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conversation. The gains achieved by the Bacon, though the practical introducer of collective intellect of the race entail, as it the analytical method, had not yet come were, a compensatory loss upon the indi- under its sway, and was nearly as free, vidual. Looking back upon the greatest and nearly as comprehensive too, as Arisnames of past ages, one is driven to admit totle himself. And Milton also, to say that their universality, if due in part to nothing now of his immense capacities, was their own transcendent gifts, was due also a man more of the ancient than of the in part to a backward state of science and modern world. The Tractate on Educato inexact method. Of all men in all ages tion shows this. To superadd to a classiwho have been able to lay claim to cyclo- cal training which included Vitruvius and pædic knowledge, Aristotle is the head and Columella in prose, and Hesiod and Manilchief. In all branches of science that were ius in poetry, a full amount of pure mathknown in the fourth præ-Christian century ematics, with fortification, architecture, he was proficient. Gray the poet used to "enginry,” and navigation, can only mean say that, in reading Aristotle, we feel as if one thing — namely, that the knowledge of we were reading a table of contents. He these subjects which Milton would have sketched the outlines of 255 political con- required was essentially different from stitutions. His Rhetoric, Logic, and Ethics what would now be insisted on. Goethe have been text-books almost ever since was a universalist of a most remarkable they were written, and they are so still. type. As an art-critic and a natural philWithin the last few years a man of science osopher he was little, if at all, inferior to has devoted an elaborate book to the con- himself as a poet. If the Farbenlehre has sideration of his physical works alone, and not done all that he meant it to do, it has these embrace Physics, Astronomy, Zool- at any rate been a manual of great practiogy, Comparative Anatomy, and Psychol- cal value, and Sir Charles Eastlake transogy. “ His seal,” to use the words of Sir lated parts of it for purely artistic purWilliam Hamilton, “is on all the sciences; poses. and his speculations have mediately or im But three-fourths of a century, have mediately influenced those of all subse- passed since even Goethe was in his quent thinkers.” But then Aristotle lived prime, and during those years the fields of in an age when even a mind like his con- knowledge have been developing in all diceived of the investigation of nature much rections more widely and more quickly as a mathematician conceives of a problem than in any former age. Living, then, as involving the search after some unknown we do in a time when the natural developquantity. He would suppose the law of ment of the scope of the intellect has been nature to be so and so, and then, applying abnormally stimulated, we are compelled this law to any or all of the phenomena to recognize the need of specialization, within his observation, see if it corre- whether for purposes of teaching or of responded with them or not. It is clear that search. We have seen that the tendency the region of synthesis would be far more of subdivision is to curtail freedom in the congenial to universal, undivided study, growth and use of the mental faculties, to than the reign of analysis can be. Given induce poverty and comparative narrowan equal degree of intellectual and imagin- ness in mental production. This is the acative power, the synthetic thinker would count on the side of loss; let us see what be less trammelled by facts which interfere there is to be said on the side of gain, and with his theory or law. In going down- how far a balance may be struck. In a wards from the law to the facts, there is word, then, if we lose scope and freedom greater practical opportunity for neglect- by curtailment and division, we gain in ing to observe facts which do not fit in accuracy and clearness. The minute accuwith the assumed law, and less chance of racy of modern verification makes the being delayed in the process of investiga-ground solid as science advances; and if tion. With the analytical method, also, it is true that science “moves but slowly, came in the first real comprehension of slowly,” it is no less true that her progress what it is scientifically to observe and to is sure. The subdivision of labour gives record. It is the modern labours of the us, in fact, all that can by possibility be retort, the microscope, the telescope ; the given by way of compensation for the one modern piles of social, vital, and commer- great loss, the high standing-point and cial statistics, all of which are forms of ob- wide freedom of universal knowledge. It servation; the modern collections of plant, is the very cradle of sound criticism, for and mineral, and animal — that now im- as each worker understands his own field periously demand a division of intellectual of knowledge better and better, there labour as one of its absolute conditions.' grows up an increasingly large body of men well qualified to chastise the charlatan than explained. Our object at least is not and unveil the impostor.
