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[blocks in formation]

Biz S3 ..

Hm DM

Mg 0, CO2, natural
Cao, CO + MgO,
COʻ, Bitter spar

Dolomite
Pb O, COS, artificial

Rg

Nm

Lead spar ..

Rg

Av

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Nm

Nm Fe 0, CO, natural ....
Rg
Nm Chrysolite
Rg

Zircon
Av Topaz..
DM Zoisite
Nm Augite

Diopside

Basaltic Hornblende
Hm Actynolite.
Rg Tremolite
Nm Adularia..
Hm Ordinary Felspar
Rm Albite..
Nm Labrador

Glass ...

Flint-glass
Pr Iserine

KO, B 03, fused
Na O, BOS
Pb O, BO
KO, 2B 03
Na 0, 2B 03
Pb 0, 2B 03
KO, Cr 03
KO, 2Cr 09
HO, SO

Rg

91

Sn Bi..

Fe? Se, Magnetical Pyrites 0.1602

0.0600 CS2

0:1969

0.3290 Mo S?, natural

0.1097 0.1067

0.1233 As $

0.1111 Sn S2, Mosaic gold 0:1193 Fe S?, Iron Pyrites 0.1275

0.1301 0.1350

0.1396 White Iron Pyrites 0.1332 As Sy, natural

0.1050 0:1132

0:1244 Sb S3 ...

0.0840 natural.

0:0907 0.0995

0.1286 Fe? As S?, natural

0.1012 Co As S2

0.1070 Co As..

0.0920 Steel, hard..

0.1024 --- soft

0:1080 Steel

0:1185 Cast iron, white..

0:1298 Fine metal..

0.1273 Brass.

0.0939

0.0400 Sn2 Bi

0.0450 Sn. Bi? Sb

0.0461 Pb Sb

0.0388

0.0407 Pb Sn2

0.0451 Pb Sn? Bi

0.0448 Pb Sno Bie

0.0608

0.0729 Hg Sn2

0.0659 Hg Pb

0:0383 ко, но

0.3580 Ca O, HO

0:3000

0:4000 Al2O3, 3H O

0.4200 Fe? (s, 3HO..

0:1880 KO, CO2, dry.

0.2370 fused..

0.2162 Na 0, C Oo, dry

0.3060 fused...

0.2727 Ba 0, COʻ, natural 0·1078

0:1104 Sr 0, CO%, natural 0.1445 artificial

0.1448 Ca 0, C 0°, artificial.. 0.2030

0.2700 Iceland spar......

0.2086 Calcspar

0.1945

0·2046 statuary marble

0.2158 chalk...

0.2148 Arragonite

0.2018 0.2085

0.2179 0.2174 0.0860 0.0814 Nm 0.0818 Hm 0.1820 Nm 0.1934 Rg 0.2056 Nm 0.1456 Rg 0.2018 Nm 0:1940 0:1937 0.1906 0.1976 0.2046 0.2070 0.1861 0.1911 0.1961 Nm 0.1926 0.1977

Rg 0.1900 DI 0:1762

Nm 0.2049

Rg 0.2571 0.0905 0.2197 0.2382 0.1141 0.1850 0.1894 0-3490 D'M 0.3500 DI 0.1690 Av 0.1901 0.2311 0.2630 0.1088 Nm 0.1128 Rg 0.1356 Nm 0.1428

Rg 0.1854 Nm 0:1900 Av 0.1966 Rg 0.2216 0.0872 0.0848 Nm 0.2130 Av 0:1450 0.1800 0.1787 Hm 0.0798 Rg 0.1910 0.2283 0·0821 0.1992 0.0728 0.1563 0.2096 0.2690 Ar 0.2387

Pb Sn....

