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till men from this side of the border were | But I am as I am, but not as I was, almost looked on as interlopers. And not And where as my metre is ryme dogrell, only in India, but (much to their credit) The effect of the whyche no wyse man wyll de
fell. in almost every part of the known world, Scotch merchants and Scotch in
“ Drunk as a rat " is the proverb of the every capacity have gone ahead, just as " butterinouth Flemings; but the Dutch Boorde describes them doing, in his are worse, drinking till it runs out of them. time, as James's English courtiers and Brabant is rich and pleasant, and “ Handt subjects cried out against them for doing warp” has a curious spire and a “ Bourse some seventy years later. Is this “push- for the merchants. Cleves and Gueldres ing” a proof of their being pure-blood
are poor, because so fond of war. In JuTeutons? It certainly is not Celtic: the liers the geese are plucked naked every French have it not, nor the Welsh and year. So much for the “base Doche men." Irish; but the Prussians, so their London În “hyghe Docb lond” we are astonished and Liverpool fellow-clerks say, possess it to find the “Junker" already known by in a most unpleasant degree. This would
name, wearing a feather in his cap : settle the question about Lowlanders; but how is it that the Highlanders have, on Be it of goose or capon, it is right good gere. the whole, done as well - in some walks of life better — than their Lowland rivals ?
One High Dutch custom which disgusted Anyhow, though the Scots are in this as Boorde has made its way over here, posBoorde found them, let us rejoice that no
sibly along with the Georges : “ they will longer are his next verses true in any They haue a way to brede them in chese.”
eate magotts as fast as we wyll eat comfits.
The snowy Alps impressed our author I am a Scotyshe man, and baue dissembled much : “a man may see them fyftene myle moche
of, at a cyte called Ulmes." And in my promise I haue not kept touche. Denmark, next on the Doctor's list is a
very poor country, so poor that Boorde An Englyshe man I cannot naturally loue. marvels "how they dyd ones gette Eng
lande.” So again he marvels how a little Boorde notices the great poverty and
country like Saxony could have conquered wretchedness of the Borderland; he remarks on the good cookery of the Scotch, were set against England it might neuer
England; “for I think if all the world and of their skill in music, and doubts not be conquered, they beyng treue within that the Northern Scotch are of the same themselfe.” Next Boorde speaks of those race with the Irish. Why he treats of Shetland and Fries- spokesman says:
other heretics the Bohemians, whose land together, except that both, he says, abound in fish, I cannot tell. The Fri- For the Pope's curse I do lytle care, sians he praises as being good, simple folk.
Ever sens Wyclif dyd dwel with me About Iceland he is sadly at fault : the men,
I dyd never set by the Pope's auctorite, who certainly were for centuries above
Bohemia is the land of wonderful beasts the European average in intelligence, he
“bughs and bovies," much like those stigmatises as “;beastly creatures vnman- which Cæsar describes as inhabitating the ered and vntaughte, lýving in caues alto-great Hyrcanian forest. What Boorde gether, like swyne. they will gyue says of them may be all true; but he is away ther children.
They wyll eate certainly wrong when he says of the Bocandells endes and olde grece. They hemians, “ their speche is Doch.” Not even be lyke the people of the newe founde the Thirty Years' War and the Germanizland named Calyco. In Iceland there be ing of their nobles ever for a moment many wylde bestes.” But in Iceland there drove the Czech speech from its position are no wild beasts at all. Boorde's conscientiousness comes out when the German traveller crosses the old
as the language of the country. And now in his declining to give any samples of Ice- frontier, he feels much as an Englishman landic; for, says he, “I can not speke it, does in a third class carriage on a South but here and there a worde or two." Poor Wales railway — among aliens. old man! he could fairly assert :
Mr. Freeman is quite right; we are ȚenAfter my conscyence I do wryte truly.