to explain, but to note how conspicuous a What is chiefly wanted in order to feature the periwig is in our literature for minimize the evils of division is inter- a hundred years and more. change of thought, and improvements in All typical extravagances and absurdithe machinery of interchange. Much has ties of fashion have the luck of becoming been done already in this direction by badges of respectability through mere magazines and periodicals, themselves sub- lapse of time. If ever elderly housewives divided and classified into departments come to wear in permanence the monwhich would have severely puzzled the strous conglomeration of sausages which editors of the Taller, Spectator, or Guar- for some time has graced the heads of our dian. More may yet be done by deepening ladies, it will be only following precethese existing channels of thought; more dent. The periwig first appears in print still by simplifying as far as can be done as a fantastic fashion, but as time flows on the terminology of science, and by a judi- we recognize it as the battle-field of Concious and early introduction of some skele- servatism; until not to wear the wig of ton form of scientific training into school your order was flat rebellion against huroutine. After all, the man who may be man authority, if not against Providence most sure of reaping the best results of itself. The wig comes to be the crowning both the wide and the special, the univer- test of good sense and citizenship of a sal and the divided, in knowledge, is he man's taking the place and accepting the who to a thorough acquaintance with his responsibilities of rank and calling. Who own branch of science adds the opportu- would have expected such a weight of nity of conversing with men equally thor- sober gravity — such an odour of sanctity ough in theirz. Ünus homo, nullus homo is indeed
-as hung around the last bishop's a true antithesis. And, conversely, the wig in our remembrance to descend on man of special knowledge in some one dis- the peruque, from the early notices of it; tinct department of learning, who is also as won by Sir Fopling, for instance, who a man of parts, may become by converse represents the follies of the age :with his peers something intellectually resembling the best men of an elder time
From one the sacred periwig he gained
Which wind ne'er blew nor touch of hat prono more an isolated unit, but a host in
Another's diving bow he did adore
And rises with a water-spaniel shake.
Or by the critics of the foremost benches :-
But you, loud sirs, who through your curls look “It is a wonder,” says Pepys, “what will big, be the fashion, after the plague is done, as Critics in plume and white vallancy wig, to periwigs; for nobody will dare to buy Who lolling on our foremost benches sit any hair for fear of the infection, and that And still charge first, the true forlorn of wit, it had been cut off the head of people dead So may your bats your foretops never press,
Untouched of the plague.”. A very awkward ques
your ribbons, sacred be your dress,
&c. tion, one would have thought, for all wearers of periwigs, but which had no Akin to these was the bush of hair under practical issue. The subject of dress, which the beaux buried themselves; “lay viewed on its psychological side, presents hid," as Swift said, “ under the penthouse no phenomenon equal to the periwig. of a full-bottomed periwig," elsewhere That the whole thought and cultivation called the “ seducing full-bottom” from of civilized Europe should agree for three its terrible effects on ladies' hearts. Yet or four generations to conceal the map- how soon the foppish periwig had become ping out of its brains under an impossible indispensable to all ages we gather from bush of borrowed hair - shaving off a nat- the failure of any attempt to discard it. ural decoration of which mankind is in- Sir Godfrey Kneller painted Wycherley's stinctively as vain as of any other per- fine head with its scattered grey hairs, sonal advantage, the very delight and but the old man could not bear it, and the plaything of the toilet, to assume in its painter had to draw a wig to it. stead a monstrous formality whose great- In a very little time we find the fullest success could only betoken fashion and bottom no longer seducing ladies, but expense is a fact to be indicated rather 'playing a graver part. A writer in the