Rg

KO, SO..

fused.. Na O, SO3

dry Ba O, S 0%, natural

Hg Sn

Av

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MgO, SO', ignited. Pb O, SOS

natural Zn 0, S , dry Fe 0, S 03 Cu O, SO3 Apatite 3Pb O, P OS, fused 2K 0, PO, 2Na 0, POS 2Pb O, PO5

POS 3Pb O, As Os Ca O, As (5 K0, CI 05 KO, N 0%..

Ca O,

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fused,

Nm
Rg

Rg

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The specific heat of a compound is diminished by increasing its density; thus, peroxide of iron and protoxide of nickel have their specific heat diminished by strong ignition. (Regnault.)--Dimorphism appears to exert no great influence upon specific heat; e. 9., in calcspar and arragonite; in common and white iron pyrites. (Neumann.)—The specific heat of water at 0° is to its specific heat at 100° às 1.000 : 1.0176. (Neumann.)

Regnault in the memoir before referred to (Pogg. 62, 50) also gives the specific heats of the following liquids, determined by the method of cooling:

Mean Densities.

Specific Heats.

Liquids.

20°.... 15° 15°.... 10° 10°.... 5° 20° .... 1515.... 10° 15°.... 5°

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Regnault likewise gives the mean specific heats of the following isomeric liquids for temperatures between 100° and 15° C.

* The most volatile of the oils which Faraday obtained from oil-gas,

.... 04656

Oil of turpentine 0.4672 Oil of lemons

0:4879 Terebene ......

orange

0-4886
Terebilene............ 0:4580 Juniper oil

0.4776
Camphilene
0:4518 Petrolené

0.4684 Favre and Silbermann (Comptes rendus, 23, 524) and Andrews (Qu. J. of Chem. Soc. 1, 27) have also determined the specific heats of a considerable number of liquids. The results obtained by these experimenters are given in the following table:

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In the subjoined table, the specific heat, as far as it appears to have been correctly determined, is again compared with the atomic weight, and thus the capacity for heat of compound atoms is found.

Capacity for Heat of the Atoms of Compounds.

No.

Substance.

Specific Atomic

Product. || No.
Heat. Weight.

Substance.

Specific Atomic

Product Heat. Weight.

1 Cu° 0..
2 H 0, ice..
3 Mg0

YO.
Mn 0
ZnO
РЬ 0

104

001173
0-7200
0.2439
0 1347
0.1570
0 1320
0.0509
0.1588
0.0518
0-1651
0.0611
0:1641
0-2173
0:1796
0-0605
0-1669
0.1913
0:1703
0.0933
0:1910
0.2374
0.0798
0.1324
0.1279
0.0901
0.0953
0-2082
0.1383
0-0520

71.6

9 2007 40.2 35.6 40-2 111.8

70083 6.480 5.049 5.416 5.589 5.306 5.691 5.952 5.667 18-952 20.982 19.062 11.169 14.404 14.326 13.085 5.892 6.897 6.997 8:328 8:261 9.496 9.533 14.734 13.785 16.313

15 KCI.

Na C1
LCI

Ag Ci
16 | Ba Ci

0-1729 0-2140 0-2650 0 0911 0-0896 0·1199 0.1642 0.1946 0-1425 0-1362 0-1016 0.0664 0-0689 0:1914 0-1476 0.2092 0-1760 0-1132 0-1384 0.0739 0.0533 0.0687 0-0395 0-0819 0.0868 0.0616 0.0127 00420 0-1212

74.6 12.898 58.6 12-540 41.8 11.077 143.5 13-073

9-318 79.4

Nio.

Hg 0 4 Mn3 04

Pb3 04

Fe3 04 5 Al2O3 6 Cr 03

Bil 03

Fe 03 7 Si 0%.

Ti 0%

Sn 0% 8 Mn 02 9 B 03 10 W03

Mo 03 11 As 03

Sb 03 12

Sb 0 13

Ca F. 14 Cuoci

Hg* CI

37.6 109 4 114.8 343:4 113.6 61.4 80.2 236.8 78.4 30.8 40-5 75 43.6 34.8 119

72 115.2 153 161 39.2 99 238.2

8.164
13.692
12:386

Sr C1.
Ca CI
MgCI.
MnCI
Zn Ci
Sn ci
Pb Ci

Hg Cl.
17 Ti Ci*.