tons; the “at home" like feeling which
most of us have all the way from the Rhine Nor does he claim a high rank for his to the Oder proves it to my mind. Even poetry:
lif we don't understand the speech, we feel
as if we ought to. Nay, far west of the Boorde's righteous soul was vexed, like Rhine, about Ostend, where the Fleming other righteous souls, at the state of Rome: asserts himself 80 stoutly against his “I dyd se lytle vertue there, and much “ Welsh” neighbours, how homelike is the abhominable vyces." He is also worried look of the people, and how you “stand by their way of reckoning time, “ for they corrected "if at some little inn you have do recken ynto xxiii a cloke, and than it is asked for “ viande" and the hostess with mydnyght.” a grave
shake of the head drawls out “ Nit What he says of Venice reads like fleisch." You never felt at home in Bohe- Childe Harold's lines put into old prose: mia; the lodging is still as “indifferent “Whosoeuer that hath not seene the noble as it was in Boorde's day; but it is some-citie of Venis, he hath not sene the bewtye thing about the people which shows they and ryches of thys worlde.” The Doge are not of us.
may not leave the city so long as he doth In Poland our author was chiefly struck live; there is not a poor person to be seen with its poverty; he makes here too a mis- in Venice; " the Venyscions hath great take about language — "theyr speche is prouision of warre, for they haue euer in a corrupt Doche."
Boorde would have had redynes tymber to make a hondred gates an effort made to drive the Turks out of or more.' They are not superstitious : Hungary. His Hungarian says:
“ When they do heare masse they doth If we of other nacions might haue any helpe,
clap theyr hand on theyr mouth, and do We wold make them to fle like a dog or a
not knock themself on the brest.” In fact whelpe.
the Venetians were a satisfactory people.
The laxness which Byron found among He grows quite poetical about the “regall them, and which made their city in his flod of Danuby; to have passed beyond it; for about Con- eyes an Italian Seville, belonged in Borde's stantinople he romances, talking of Saint day to Genoa. Thomas, in his listory of Sophia as not a mosque, but “ the fairist Italy (1561) says: “One thing I am sure cathedral churche in the worlde. . . they in' Genoa that could teache him a dousen
of, that if Ouide were now alive, there be say that there is a thowsande prestes that doth belong to the church : before the funt poinctes de arte amandi.” Boorde as a
doctor of course noticed Genoa treacle, is a pycture of copper and gylt of Iustinian, that sytteth upon a horse of coper." omplarvov, whose virtues are witnessed to in
Chaucer's line : All which smacks rather of Mandeville than of personal observation. The kind- Christ that of alle mischief is triakel. liness of the man comes out in his way of Of it he says: “Whan thay do make theyr noticing the Great Schism : “ The Greciens tracle, a man wyll take and eate poysen, do erre in many articles concerning our and than he wys swel redy to brost and to fayth, the whyche I do thinke better to dye, and as sone as he hath takyn trakle obmyt, and to lene vnwryten than to wryte he is hole agene.” it.” Bravo Boorde! How well you con
After the old-custom-loving Italians it is trast with some of our moderns. I took a change to come into France, where they up A Vacation Tour in Brittany not long “wyll euery daye a new fashion.” France ago, and was vexed to find all that was suits our author's love of good cheer, and new in it made up of tirades against though he has a special word for “good “Popish darkness and superstition.”
Aquitany," as he affectionately calls it, he We are wrong, Boorde must have been is able to say of the whole that “ Fraunce in Greece, for he gives an unusually long is a noble countre, and plentiful of wyne, Greek and English dialogue, ending with bread, corne, fysh, flesh and whyld foule. the pious Cherete apapantes with which the there a man shall be honestly orderyd for modern host dismisses his guests.
his mony, and shal haue good chere and Harking back from Greece towards Calais, Boorde takes Southern Europe, be good lodging.”. Very different this from
Aragon, where nothing is to be had but ginning with Sicily and Italy; the thing measly bacon and sardines — so bad that, which chiefly struck him in every part of when Englishmen have been there, which was the prevalence of old fashions in dress and behaviour:
Thither neuer after they wyll come agene. Al new fashyons to England I do bequeat, The rest of Spain is as bad, except by says the Neapolitan;
the sea-side, where, like Portugal, it is en
riched by trade. Elsewhere “ the countrey In my apparel I am not mutable,
is baryn of wine and corne, and skarse of says the Roman, and so on.
