions for us to perform; for faith, repentance, and obedience, are not conditions on our part, but Christ's; and he repented, believed, and obeyed for us.

For the covenant is so expressed, that the performance lies upon the Deity himself. "For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel, after those days, saith the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts; and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people." Heb. 8: 10. X. That sanctification is not a proper evidence of justification.

For those, who endeavor to evidence their justification by their sanctification, are looking to their own attainments, and not to Christ's righteousness, for hopes of salvation.


We make the following extracts to convey a faint idea of the infinite contrivance, wisdom, harmony and magnitude of the works of an INTELLIGENT, ALMIGHTY POWER; and to show how feeble are all human attempts, however imaginative or eloquent, to describe the duration of eternity.

"He who through vast immensity can pierce,
See worlds on worlds compose one universe;
Observe how system into system runs,
What other planets circle other suns;
What varied beings people every star,

May tell why God has made us as we are."


"Some astronomers have computed that there are no less than 75,000,000 of suns in this universe. The fixed stars are all suns, having, like our sun, numerous planets revolving round them. The Solar System, or that to which we belong, has about 30 planets, primary and secondary, belonging to it. The circular field of space which it occupies is in diameter 3,600,000,000 of miles, and that which it controls much greater. That sun which is nearest neighbor to ours, is called Sirius, distant from our sun twenty-two billions of miles! Now, if all the fixed stars are as distant from each other as Sirius is from our sun; or if our solar system be the average magnitude of all the systems of the 75,000,000 of suns, what imagination can grasp the IMMENSITY OF CREATION! Every sun of the 75,000,000, controls a field of space about 10,000,000,000 of miles in diameter. Who can survey a plantation containing 75,000,000 of circular fields, each ten billions of miles in diameter! Such, however, is one of the plantations of Him, who has measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, and meted out heaven with a span, and comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance.""

Millennial Harbinger.

"I avail myself," says the eloquent Saurin, "of whatever I can conceive most long and durable. I heap imagination on imagination, conjecture upon conjecture. First, I consider those long lives, which all wish and few obtain. I observe those old men, who live four or five generations, and who alone make the history of an age: I do more; I turn to ancient chronicles, I go back to patriarchal age; and consider life as extending through a thousand years, and I say to myself, all this is not eternity; all this is but a point compared with eternity. Having represented to myself real objects, I form ideas of imaginary ones. I go from our age to the time of publishing the gospel; thence to the publication of the law; from the law to the flood; from the flood to the creation. I join this epoch to the present time, and imagine Adam still living. Had Adam lived till this time in fire on a rock, what idea must we form of his condition? At what price would we agree to expose our

selves to misery so great? What imperial glory would appear so glorious were it to be followed by such wo? Yet this is not eternity; all this is nothing compared with eternity. I go farther still. I proceed from imagination to imagination; from one supposition to another. I take the greatest number of years that can be imagined. I form all these into fixed numbers, and stay my imagination. After this, I suppose God to create a world like this which we inhabit; I suppose him creating it by forming one atom after another, and employing in the production of each atom the time fixed in my calculation just now mentioned. What numberless ages would such an arrangement require? Finally, I suppose him to dissolve and annihilate the whole, and observe the same method in this desolation, as he observed in the creation and disposition of the whole. What an immense duration would be consumed! is but a speck compared to ETERNITY!"


All this

There are some interesting facts connected with the history of the Baptists in America. In 1631, the Rev. Roger Williams, who had been a clergyman of the Church of England, but, disliking its formalities, seceded and ranged himself with the Nonconformists, fled to America from the persecutions which then raged in England. The great principles of civil and religious liberty were not then understood in the Western world, and as Mr. Williams was a man of intrepid firmness in advocating those principles, we are not surprised at the excitement and opposition which his doctrines awakened. He settled first in Boston, New England, the magistracy of which condemned his opinions, and subsequently sentenced him to banishment. Under that cruel act of legislation he was driven from his family, in the midst of winter, to seek for refuge among the wild Indians. After great sufferings, having conciliated the Indians, he commenced the formation of a colony, to which he gave the name of Providence, situate in Rhode Island, a name which it still bears.

Thus he became the founder of a new order of things. Several of his friends afterwards joined him, and in that infant settlement he sustained the two-fold character of Minister and Lawgiver. He formed a constitution on the broad principle of civil and religious liberty, and thus became the first ruler that recognised equal rights. Nearly a century and a half after that, when the Americans achieved their independence, thirteen of the States united in forming a government for themselves, and adopted that principle; thus America became, what the little colony of Providence had been before, a refuge for the persecuted for conscience sake. It has been well observed that the millions in both hemispheres who are now rejoicing in the triumph of liberal principles, should unite in erecting a monument to perpetuate the memory of Roger Williams, the first Governor who held liberty of conscience, as well as of person, to be the birth-right of man.

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