Sn C12 18 PC13

As C13 19 K Br.

Na Br .

Ag Br. 20 Pb Br 21 Cu? I

Hg I
22

KI
Na I

AgI
23 Pb I

IgI 24 | Cu's

9.520 55.9 9.179 48-1 9-360 63

8-977 67-6 9.207

9.591 139-2 9.243 136-8 9.425

95-3 18-240 129 S

19.158 137.6 1814

31.926 117-6

13:312 101.6 14.061 186.5

13.782 182-2 9.711 189.6

13-025 328.8 12.987 165.2 | 13.530 149-2 12.950 234'1 | 14:420 229.8

4.812 2274

9.551 79-6 0-647

28.786

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0.1230
0.0836
0.0509
0.1357
0.1251
0-1281
0.0480
0-0746
0-0600
0.3290
0-1233
0.1193
0.1301
0.1111
0 1132
0-0907
0-0920
0.0400
0-0450
0.0388
0·0407
0·0451
0.2162
0-2727
0:1104
0.1448
0.2086
0.2220
0.0814
0.1934
0 2056

48.2 75 119.8 432 45.6 45.6 117.4 124.4 260.8 38 80 91 59.2 107.2 123:2 177

92 165.4 224.4 336-6 162.8 221.8 692 53.2 98.6 74 50.5 42.7 133.8 67.2 72.2

5.929 6.270 6.098 6.862 5.704 5.841 6.017 9.258 15.648 12-502

9.864 10-856

7.702 11.910 13.946 16.054 9.642 6.616 10.098 13.000

6.626 10-003 14.961 14.508 10.885 10.716 10-534

9.179 10.891 11.062 14-844

2Zr 0, Si (

0.1456 43 KO, BOS 0.2049

Na 0, B 03 0.2571 44 Pb O, B 03 0-0905 45 | K0, 2B 03 0-2197

Na 0, 2B 03 0.2382 46 Pb 0, 2B 03 0-1141 47

KO, Cr 03 0.1850 48 K0, 2Cr 03 0.1894 49 HO, S03 0.3190 50 KO, SO3 0.1901

Na 0, S03 0.2311
51 Ba O, SO3 0.1128

Sr 0, S03 0.1428
Ca 0, 803.. 0.1854
MgO, S 03 0.2216

Pb O, SO3. 0.0818
52 3Pb 0, POS.. 0-0798
53 | 2K 0, POS 0:1910

2Na (), POS.. 0-2283
64 | 2Pb 0, POS.. 0.0821
55 Ca 0, POS.... 0-1992
56 3Pb 0, As 05. 0.0728
57
KO, As Os

0.1563
KO, C105 0.2096
KO, NOS

0.2387 Na 0, N 05

0.2782 Ag0, NOS

0.1435 58 Ba 0, N 05 0.1523 Sr 0, N 05

0-1683 69 | CaO,SO,2H0 0*2728

91.6 82 66 1466 116.8 100-8 181:4

99.3 151.4 49 87.2 71.2 116.6 92 68.5 60-7 151.8 406.8 165.8 133.8 295

99.9 450-6 162:4 1226 101.2

85.2 170.1 130.6 106 86.5

13:337 16.802 16.969 13.267 25.661 24.010 20.698 18.370 28.675 17.101 16.576 16.454 13.152 13:138 12.700 13.451 12.873 32-463 31.668 30-546 24.219 19.900 32-804 25.383 25.697 24.156 23.703 24.109 19.890 17.840 23.597