vitels; a man shal not get mete in many places for no mony; other whyle you shall brayne.”. Bad air putrifies the brain; and get kyd, and mesell bakyn, and salt sar- among things which corrupt the air are dyns, which is a lytle fysh as byg as a pyl- "standing waters, stynkyng mystes and cherd, and they be rosty. al your wyne marshes, caryn lyinge longe aboue the shal be kepte and caryed in gote skyns. grounde, moche people in a smal rome ... whan you go to dyner and to supper lying vnclenly and beynge fylthe and slatyou must fetch your bread in one place. tyshe." Above all, buttery, cellar, larder, and your wyne in a nother place, and your and kitchen are to be kept clean and free meate in a nother place ; and hogges in from accumulations of filth; if there is a many places shal be vnder yovr feete at moat, it must be often scoured and kept the table, and lice in your bed. . . . the free from mud, so must the fishpond:. best fare is in prestes houses, for they do Stables, brewhouse, and bakehouse are to kepe typlinge houses."
be kept well away from the dwelling-house. When he come to Navarre Boorde tells Such a house must have plenty of land at full length the story of the white cock about it, "for he the whyche wyll dwell at and hen which were kept at St. Domingo pleasure, and for proffyte and helth of his in memory of the sad fate of the Joseph- body, he must dwell at elbowe-roome.” like young pilgrim who was on his way to The prospect too must be good; “for, and Compostella. At which Compostella, by the eye be not satysfied, the mynde can the way, an old blear-eyed doctor of di- not be contented. And the mynde not vinity tells Boorde that " our clergy doth contented, the herte cannot be pleased; illude, mocke and skorne the people to do yf the herte and mynde be not pleased, Idolatry, making ygnorant people to wor- nature doth abhorre. And yf nature do ship the thynge that is not here;” all the abhorre, mortyfycacion of the vytall and - bones, &c., of St. James and others, having anymall and spyrytuall powers do consebeen placed_by Carolus Magnus in St. quently folowe.” Of aspects the south is Severin's in Toulouse. I am sorry to say the worst, “ for the south winde doth cor. that Brittany — " litle Britten” – has not rupt and make euyl vapours :" the best is a good character in Boorde:
the east, "for that wynde is temperate, Of all nacions I hate free Englyshe men,
fryske, and fraugrant" - testimony, as
Mr. Halliwell writes, to the same effect as is what the Breton says; but then as that of Mr. Kingsley in his well-known Boorde's Breton speaks French, let us Ode. Never set up house till you have hope he is misrepresented as regards his three years' “rent” (i. e. money for all dislikes as well as his language.
outgoings) in coffer. Divide your income So having got back to Calais again, into three parts: one for food; another Boorde goes on to treat of Moors and of for dress, wages, liveries, alms; the third Turks, whose “Macomyt, a false felow,” for urgent calls, such as sickness and the deceived the people by teaching tricks to “ charges of a man's last ende.” his dove and his camel; much as many Keep your household well in hand, and Irish believe Henry VIII. taught a donkey put down swearing ; " for in all the worlde to discover” the Book of Common Prayer, ther is not suche odyble swearyng as is which the apostate King had secretly vsed in Englonde, specyally amonge yonth buried. With which notice of “ Macomyt "and children, and no man doth go abouto let us leave the travel-book and turn to to punnysshe it." “ Dyetary," written in Montpelier, and Sleep according to your temperament, dedicated to Thomas Duke of Norfolk. but not too long; have a fire in your room And here the striking feature is Boorde's to consume evil vapours, “ for the breath compendiousness; he treats of everything, of man may putryfye the ayre within the from where you are to “cytuat your chambre.” Wear a scarlet nightcap and house, and how you should build it, “ for plenty of bedclothes. And, if you must to lengthen your lyfe," down to how a sleep in the day-time, sleep leaning against sycke man shuld be vsed that is lykly to a cupboard or sitting upright in
chair. On house-building he is not only before Eat and drink moderately, " for else the his age, but far in advance of our own lyuer, which is the fyre vnder the potte, practice; he has a true notion of sanitary is subpressed that he can not naturally laws : “ The ayre cannot be to clere and nor truely decocte ne dygest.” Fond as pure . . . for we lyue by it as the fysshe Boorde was of good beer, he did not like İyueth by the water . . . for yf the ayre even to see men let “ the malt-worme be fryske, pure, and clere, it doth con- playe the deuyll in theyr heade.” He also serue the lyfe of man, it doth comfort the cries out against our English plan of eat
