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with the finest sensibilities, and stirred by the creative impulse; but his style was always his instrument. He found it above all a means of communication; for nothing was more notable about him than the social quality of his thought. He wrote for his readers, his vivid imagination of their presence guiding him infallibly to the centre of their minds. And his style was also the means of faithfully representing his experience. It was figurative and pictorial, because the world he saw was a procession of concrete happenings, abounding in novelty and uniqueness. For his originality lay, not in his invention, but in the extraordinary freshness of his perception, and in an imagination which was freed from convention only to yield itself utterly to the primeval and native quality of the world as he found it. His thought was always of the actual world spread before him, of what he called "the particular facts of life." He relied little on dialectic, but brought his powers of observation into play where the traditional philosophy had abstracted the problem and carried it off into the closet. And to this first-hand acquaintance with particulars he added a keen zest for metaphysical speculation. He was curious, as the natural man is curious, loving the adventure of exploration, and preferring the larger riddles of existence to the purely technical problems of the schools.

His resources were by no means limited to the results of his own observation. He probably read more widely than any philosopher of his day. He did not, however, value erudition for its own sake, but only as a means of getting light. His reading was always selective and assimilative; he converted it at once into intellectual tissue, so that it gave him strength and buoyancy and never merely a burden to carry. And he learned from men as well as from books. Always governed by his likings rather than his aversions, generous and open-hearted, men who shrank from others gave their unsuspected best to him. In short, his mind was instinctively discriminating. He not only knew the good from the evil, but he was guided by a remarkably independent judgment of proportion. He was never led to accept a thing as important simply because it had acquired a certain professional or academic prominence; and he was rarely imposed on by the respectable humbug, though he opened his mind to whatever was humanly significant, even though it might be socially disreputable.

It is impossible to divorce his intellectual gifts from his character. His openmindedness, which has become proverbial, was only one of many signs of his fundamental truthfulness. Having no pride of opinion, and setting little store by his personal prestige, his mind remained flexible and hospitable to the end. His very modesty and guilelessness were sources of power. For his modesty was not a form of self-consciousness, but a preoccupation with things or persons other than himself. And his guilelessness was not a childlike naïveté, but a sincerity and openness of motive. He was possessed of a certain shrewdness and directness an ability to come to the heart of affairs at a stroke that made him the wisest of counselors. But he had no ambitions which he attempted to conceal, and no prerogatives of which he was jealous; so that he met his students and his friends with a natural simplicity and an entirely uncalculating indifference to distinctions of social eminence. He proved the possibility of possessing taste and personal distinction without pride or aloofness. And his democracy was a matter of conviction, as well as of impulse. He believed heartily in the institutions of his country, and shared those hopes of freedom, peace, and happiness, which unite men and nerve them to take part in the work of civilization.

James did not found a school. He was incapable of that patient brooding upon the academic nest that is necessary for the hatching of disciples. The number of those who borrowed his ideas is small and insignificant beside the number of those that through him were brought to have ideas of their own. His greatness as a teacher lay in his implanting and fostering of intellectual independence. He prized his own university for its individualism and tolerance, and for the freedom which it gave him to subordinate the scholastic office and the scholastic method to a larger human service. So the circle of his influence widened to the bounds of European civilization; while his versatility, his liberal sympathies, the coincidence of his ruling passions with the deeper interests of mankind at large, and above all the profound goodness of his heart, so diversified and humanized this influence that there were few indeed too orthodox or too odd to respond to it.

INDEX

ABSOLUTISM, ch. viii; general mean- COMMON SENSE, 48 ff.

ing of, 164 ff.; and pragmatism, COMTE, 37

198. (See also under MIND.) CONCEPTS, scientific, 56 ff.; analyt-
ACCELERATION, 56 ff.

ical version of, 60 ff., 63, 75;
ACQUAINTANCE, 225, 310, 354, 366 critique of, 227 ff., 256 ff., 365 ff.
ACTIVITY, 70, 71, 99, 137, 261 ff., CONSCIOUSNESS, alleged priority of,
279 ff., 341, 354 ff., 373

105 ff., 126 ff., 156 ff., 218 ff.,
AGNOSTICISM, 150, 152, 174

315 ff.; and experience, 155, 314 ff.
ANALYSIS, 55, 60 ff., 83, 233, 236 ff., (See also under MIND.)
256

CONTINUITY, 103 ff., 233
AVENARIUS, 299

DEISTS, 33
BACON, 5, 6, 23, 33

DESCARTES, 16 ff., 32, 33, 120 ff.,
BAILLIE, J. B., 133

309
BELIEF, and Theory, ch. i, 264 ff., DESCRIPTION, and Explanation, 53,

345 ff., 369 ff.; definition of, 7 ff., 99 ff.; conditions of, 54 ff.; 96 ff.;
326; solidarity of, 10 ff.; con- disparagement of, 93 ff., 99 ff.
servatism of, 18 ff.

DESIRE, 295, 331 ff.
BERGSON, H., 50, 74, 223, 224, 229 DEWEY, J., 202, 211, 225, 226, 239,
ff., 238 ff., 251, 255 ff., 261 ff., 299ff.

313, 315
BERKELEY, 122 ff., 135 ff., 171, 280 DilTHEY W., 153
BODY, properties of, 51 ff.; feeling DIONYSIUS THE AREOPAGITE, 170

of, 283 f., 292 f. (See also under DOGMATISM, 171 ff., 183 ff.
PHYSICAL REALITY.)