Guardian (1713) remarks on the general country squire, of a bulk and stature larger question of dress, that some lay all the than ordinary, habited in a red coat fung stress of beauty on their face and exert all open to show the waistcoat, while the their extravagance in the periwig (which periwig fell in a very considerable bush on we gather to be a growing index of the each shoulder, who in a manner took up mind). Thus “ the full-bottom, formally the whole Mall, the spectators making way combed all before, now denotes the lawyer for him, while he cocked his hat and and politician; the smart tye wig, with a marched directly for Westminster. We black ribbon, shows a man of fierceness of can sympathize with those squires whose temper; and he that burdens himself with consequence demanded something handa superfluity of white hair, which flows some for state occasions, but whose good down the back and mantles on the shoul- sense forbade its daily wear on their own ders, is generally observed to be less cu- ground. London must have seemed to rious in the furniture of the inward re- them an opportunity for airing the costly cesses of the skull.” Such was the wig splendour; while none but the town-bred worn by the heroes of the stage who could keep their taste sensitive to the "sweat beneath the weight of a nodding shifting changes, the gradual retrogression plume of swan's feathers," and had their from eyebrow to ear tip, the snips, twists, faces half hid beneath an enormous bush and turns of flow and curl, so
as to be of white horsehair, and such the powdered aware what was in the mode and what curls the scent of which Mascarille invites outrageous. the Précieuses to inhale :
One cause of the change of form in the MAGDALON.— Elle est tout-à-fait de qualité; the struggle perceptible in each rank to
periwig, beyond the caprice of fashion, was le sublime en est touché délicieusement. MASCARILLE. — Vous ne me dites rien de mes of sumptuary law and rise into the wig of
escape the shape assigned to it by a sort plumes; comment les trouvez-vous ? Cathos. — Effroyablement belles !
the rank above it. Each calling seemed MASCARILLE.- Sivez-vous que le brin
to settle at first into the periwig most excoûte un Louis d'or ?
pressive of its functions, but no man is
content only to represent his calling; he It is in the transitoriness of each periwig aims to clothe himself according to his that Addison learns to see the end of personal pretensions. In other words, them all. In turn they give a grace; but dress is self-assertion; and therefore in a because this grace is perpetually supersed- dressy age it was difficult to reconcile the ed, he foresees that they will make a very demands of society with those of the poor figure, and perhaps look monstrous, individual. The essayists were bent in a in the eyes of posterity. He illustrates body on keeping the man down. They this conclusion by the experiences of a enlarge not amiss on the folly of foppery lawyer on the Western circuit, who at in the more solemn characters of life to every stage comes upon some fashion more which gravity of appearance is essential. obsolete than the last. At Staines he What should we think of a physician, they observes a young fellow with a tolerable ask, prescribing in a bag wig, or a serjeant periwig had it not been covered with a hat pleading in the Court of Common Pleas in shaped in the Ramilie cock. The greatest his own hair instead of a nightcap peribeau at the next county sessions was wig? dressed in a most monstrous flaxen peri- Naturally the world was most inexorawig that was made in King William's ble to the clergy; in whom we note a reign. “ The wearer going it seems in his constant rebellion against the grizzle which own hair" between each assize, and only was pronounced their only wear, and assuming the wig at six months' intervals whose very name must have shocked the to meet the judges. As he gets further beau parson, Mr. Jessamy, who is held up west he fancies himself in King Charles's to our contempt. His very grizzle,” we reign, till he comes upon one gentleman are told, “is scarce orthodox, for though it accoutred in a “nightcap wig,” not, we would be open schism to wear a bag, yet gather, quite so many years out of date, his wig has always a bag-front, and is but really more ridiculous because the properly cropt behind, that it may not wearer looked with contempt on the rus- eclipse the lustre of his diamond stock tics, and resolved to live and die in the buckle." The sporting parson errs in mode.
