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J. Pharm.-Journal de Pharmacie. 1815–42. 29 Vol. Continued.
J. chim. med.—Jourual de chimie médicale, de pharmacie, et de toxico-

logie. Paris. 1825-42. 18 Vol. Continued. Ann. Sc. nat.-Annales des Sciences naturelles, par Audoin, Brogniart,

et Dumas. 1824–33. 30 Vol. Continued. N. Ann. Sc. nat. Bot.— Annales des Sciences naturelles, etc. Seconde

Série. Botanique. 1834–42. 18 Vol. Continued. N. Ann. Sc. nat. Zool.-Annales des Sciences naturelles, etc. Secondo

Série. Zoologie. 1834–42. 18 Vol. Continued. Compt. rend.—Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Academie

des Sciences. Paris. 1835–42. 15 Vol. Phil. Trans.-Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Lon

don. London. 1665—1847. Continued. Phil. Mag.-Philosophical Magazine and Journal, by Tilloch (and Taylor).

London. 1798-1826. 68 Vol. Ann. Phil.-Annals of Philosophy. London. The first 16 volumes up

to 1820, by Thomas Thomson; the following 12, as a New Series, by

Richard Phillips. Altogether from 1818 to 1826. 28 Vol. Phil. Mag. Ann.— The Philosophical Magazine and Annals. By Richard

Taylor and Richard Phillips. 1827-32. 11 Vol. Phil. Mag. J.-The London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine and

Journal of Science, by Brewster, T'aylor, and R. Phillips. 1832–47.

31 Vol. Continued. Quart. J. of Sc.-The Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature, and Art.

London. 1816–27. 22 Vol. N. Quart. J. of Sc.- The Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature, and

Art. New Series. London. 1327-30. Vol. J. Roy. Inst.— The Journal of the Royal Institution of Great Britain.

London. 1830-31. 2; V Edinb. J. of Sc.-The Edinburgh Journal of Science; by David Brewster.

Edinburgh and London. 1824-29. 10 Vol. Edinb. Phil. J.-The Edinburgh Philosophical Journal; by Robert Jame

son (up to 1824 also by David Brewster). Edinburgh. 1819–1826.

14 Vol. N. Edinb. Phil. J.-The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, by

Robert Jameson. Edinburgh. 1826–47. 43 Vol. Continued. Sill. Am. J.-The American Journal of Science and Arts; by Silliman. Newhaven. 1819-45. 49 Vol.

49 Vol. Second Series, Vol. 1—3. Continued. Brugn. Giorn.-Giornale di fisica, chimica, e storia naturale, di Luigi

(latterly by Gaspari) Brugnatelli. Pavia. 1808-26. 19 Vol. . Bibl. ital.-Bibiiotheca italiana. Milano. 1816-40. 100 Vol. Bergman. Opusc.Torberni Bergman: Opuscula physica et chemica.

Holm, Ūps. et Abow. 1779-90. 6 Vol. Scheele Opusc.-Car. Guil. Scheele: Opuscula chemica et physica. Lips.

1788–1789. 2 Vol. Klaproth Beitr.—Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineral-körper,

von M. H. Klaproth. Berl. u. Stett. 1795–1815. 6 Vol. Dalton, System.—A new System of the Chemical part of Natural Philo

sophy, by John Dalton. Manchester. 1808. 2 Vol. Davy, Elem. Elements of the Chemical part of Natural Philosophy, by

Sir Humphry Davy. London. 1810. Gay-Lussac et Thénard, Recherch.- Recherches physico-chimiques, par

Gay-Lussac et Thénard. Paris. 1811, 2 Vol.

Berzelius Jahresb.—Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der physischen

Wissenschaften, von Jacob Berzelius. Tubingen. 1822–47. 26

Vol. Berzelius Lehrb.-Lehrbuch der Chemie, von J. J. Berzelius. Dritte

Auflage. Dresden und Leipzig. 1833-41. 10 Vol. Mitscherlich Lehrb.—Lehrbuch der Chemie, von E. Mitscherlich. Auk.

