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Hence the popular agitation which the Paris wants to secure this unity by the publication of these documents has pro- co-operation of a vast aggregate of free duced in Southern Germany, and which and independent local bodies. But Paris, every day seems to increase.

having now a Commune of its own, refuses to wait until the rest of France has

followed its example. It will make any changes and any experiments it pleases

which would be within its sphere if ComFrom The Saturday Review.

munes flourished throughout France. It THE PROGRAMME OF THE COMMUNE.

has its own views, for example, on ecoThe Commune has taken advantage of noinical and educational questions, and it what may possibly be its last opportunity naturally proceeds at the earliest moment of addressing France through its own offi- to give expression to these views. What cial organ, to state what it wants and are the precise views of those who now what it is fighting for. This programme speak in the name of Paris on the great is in every way a remarkable document, subject of education we are not informed; and deserves attentive study. It has been but as to economical questions we are unmistakeably, composed by men who told, in what is the only obscure sentence have at least thought out their own mean of the programme, that “produce, exing, and who offer to the consideration of change,' and credit have to universalize France ideas which, whatever may be power and property according to the nejustly said and thought of the character cessities of the moment, the wishes of and acts of their present promulgators, those interested, and the data furnished can scarcely fade away into nothing when by experience"; the meaning of which the military insurrection is suppressed. It appears to be, that, if Paris likes to make is in short a programme of decentraliza- a Socialistic experiment, it claims to be tion, of decentralization carried to an ex- allowed to do so, as it will learn more by treme which would make the coherence of the success or failure of the experiment a great nation difficult, or perhaps impos- than in any other way. sible, but the exaggerations of which are It would be extremely easy to criticise mainly to be attributed to the exaggera- this programme from a hostile point of tions of centralization with which France view, to contest the assumption that Paris has been so long familiar, and from which belongs to itself, or that Paris is repreFrance has suffered so many evils. What sented by those who affect to speak in its is it that Paris wants? It wants, in the name, and to show that the present Comfirst place, the Communists reply, a Re- mune falls miserably short of its own propublic; and, in the next place, a Republic gramme, and that, if it is the duty of an composed of Communes, each independ- ideal Commune to maintain an “absolute ent in its own sphere. But what is the guarantee of individual liberty and liberty sphere of a Commune? The programme of conscience,” this duty is performed in a certainly gives a distinct answer to this very imperfect manner at present in important question. The freely elected Paris. But it is sometimes more importgoverning body of each locality is to raise ant to dwell on the merits than on the deand spend all money raised for local taxes, merits of political ideas which are being is to organize its own judicial system and warmly expressed and actively defended. administration, manage its police, and con- The first thing that strikes an Englishman trol and conduct education in its bound- is that the Commune, in this manifesto, is aries as it pleases. It will be the duty only asking in an extreme form for what of the Commune to protect all individuals the inhabitants of large towns in England composing it in the free expression of their and the United States already possess. opinions, and in following the dictates of London raises its own revenue and spends their conscience; and it will secure order it; the liberty and rights of conscience of within itself, and protection against as- Londoners are adequately protected. saults from without, by having its own London elects many of its magistrates and local force, with heads elected by the some of its judges, and the freedom of members. This is all Paris asks for. It election in this respect is carried much wants, we are told, no Dictatorship over further in the United States than anythe rest of France, nor does it menace the where in England. It is true that local unity of France; but whereas France has liberty is under much greater restrictions hitherto been kept together by a dicta- in London or New York than the framers torial Government overcoming all resist- of the programme propose that it should ance by the agencies of centralization,'be in Paris. The chief towns of England and of the United States are subject to is to pull the strings of the central author. the general laws of the country, and are ity. It is a substitution of the First Concontrolled by the armed force of the Gov- sulate for the Empire. Even the Assenernment. Here local liberty is made to bly, reactionary as it is on most points, harmonize with so much of central author- went so far as to pronounce its opinion ity as is requisite for the preservation of a that if the system of municipal elections great State.