another direction, and gives his brown The squirearchy generally seem to have scratch bob a shake" as he ascends the affected the biggest and most flowing peri- reading-desk. The pretty preacher, a wigs. The Tatler (1809) describes a'coxcomb in style, shows his weakness in
the smug wig which supersedes the ortho- clown, we are told, whose mind is a blank, dox grizzle. Even those who submit to it may at any time change_his long lank without murmuring do not come off unre- greasy hair in the Middle Row for a smart buked. They must hug their chains; that bag, or a Jemmy scratch. The gentlemen is, comb and curl them. The country par- who draw the pen from behind their right son, negligent of appearances, is shown up ear at seven o'clock, to clap on a bag wig for allowing the faculty of curling, sup- and sword to appear at the play as fine posed inherent in the grizzle, to descend gentlemen, are sneered at. Parsons, lawinto the band which appears in full buckle yers, doctors, come in for it as each by beneath it.
turns casts a sheep's eye towards the The cit has a wig of his own or rather forbidden distinction, and join in the gentwo wigs, one for weekday and one for eral struggle to wear the wig which Sunday, round which his wife ties her other people think you have no right to pocket-handkerchief in fear of rain. He is wear. represented when travelling as substitut- There is something quaint in the entire ing for it a linen nightcap, professedly as change of style in the wig permitted to cooler on the road, but really on economi- grace some particular occasion. The Man cal grounds, that his wig may appear in in Black who figures in the Citizen of the full buckle for the benefit of his custom- World wears a grey wig, combed down ers. But the wisest cit is reproved in that “in imitation of hair," until the lovehe does not hold down his sons to the making draws towards a climax, when, same modest restrictions that constitute to expedite matters and fit him for the his own respectability. The office of the dénouement, Beau Tibbs sets him off with wig was clearly to keep people in their a pigtail wig
- a mistake, as the event places. Instead of this, as time went on, proved, as inducing an ill-timed self-asserit became the indicator of change. We tion. All had prospered with the pawnread some forty years later in the history broker's widow up to a fatal difference of our subject how Senex is shocked at upon the carving of a turkey. She began the subversion of ranks to which he be- with the wing: he pertly interposed to comes alive in a visit to Sir Timothy (a suggest the leg. She holds her ground, man of fashion), who in his presence re- he his, till the temper of both parties gives ceives visits from his doctor and his tailor. way. “I hope I am not to be taught at The one, a well-looking man of fifty, in a this time of day,” cries the lady. “Madhandsome suit of trimmed black and large am,” interrupts he, “we are never too old deep-bottomed wig, satisfied all his ideas. to be instructed.” “ Old, sir,” cries the
Ay, thinks I, this gentleman is perfectly justly exasperated widow ; " when I die in character, and is, I daresay, a sensible of age I know of some that will quake for person, by so close an adherence to pro- fear.” And the match was broken off. priety a reflection broken in upon by It is observable how soon the idea of Sir Timothy with “So, Skirts, have you the wig as an imitation of hair disappears. brought the breeches home ? Then in The same wig might play different parts, comes Dr. Styptic, further to upset the as the Frenchman's, which naturally was critic's equanimity, with his hair nicely a “flowing Bob, but, by the addition of two dressed and bagged. “ I should have pos- tails, sometimes appeared as a Major ;” itively taken him for a Frenchman of fash- but the “ famous” actor who attempted ion or a figure dancer on the stake.” Just to treat his wig as hair, to disorder it as then arrives Sir Timothy's nephew from an artifice to raise terror, drew down the Westminster, in his gown and tye wig. censure of the critics upon him : “ • Well,' says I to myself, “thank Heaven here is a man not ashamed of appearing in The player, after having acted that noble character.' But the young gentleman scene in the second act of Macbeth in so fine a was not seated above three minutes before manner that one would almost imagine with the he pulled off his wig in the presence of the poet the player must have been a murderer to whole company, and showed as smart a represent one so well, goes out to execute the head of hair in the Tyburn taste as could supposed murder. After a short space he re
turns as from the fact, but though the expresbe found within the bills of mortality.
sion of his face is still remarkably excellent, one As time advances we perceive all ambi- cannot but smile to observe that he has been tion that the periwig can satisfy centring employing himself behind the scene iu putting in the bag wig. Here the Conservative his wig awry and untying one of the ties of it. instinct is most keenly and savagely on The audience knew the thing too well for what the alert. It is the object of longing for it was to do otherwise than laugh that the horwhich each party is in turn snipt. The ror that has produced that expression of fear
should also have untwisted one of the tails of his itself into favour by imitating the wig periwig.