Neumann first shewed that atoms of similar stoichiometrical composition have the same capacity for heat, e.g., metallic oxides and sulphurets,and salts of carbonic and sulphuric acid; and Regnault showed that the same law was further applicable to many other series of compounds. Hermann showed that in certain metallic sulphurets, the heat-capacity of the compound atom might be found by taking the sum of the capacities of the metal and of sulphur. Comp. also L. Gmelin. (Gehler. Physik. Wörterbuch. 9, 141.)] The law upon which this is based may, with a few exceptions, be enunciated as generally applicable in the following terms: The simple atoms by which a compound atom is formed, retain therein the same capacity for heat that they possess when separate; and consequently, the heat-capacity of a compound atom is the sum of the heatcapacities of the simple atoms which compose it. Some cases however can only be explained by supposing that the heat-capacity of certain substances, especially carbon and oxygen, varies by simple multiples according to the compound in which they exist. Exact agreement is not to be expected, since—as is shown by the great differences between the results obtained by different observers—it is only in the case of a few substances, that the specific heat has been exactly determined;-and moreover, the specific heat of the same body varies according to circumstances. It must be especially borne in mind that in all cases when the specific heat of a compound is determined in the liquid state, the heat-capacity of the atom thus found is greater than that which results from calculation,-undoubtedly because, as shown in the case of water, the passage of a body from the solid to the liquid state is attended with an increase of specific heat. Since then an approximation between the results of calculation and experiment (which latter will be taken from the foregoing table and

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Oil of turpentine 0.4672 Oil of lemons

0:4879
Terebene ..

0.4656
orange

0.4886
Terebilene..
0:4580 Juniper oil

0.4776
Camphilene
0.4518 Petrolené

0.4684 Favre and Silbermann (Comptes rendus, 23, 524) and Andrews (Qu. J. of Chem. Soc. 1, 27) have also determined the specific heats of a considerable number of liquids. The results obtained by these experimenters are given in the following table:

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In the subjoined table, the specific heat, as far as it appears to have been correctly determined, is again compared with the atomic weight, and thus the capacity for heat of compound atoms is found.

Capacity for Heat of the Atoms of Compounds.

[graphic]

Hg 0 4 Mn? 04

Pb3 04

Fe3 04 5 A1203 6 Cr 03

Bi2 03

Fe2O3 7 Si 02.

Ti 02

Sn 0 8 Mn 02 9 B03. 10 W03

Mo 03 11 As 03

Sb 03 12 Sb 04 13 Ca F 14 Cu? CI

Hgê Ci

Sr Cl. 0.0509 111.8 5.691

Ca CI 0.1588 37.6 5.952

Mg Ci. 0.0518 109-4 5.667

Mnci 0.1651

114.8 18-952 Zn ci 0.0611 343.4 20.982

Sn CI 0.1641 113.6 19.062

РЬ СІ 0.2173 51.4 11.169 HgCl. 0.1796 80-2 14:404 17 | Ti Ci 0.0605 236.8

14:326 Sn CI? 0-1669 78.4 13.085 18 PC13 0-1013 30.8 5.892

As C13 0.1703 40-5 6.897

19 K Br. 0-0933 75 6.997

Na Br 0-1910 43.6 8.328

Ag Br. 0-2374 34.8 8.261 20 Pb Br 0-0798 119 9.496 21 Cu? 0.1324 72 9.533 Hg I 0.1279 115.2 14.734

22 KI
0.0901 153 13.785

Na I
0-0953 161 15-343 AgI
0.2082 39-2 8-164 23 Pb I
0-1383
99 13.692

Ug I
0.0520 238.2 | 12-386

9-318 79-4 9-520 55.9 9.179 481

9-360 63 8.977 67-6 9-207 944 9-591 139.2 9-243 136.8 9.425 95-3

18-240 129 8 19.158 137-628-786 181:4 | 31.926 1176 13:312 101.6 14.061 186-5 13-782 182-2 9-711 189-613-025 328-8 12:987 165.213-530 149.212.950 234:1 14:420 229-8 9.812 227.4 9-551 79.6

9:647

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