Still, to judge the Com- was to be reformed at all, complete freedom mune and its programme fairly, we ought should be allowed in the election of all to take into consideration the circum- municipal officers; and to this M. Thiers stances in which Paris finds itself

, and all replied that he would rather resign than the recent history of France. Paris has for allow anything of the sort, and he forced twenty years had no local liberty at all. the Assembly to enact that in all large It has been kept down in trembling sub- towns the Mayor should be a Government jection by an army composed mainly of nominee. Subsequently a clause which provincial peasants torn by conscription was thought a wonderfully clever contrifrom their homes, and obeying blindly the vance for managing Paris was introduced, dictates of a successful adventurer who by which it was provided that each arronderived his title from the approval given 'dissement shall return the same number him by remote peasants and fanatical of councillors, so that the populous and priests. A Parisian might fairly ask a dangerous quarters might be tricked out Londoner what he would have to say of the influence which universal suffrage about the relative claims of local and cen- would secure for them. The Commune tral authorities if for twenty years the of Paris has done many wicked things, author of a coup d'état had been holding and put forward many outrageous predown London with an Irish army. The tentions, but we must say that we can big towns of England are content because understand the indignation and contempt they have their own way; and among which its defenders must have felt at the other things they have twice, in the space concoction, by a set of French provincials, of time that has elapsed since the French of such schemes for robbing of the reality Revolution of July, forced Reform Bills of its municipal freedom a city which was on the country party, in order to secure ready to fight them very hard rather then the due consideration in Parliament of endure the repetition of the treatment it their wishes and interests. The difficulty had received from them and those like that we may conceive pressing on the them. mind of a Parisian is this, that revolutions At the conclusion of its programme the which merely place the central authority Commune makes a vehement appeal to in the hands of a new set of persons do no France to disarm Versailles and to be the good. There was frantic joy in Paris last ally of the Commune, which can only end September when the Emperor was de- in the triumph of the Communal idea or clared to have forfeited his crown and the the ruin of Paris. There does not seem the Republic was proclaimed. But what hap- slightest chance of France responding to pened ? France in due course of time the appeal. The few towns inclined to sent up an Assembly which did not want respond are kept down by troops loyal to the Republic at all, and which was only in the Government, and the mass even of doubt which branch of a monarchical those who desire municipal freedom are family it should seat on the throne. The absorbed by the thought that the first old story would be told again; Paris would thing for France to do is to get rid of the be disarmed, a large army would be Gerinans, and to retrace its steps from the brought in to keep it quiet, an ubiquitous, brink of ruin. The present Government police would interefere with every depart- of France appears to be one of the most ment of public life, Government nominees timid, narrow, and ineffective it has ever would crush out every symptom of munic- possessed; but still its cause as against ipal freedom, and perhaps a new Baron the Commune is the cause of common Haussmann would tax and rebuild Paris sense and of national safety. The Comat his pleasure. It is true that M. Thiers mune will in all probability be soon put still swears by the Republic, and about a down, and Paris will again be at the merfifth part of the Assembly heartily support cy of the central authority. To the credit him in his resolution. But what are the of M. Thiers it must be said that he seems views of M. Thiers on the subject of munic- resolved to use his power over Paris, ipal liberty? What is his conception of if he gets it, as mildly as possible. But he a Republic? It is a form of Government means to put down the Commune and to in which he is to be Chief of the Executive, introduce his own First Consular system

of centralization. It is what he has been serable extent; and as rural and urban praising all his life, and at the age of France differ so widely, they must be conseventy-five he has a chance of seeing it tent in a great measure to leave each realized. But the Commune may be quite other alone, just as Cantons in Switzerright in saying that the idea which it seeks land which are divided by differences at to establish in the French mind may grow least equally great manage to leave each and fructify even though the insurrection other alone, and yet to combine for the proves unsuccessful. There are really purposes of a common country. The only two political ideas in France, the idea Communists very much exaggerate, we in of the Commune and the idea of Imperial- England should think, the value and ism; the idea of letting localities distin- grandeur of their idea. A country in guished by great divergencies of feeling which the urban and town populations are and opinion develop themselves, each in blended together, do not quarrel, and do their own way, and the idea of using the not seek for dominion the one over the force of one set of these localities to keep other, seems to us a much more advanced down the other set. If Paris is to be held and a more happily constituted country down, if its municipal officers are to be than Frarce would be under the wisest Government nominees, if the voting is to and best of federal organizations. But be so manipulated that candidates who then in France the question is whether find favour with the authorities always the rural population shall, through any win, or at least secure, enough seats to person or set of persons who may manage preponderate in the Assembly — if, in to get hold of its votes, annihilate the poshort, centralized France is to go on exact- litical existence of the urban population ; ly as it has gone on, why not have the Em- and if this is the issue, the best friends of peror back at once? Surely he knows the France may wish that the idea put fortricks of his trade better than any amiable ward in this manifesto should not be Bourbon who has grown up in exile can stamped out, but should make itself felt know them. But if Imperialism is not to long after the Official Journal has ceased be re-introduced in one shape or another, to issue the programmes of the present France must be decentralized to a consid- occupants of the Hôtel de Ville.