ing the “gross meats” fir t, leiving those makyth a gentylman good pastyme;" but which are wholesome and light of digestion he would leave it to the dogs to eat. for servants. Water,” he confesses, “is Conys flesshe (on the contrary) is good, not holsome, sole by it selfe, for an Eng- but rabettes flesshe is best of all wylde lysshe man;" above all, avoid well-water beestes, for all thynges the whiche doth and stand ng water. Claret or“Raynyshe” sucke is nutrytyue.” Here Boorde helps is best with meat. Of “hote wynes” he us to distinguish synonyms - a rabbit in gives a long list; but would have none of his day was a sucking cony. Beer, again, them taken but very sparingly and after as we saw, he marks off from the ale with dinner. The distinction between ale and which it is so often confounded. beer will be new to some readers : ale is Further on he treats of vegetables, and only malt and water, "and they which do proves that either the story of Queen put any other thynge to ale except yest, Elizabeth sending to Holland for a salad barme, or godes good doth sofysticat theyr is apocryphal, or else gardening must have ale.” It is the Englishman's natural drink, died out in the troubles of the reign of as beer (of malt, water, and hops) is the Edward VI.; for here we have radish, letDutchman's : “ bere nowe of late dayes is tuce, sorrel, endive, besides rocket, alexmoche vsed in Englande to the detryment anders, and other plants, which our of many Englyshe men, whom it kylleth.” | modern English cuisine superciliously Boorde insists strongly, as all men of sense neglects. do, on the importance of good bread; Boorde next arranges a diet for the san“sophysticating” bakers he would set guine, melancholy, phlegmatic, and cholstanding up to their chin in the Thames. eric man, and also for patients suffering He is also great on pottage, which he says rom moral diseases; recommending fresh “is not so much vsed in al crystendom as air, cleanliness, care against infection, and it is vsed in Englande.” Fish, too, sea a reference to “my Breuyary,” just as and river both, we have more of than any if he was a nineteenth century physician. other country:
Better advice than this could not be given: Our Doctor's verdict is (contrary to that "No one can be a better physician for you of modern physicists) that “fysshe doth than your own self can be, if you will conlytele nourishe," and also that fish and sider what does you good and refrain from flesh should not be eaten together at one what harms you.
. Let euery meal. He then gives a curious classifica- one beware of sorrow, care, thought, and tion of birds according to their digesti- inward anger. Sleep well and go to bed bility, giving the chief place to the par- with a mery heart.
Wherefore tridge, “ whiche is a restoratyue meate, and let euery man be mery; and yf he can do the comforte the brayne and the stom- not, let hym resorte to mery company to ache.” A woodcock, on the contrary, is breke of his perplexatyues.” Further, “a meate of good temperaunce.” But of wash your hands often, and comb your wild fowl in general he makes a remark head, and keep chest and stomach warm which is of much wider application : “ All and head cool; and if you are seriously ill, these be noyfull, except they be well or- make your will, and have too or three deryd and dressyd;” as he says else- good nurses, not slepysshe, sloudgysshe, where, “the cook is more than half a sluttygshe," and have sweet flowers kept physician."
in your room, and no babbling women Mixed with his dietetics are all sorts of about. queer jottings from his experiences abroad. Of human nature Boorde was at least Thus he had seen in “ Hygh Alman " what as good a judge as he was of the diagnosis anyone who travels there or in Hungary of diseases ; his estimate of the female may see now-a-days, “swyne kept clene." character, for instance, is that of the ArThe Germans, he says, make them swim thusian Romance : “Women desire sovonce or twice a day in their great rivers. ereignty.” The man, he says, who would The English let theirs lie about in filth be at peace must "please his wyfe, and and feed on "stercorus matter;" and the beate her nat, but let her haue her owne Spaniards he found worse in this respect wyl, for that she wyll haue, who so euer than the English.
say nay.”. As a prison reformer he was I am happy to find that brawn and all centuries before his day. But after speaksuch strange meats Boorde pronounces ing, as Howard might, about the filth and bad. Of two of them he says : "Yf a bad air in prisons, he quietly adds: “The man eate nether of them bothe, it shall chefe remedy is for man to so lyue and so neuer do hym harme."