2. Berlin. 1834-40. 2 Vol. Graham Elements.-Elements of Chemistry, by Thomas Graham. Lon

don. 1842. Graham Lehrb.—A translation of the same into German, by F. J. Otto.

Brunswick. 1840-41. 2 Vol. H. Rose. Anal. Chem.—Handbuch der analytischen Chemie, von Heinrich

Rose. Aufl. 4. Berlin. 1838. 2 Vol. Dumas angew. Chem.-Handbuch der angewandten Chemie, von J. Du

mas: übers. von G. A. und Fr. Engelhart. Nürnberg. 1830–37. Bis jetzt. 5 Bände.

All temperatures are given in degrees of the Centigrade thermometer -excepting when otherwise expressly stated.

The names of authors who have made their investigations in concert are connected by &, not by and.

All sections, paragraphs, &c., added by the Translator are distinguished by the sign | at the beginning and end; additional footnotes are signed [W].

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

In the new French system of weights and measures, a Metre is the ten-millionth part of the distance from the North Pole to the Equator, or of half the length of a meridian. It is divided into tenths, hundredths, aud thousandths, or Decimetres, Centimetres, and Millimetres.

1 Metre = 0·513074 French Toises = 3 Paris Feet and 11.1 Lines = 36.94128 Par. Inches = 39.37079 English Inches.—A French Foot = 0.32484 met.; an English Foot = 0·3047946 met., and a Swedish Foot = 0.296867 met.

1 Cubic Metre = 1 Stère = 1000 Litres = 1,000,000 Cubic Centimetres.

1 Cubic Decimetre = 1 Litre = 1000 Cubic Centimetres.
1 Gallon English = 4.543 Litres.

1 Cubic Centimetre of water at + 4° C., its point of maximum density, weighs 1 Gramme: hence, 1 Litre of water at 4° weighs 1000 Grammes (about 2 pounds); and i Stère of water weighs 1,000,000 Grammes = 1000 Kilogrammes.

10,000 Grammes = 1 Myriagramme; 1000 Grammes = 1 Kilogramme; 100 Grammes = 1 Hectogramme; 10 Grammes = 1 Decagramme; 0:1 Gramme = 1 Decigramme; 0:01 Gramme =1 Centigramme; 0·001 Gramme = 1 Milligramme.

1 Gramme = 18.82715 Fr. grains, poids de marc (72 grains = 1 dram); = 16.091022755 grains, Nüremberg weight; - 281.01569 Richtpfennigtheilchen, Kölnish Markgewicht (65536 Richtpfennigtheilchen = 8 ounces or 1 mark); = 056475 drams, English avoirdupois (16 drams=1 ounce, 16 ounces = 1 pound); = 15:44242 grains, English troy imperial (480 gr. = 1 oz. 12 oz. = 1 lb.); 0.23505 Solotnik, Russian weight (3 Solotnik 1 Loth, 32 Loth = 1 pound); : 2254086 Doli (96 Doli = 1 Solotnik, 288 Doli=1 Loth, and 9216 Doli=1 Russian pound).

1 Paris Cubic Inch of water at 4° weighs 19.836 Grammes = 319:4 Grains Nüremberg weight;—1 Rhenish Cubic Inch of water weighis 17.891 Grammes = 288-1 Nür.;—1 English Cubic Inch of water weighs 16.891 Grammes = 264:5 Nür. wt.

1 Apothecaries' pound (12 oz.) weighs: in Austria, 420.009 Grammes -in Holland, 374.96 grm.—in England, troy-weight, 372.9986 grm.in Bavaria, 360 grm.—in Nüremberg, 357 66391 grm.-in Hanover, 357-56686 grm.-in Sweden, 356.22687 grm.-in Prussia, 350-78348 grm,