our

The spring time is coming, and lovers of the I lark's, others will have them to be a canary country will soon be a-field, enjoying the gen- | bird's; but I am much mistaken in the turn tle pleasures which nature has provided for them and colour of the eggs if they are not full of free of expense. Addison, of the Spectator, tom-tits. If your lordship does not make haste, like a true poet, was also a true admirer of na- I am afraid they will be birds before you see ture's beauties. Here are two charming ex-them; for if the account they gave me of them tracts from letters written by him to the young be true, they can't have above two days more to Earl of Warwick — who was afterwards his son- reckon.” Again, there is a freshness and natin-law — when a boy. In the first, we see that ural simplicity in the next letter that makes us Addison had the faculty, which few great men wish that we could live back into the old Specpossess, of bringing himself down to the level tator days, and accept this invitation of the youthful mind. What boy at the pres- selves: ent time, even though he were & lord, would

“ MY DEAR LORD — I can't forbear being not be delighted with such a letter as this?

troublesome to your lordship whilst I am in “ MY DEAR LORD I have employed the your neighbourhood. The business of this is to whole neighbourhood in looking after birds' invite you to a concert of music which I have nests, and not altogether without success. My found out in a neighbouring wood. It begins man found one last night; but it proved a hen's, precisely at six in the evening; and consists of with fifteen eggs in it, covered with an old a blackbird, a robin-redbreast, and a bullfinch. broody duck, which may satisfy your lordship's There is a lark that, by way of overture, sings curiosity a little; though I am afraid the eggs and mounts till she is almost out of hearing; will be of little use to us. This morning, I and afterwards, falling down leisurely, drops have news brought me of a nest that has abun- to the ground, or as soon as she has ended her dance of little eggs, streaked with red and blue song. The whole is concluded by a nightingale, veins, that, by the description they give me, that has a much better voice than Mrs. Tofts, must make a very beautiful figure on a string. and something of the Italian manner in her My neighbours are very much divided in their diversions."

Once a Week. opinions upon them. Some say they are a sky

ROME, ITALY, April 4, 1871. ber of the commission Lord Robert Montagu, Just now Rome at the Vatican is deeply in- brother of the Duke of Maachester. This no terested in the visit of the English deputation bleman belongs to the Queen's privy council, to the Pope. The high rank of its members re- and was minister of public instruction in the minds one of days far back in the middle ages, Disraeli cabinet. Viscount Campden, Lord when Offa, king of Mercia, established the tax Howard, uncle of the Duke of Norfolk, Lord called “ St. Peter's Penny,” and Anglo-Saxons Arundel of Wardour, the Master of Herries and made pilgrimages to Rome. Even Saxon kings the Lord of Herries, the Master of Lovat, Lord took the holy journey. William of Malmesbury Archibald Douglas and some fifteen or twenty tells us of Ina, king of Sussex, who left king- more noblemen and gentlemen of high rans, dom and crown, came a pilgrim to Rome with wealth and influence compose this ninteenthhis pious queen, was "shorn a monk," and century pilgrim band from the Anglo-Saxon founded the Anglo-Saxon college in this city in island to Pius IX. They attended the private 788. Florence of Worcester, too, records that ceremony of the Pope in the Pauline Chapel on in 1031 King Canute travelled over sea and Palm Sunday, received blessed palms from the land to the Eternal City and made some fresh Holy Father's hands, then went down into St. arrangements with the Pope for the treatment Peter's, and were present at the Chapter Mass. of the English bishops when they came to re