to do that he deserue not to be brought Hares he would have hunted : “ it into no prison.” Before his time, too, are
his views on demoniacal possession : incu-the delight of innumerable eager readers. bus and succubus, he says, are of “a vaper- The charm communicated by the works of ous humour or fumositie rysinge out and those Dioscuri of the French literary frome the stomake to the brayne.” firmament of our day Erckmann-Chatrian
Parents grumbled then as they do now is doubtless akin to the feeling of gratificaat the idleness of the rising generation; which our ancestors enjoyed on first read. “the feuer horden,” Boorde calls it, and ing Defoe's productions in fiction. Defoe, reccommends unguentum inculinum as the indeed, did not bring into full development remedy. Care, too, must be taken that what is now called a novel. That descripthey “put no Lubberworte into their tion of contemporary manners thrown potage.”
round and identified with fictitious perin fact there is a world of quaintness sonages who move about the stage of ordiand good sense in Boorde; and Mr. Furni- nary life and enact an imagined and not vall has only tantalized us by giving us too improbable history, is of later date. extracts from books which make us anx- The honour of its invention was reserved ious for more. How such a man could be for the humbler, but no less real genius taken as the type of what we mean by who, twenty years after the publication of Merry Andrew it is hard to say: he is Crusoe, gave to the world Pamela, Clarissa always recommending mirth, and he owns Harlowe, and Sir Charles Grandison, volto his love of good cheer; but it is not at all ume by volume, too slowly for an intermerry-andrewish to sum up advice in this ested and excited body of readers. Readhonest, earnest way: "Fyrste lyue out of ers of memoirs and letters between 1710 syn, and folowe Christes doctrine, and and 1860 will continually meet with alluthen vse honest myrth and honest com- sions to Richardson's works. The vivid pany, and vse to eate good meate and to impression of reality communicated by his drink moderatly."
characters was evidently not exceeded by Enough about Boorde: this is one of the effect not yet obliterated of Dickens's the most interesting books to people in stories on their first appearance. We general that the Early English Text Soci- have seen an unpublished letter written ety has yet given us.
by a Welsh lady in 1754, in which the following passage occurs, “ Methinks I should be glad to know what part of Sir Charles
Grandison's character the critics are disFrom The Spectator.
pleased with.”. The fair correspondent NOVELISTS AS PAINTERS OF MORALS.*
seems as much hurt as if a personal friend
had received an injury. “I have been England has hardly received the hon- much diverted,” she continues, " by a our she deserves as the birthplace of the charge of coquetry laid upon Miss Byron modern novel. Except the incomparable by a neighbour and kinsman of ours.
He Don Quixote, what had Europe produced must know something more of her than in the way of narrative fiction before the Mr. Richardson has informed us common appearance of Robinson Crusoe in 1719 ? readers, for I think nothing is more oppoMadame Scudery, in 1650, had told the site his account of her than that character. idle world the loves and adventures of I am glad to see by the newspaper that the Artamenes in the Grand Cyrus, filling seventh volume is to be published next twenty plump volumes with her story. Thursday. Mr. H. is very merry in the The English translation of that romance, ludicrous detail he gives of what we must dated 1653, is a weighty folio of close expect relating to Sir Charles in this last print, as also is Clelia, a Romance, and account of him, when all his wicked tricks Ibrahim, or the Illustrious Bassa, by the same in Italy are to be brought to light, and I popular writer. Omitting the Oroonoko do not know if he is not to be hanged and other histories of Mrs. Aphra Behn, before we have done with him." Everysixty years elapsed ere Scudery's renown body seemed full of the subject, the correwas dimmed by the appearance of Gil Blas spondents, their kinsmen, and their friends. in her own country and the immortal Rob- Could literary reputation further ago ? inson Crusoe in ours. Memoirs of a Cava- Pamela had the honour of provoking lier, Colonel Jack, Captain Singleton, Moll Joseph Andrews into existence with the Flanders followed in quick succession, to never-to-be-forgotten Parson Adams. The
success of this book induced our “prose • The Novels and Novelists of the Eighteenth Cen: Homer” to write and publish Tom Jones, tury in Illustration of the Manners and Morals, of, and thus add, according to Gibbon, anthe Age. By, W. Forsyth, M.A., Q.C. London: Murray. 1871.
other glory to the House of Hapsburg.