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11.0059 | 1.008 1.007 26 1.1806 1.220 | 1.215 21.0119 1:015 1.014 27 1.1888 1.230 1.225 31.01801.022 | 1.020 28 | 1•1972 1.241 1.235 4 1.0241 | 1.029 1.028 29 | 1.2057 1.252 | 1.245 5 1.0303 | 1.036 | 1.034 30 | 1.2143 1.263 | 1.256 6 1.0366 1.043 1.041 31 1.2230 1.274 | 1.267 7 1.0429 | 1.051 | 1.049 32 1.2319 1.285 1.278 8 1.0494 1.059 1.057 33 1.24091.296 1.289 9 1.0559 1.067 1.064 34 1.2500 | 1.308 1.300 10 1.0625 1.075 1.072 35 1.2593 | 1.320 1.312 11 | 1.0692 1.083 1.080 36 1.2687 | 1.332 1.324 12 1.0759 1.091 1.088 37 1.2782 1.345 1.337 13 | 1.0828 1.099 1.096 38 1.2879 1.358 1.349 14 1.0897 1.107 | 1.104 39 1.2977 1.371 1.361 15 1.0968 | 1•116 1:113 40 | 1:3077 1.384 1.375 16 1.1039 1.125 1.121 41 1.31781.397 | 1.388 17 1•1111 | 1.134 1.130 42 1.3281 1.410 | 1.401 18 1.1184 1.145 1.138 43 1.3386 1.424 1.414 19 | 1.1258 1.152 1.147 1.3492 | 1:438 | 1.428 20 1.1333 | 1:161 1.157 45 1.3600 1.453 1.442 21 1.1409 | 1:170 | 1.166 || 46 | 1:3710 1:468 1.456 22 1.1486 1.180 1.176 47 1.3821 1.483 1.470 23 1.1565 1.190 1.183 48 1.3934 | 1:498 | 1:485 24 1.1644 | 1.200 1.195 49 1.4050 1.514 | 1.500 25 1•1724 1.210 1.205 50 1.4167 1.530 1.515

51 1.4286 1.546 1.531
52 | 1.4407 1:563 1.546
53 1:4530 1.580 1.562
54 | 1.4655 1.598 1.578
55 1.4783 | 1.616 1.596
26 1.49121.634 1.615
57 | 1:50441.653 1.634
58 1.51791672 1.653
59 1.5315 1.691 1.671
60 1.5454 1.711 1.690
61 1.5596 1.732 | 1.709
62 | 1•5741 | 1.753 1.729
63 1.5888 | 1.775 1.750
64 1.60381.797 1.771
65 1.61901.819 1.793
66 1.6346 1.8421.815
67 | 1.6505 1.866 1.839
681.6667 1.891 1.864
69 1.6832 | 1.916 1.885
70 1.7000 1.942 1.909
71

1.968 1.935
72

1.995 1.960 73

2:023 74

2:052 75

2.081

The scales of Beck, Cartier, b, and Beaumé b, are taken from Graham's Lehrbuch, I, 158; those of Cartier a and Beaumé a, in which the specific gravity of water at 12.5° C. is assumed = 1.000, and likewise the scale of Gay-Lussac's Alcoholometer, are from Maroseau's Memoir. (J. Pharm. 16, 482.)

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Degree. Sp. Gr.

Degree. Sp. Gr.

50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26

0.936 0.938 0.940 0.941 0.943 0.945 0.946 0.948 0.949 0.951 0.953 0.954 0.956 0.957 0.959 0.960 0.962 0.963 0.964 0.965 0.966 0.967 0.968 0.969 0.970

25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10

Degree. Sp. Gr.

Degree. Sp. Gr.

75
74

73
72

100
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76

0.795
0.800
0.805
0.810
0.814
0.818
0.822
0.826
0.829
0.832
0.835
0.838
0.842
0.845
0.848
0.851
0.854
0.857
0.860
0.863
0.865
0.868
0.871
0.874
0.876

71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51

0.879
0.881
0.884
0.886
0.888
0.891
0.893
0.896
0.899
0.902
0.904
0.906
0.909
0.911
0.913
0.915
0.918
0.920
0.922
0.924
0.926
0.928
0.930
0.932
0.934

0.971 0.972 0.973 0.974 0.975 0.976 0.977 0.978 0.979 0.980 0.981 0.982 0.983 0.984 0.986 0.987 0.988 0.989 0.990 0.992 0.993 0.994 0.996 0.997 0.999

7 6 5 4

2 1

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