through the friendly aids of powder and The openness of the wig to practical jokes pomatum, bags and tails. In 1756 we find is not brought out as much as we should a paper on the increase of taxation, in have expected in the polite literature of which an honest peruke-maker, lamenting the period, probably because it was too the decline of his calling, is driven to prodelicate ground. We read, indeed, of one pose ą poll-tax upon all that wore their old bachelor, the sport of a party of romp- own hair. “ For,” said he, “we have ing girls, who, amongst an infinity of never had good times since wigs were out tricks, spirit off his wig, and convey it of fashion. What rare days were those in from one to another out of sight till he is Queen Anne's reign when the nobility and forced to sit down bareheaded for the gentry wore large flaxen flows of thirty evening; and of another who, visiting an guineas apiece! As you may see by my old maid, gets mauled by her pets, and Lord Godolphin's monument in Westfinally has his wig snatched off by the minster Abbey, a Prime Minister's wig monkey and Aung into the fire, whence he could not be made, I am sure, under fifty was happily nimble enough to snatch it guineas.”. with no other injury than the singeing of
After all there is something to be said the foretop; a grievance which draws for the periwig. It is the best substitute from him the resolution that the next yet found for brains. A certain percentwoman that makes him ridiculous shall be age of mankind will be fops, and the ideal a young one. After all, a pate bald as a fop shows better in the wig than in the cannon-ball was probably too familiar a
beard, which by imparting an empty unspectacle at the domestic hearth to excite supported ferocity sets the whole countemuch attention even when out of place.
nance at odds. We see much in the arguAs time wears on, our reading shows the ment of Simon Sleek, who treats dress beginning of the end. The hair appears from head to foot as the equivalent for on the scene as an innovation, and meets wit — the same who had thrown together with very little favour. The young man some hasty observations upon stockings, who discards his wig is declared to look of which his friends told him he need not like his footman. In fact, the gloss of nat- be ashamed - that it is intolerable for a ural hair was regarded with suspicion. blockhead to be a sloven; and though Lanky and greasy are the civilest terms everybody cannot fill his head with reasonapplied to it. The coachman in the Rivals ing, it is in any one's power to wear a announces that the exciseman has taken pretty periwig. to his carrots. The hair had to smuggle
PREVIOUS to the outbreak of the war between A FRENCH correspondent of the Pall Mall France and Germany the Prussian and Bava-! Gazette gives a list of the statues inside the rian governments were involved io litigation on Cathedral of St. Denis which have been injured the subject of the ownership of certain pictures; by carelessness, bombardment, or pillage. The the former claiming to have restored to them most curious accident is certainly that which certain portions of the Munich Gallery which happened to St. Denis. The statue of the good they affirmed had been unrighteously acquired saint, who is popularly supposed to have crossed from the old Düsseldorf Collection; the latter a river with his head under his arm, was dedisputing the validity of the Prussian demands. capitated by a shell. The statue of Catherine The settlement of this dispute is due to the de Medicis has two fingers cut off and stolen, withdrawal of Prussia from the contest, the au- and a gish from a sabre on her hands. Henry thorities at Berlin, no doubt, considering it un- II. has lost not only two fingers, but the big toe seemly to proceed any further in the matter of his right foot; Charles VI, bis right hand; after Bavaria had joined its fortunes to those of Duguesclin the bilt of his dagger; Charles V. the rest of the German Federation.
both hands and his sceptre; Charles Martel a It has been stated on semi-official authority finger; Pepin le Bref has bad bis sceptre that a claim will be made on the part of Prus- broken; and Louis XVI., besides receiving a cut sia to some of the pictures belonging to the old across the nose, has been deprived of both his electorate of Cassel, and still preserved in the thumbs. national collections of France. Academy.