Boston Daily Adverti:er. ceive their palliums. Canute had an eye to business, for all his pilgrimage piety; he selected the time for visiting Rome when many great princes were assembled here,– the Emperor Conrad of Germany, Rudolph, king of Bur- The Vitality of Yeast.- Mr. H. J. Slack, gundy, and others,- in order to make treaties in his recent interesting and instructive address with them by which he obtained a free and un- to the Royal Microscopical Society, stated that molested passage to and from Rome through M. Melsens made experiments last year on the their dominions for English travellers, whether vitality of beer-yeast. He found fermentation ecclesiastics or merchants. These treaties were possible in the midst of melting ice, a temperafaithfully carried out during the middle ages, ture at which the yeast would not germinate. and led to the custom of passports which are The life of the yeast-plant was not destroyed by now, owing to the changes of time and habits, the most intense cold that could be produced, 80 annoying to the modern traveller.

about 100° C. below zero. In close vessels These English pilgrims of 1871 bring " St. when the products of fermentation gave a presPeter's penny” in a good round sum, and sym- sure of about twenty-five atmospheres the propathy deep and strong for the Holy Father; but cess stopped, and the plant was killed. M. they do not come in peaceable treaty-making Boussingault, who was present when this comtimes; nor are they kings or representatives of munication was made to the French Academy, governments. The island of saints became an accepted the statement, on account of the known island of heretics to the Holy Father many long ability of M. Melsens, but he detailed expericenturies ago, when the ancestresses of the ments to show that other ferments had their acyoung nobleman who heads the deputation were tivity destroyed by exposure to temperature furnishing wives to that royal Bluebeard, Henry much less severe, or even by ordinary frost. VIII. The Duke of Norfolk, who is the chief of these modern English pilgrims, is first peer of Great Britain, earl marischal of England, ranks all the nobility of the land, and takes precedence next to the royal family. Though Escape of the Abbé Moigno and Injury to no king, he is the descendant of kings; the third M. Ch. Girard.— The “ Chemical News" of duke of his house married the daughter of Ed- February 24 states that it has just received a ward IV., the Princess Anna, and his family has letter from the Abbé, dated Paris, February 15, been connected by marriage with the sovereigns 1871. From this it understands that the disof France, England and Scotland. He is a tinguished savant had narrow escape during good-looking youth of twenty-four, and is going the bombardment. A shell exploded in his bedto marry a princess as his ancestors and his room, and destroyed more than a thousand val. cousin of Lorne have done. Margaret of Or- uable books, but he escaped uninjured. Les leans, the daughter of the Duke de Nemours, is Mondes, the publication of which was susto be the future Duchess of Norfolk. The next pended last September, will reappear as soon as in rank in this deputation is Earl Denbigh, who communications are open. M. Ch. Girard has, is descended from the house of Hapsburgh, a we regret to say, received serious injury from branch of which famous line settled in England the fall of a shell, but our readers will be glad some centuries back. Lord Denbigh is about to hear that he is now convalescent. 45 or 50 years old. Another distinguished mem

AGE

No. 1408. – May 27, 1871.

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CONTENTS. 1. LORD BROUGHTON'S RECOLLECTIONS OF A LONG LIFE,

Edinburgh Review, 2. SEED-TIME AND HARVEST : or, DURING MY AP

PRENTICESHIP. Part XXII. Translated for
The Living Age from the Platt-Deutsch
of .

Fritz Reuter, .
8. THE ÆSTHETICS OF HUMAN CHARACTER, Fortnightly Review,
4. “ QUEER JEAN.” By the Author of “ Peasant

Life in the North.” In two parts. Part II., Good Words, . 5. THE ROUMANIAN DIFFICULTY,.

Examiner, 6. FEDERALISM AND FRANCE,

Spectator, 7. TaE GERMAN UPPER HOUSE,

Spectator,

POETRY. RAIN IN SPRING,

514 | FAILURE,

543 551

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