DUALISM, 119 ff., 122 ff., 136, 308 ff.,
BOUTROUX, E., 36

357
BRADLEY, F. H., 101, 133, 149, 150,
157, 177, 181, 214, 280

EGO-CENTRIC PREDICAMENT, argu.
BROWNE, Sir Thomas, 19

ment from the, 129 ff., 133, 158,
BÜCANER, 68 ff.

217, 271, 317, 318

EHRENFELS, C. v., 339
CAIRD, E., 149, 156

EMPIRICISM, 242 ff., 363 ff.
CASSIRER, E., 146

ENERGY, 58 ff.
CATEGORIES, the, 139 ff., 149, 158 ff. EPISTEMOLOGY. (See KNOWLEDGE.)
CAUSALITY, 99 ff., 355; moral, 341 ff. EQUIVOCATION, 169 ff., 180 ff.
CIVILIZATION, 4, 47, 188, 268, 328, ERROR, 204, 323 ff.
. 343

ETHICS, 145, 192, 331 ff. (See also
CAESTERTON, G. K., 9

under MORALITY, VALUE, GOOD,
CHRISTIANITY, 5, 14, 31

RIGHT.)

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198; absolute, ch. viii, 325; and
civilization, 188 ff.; and prag.
matism, 217 ff., 239, 247; and

ethics, 338
IDEAS, 137, 200 ff., 226, 231, 265,

327, 351, 357 ff., 363; agreement
of, 358; intention of, 358. (See
also under MIND, as content, and

KNOWLEDGE.)
IMMANENCE, theory of, 306 ff.
IMMEDIACY, 224 ff., 237, 359
IMMEDIATISM os. intellectualism. ch.

x; and subjectivism, 239; and

realism, 240
IMMORTALITY, 191, 374
INDEFINITE POTENTIALITY, 66 ff., 75
INDEPENDENCE, theory of, 308,

313 ff., 331 ff., 335 ff.
INDETERMINISM, 371 ff.; pluralism

and, 249, 253; and time, 250 ff.;

and intellectualism, 254 ff.
INFINITY, 103 ff.
INITIAL PREDICATION, definition by,

126 ff., 133, 158, 217, 271, 317
INTELLECTUALISM, 222; critique of,

ch. X, 366 ff.; 'vicious,' 228 ff.
234 ff., 367; and indeterminism,
254 ff. (See also under IDEAL-

ISM.)
INTEREST, 300 ff., 333, 342, 351
INTROSPECTION, 273, 275 ff., 288

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JAMES, W., 9, 197, 206, 207, 209,

210, 214, 215, 224, 226, 233, 240,
244, 248, 249, 253, 263, 265, 266,
278, 284, 312, 344; philosophy of,
Appendix; theory of mind of,
349 ff.; theory of knowledge of,
356 ff.; theory of truth of, 360 ff.;

philosophy of religion of, 369 ff.
JOACHIM, H. H., 150, 155, 175, 184,

186, 325
JONES, H., 190, 191

IDEALISM, cardinal principle of, 38,

105, ch. vi, 154 ff.; and religion,
38, 107, 190 ff.; Platonic, 114 ff.;
modern, 117 ff.; proofs of, 126 ff.,
156 ff., 315 ff.; objective or trans-
cendental, ch. vii; empirical, 142;
metaphysical, 143, 144, 148 ff.;
critical, 144 ff.; intellectualistic,
144, 146, 148 ff., 177; voluntaris-
tic, 144, 146, 150 ff., 161, 178,

KANT, 34, 37, 118, 136, 139 ff.,

142 ff., 175, 280, 338
KNOWLEDGE, value of, 4 ff., 320 ff.,

368; theory of, 119 ff., 187; prag-

MORALITY, 333 ff.
MOTOR THEORY, of consciousness,

matic theory of, ch. ix, 242 ff.,
356 ff.; realistic theory of, ch. xiii;
mediate, 200 ff., 226, 231, 314 ff.,
351. (See also under IMMEDIACY,
IDEAS, INTELLECTUALISM, MEAN-
ING, REPRESENTATION.)

298 ff.

MÜNSTERBERG, H., 90, 178 ff., 181,

191, 280, 299, 335
MYSTICISM, 170, 182

Law, 55, 100, 255, 341
Le Roy, E., 80, 82, 230
LIFE, 197, 238, 262, 341; realistic

philosophy of, ch. xiv
LOCKE, 33, 120 ff., 142
LOGIC, 82 ff., 145 ff., 166, 175, 180,

192, 199, 234 ff., 259, 310, 319, 367
LYMAN, E. W., 191

NATORP, P., 145, 279
NATURALISM, definition of, 38, 45 ff.;

naive, 63, 64, 68 ff.; critical, 63,
75 ff.; and religion, 74, ch. v, 345
ff.; and pragmatism, 39, 198,

219; and realism 39
NATURE, the knowledge of, 120, 122.

(See also under NATURALISM and

SCIENCE.)
NECESSITY, 140, 160

OPTIMISM, 344
OSTWALD, W., 75

McDOUGALL, W., 298
MACH, E., 78 ff., 298, 310
McTAGGART, J. M. E., 157, 177,

183, 191
MARBURG SCHOOL, 145
Mass, 57 ff.
MATERIALISM, 68 ff. (See also un-

der NATURALISM.)
MATHEMATICS, 82 ff., 116, 319
MEANING, 201 ff., 278, 358, 363
MECHANISM, 56 ff., 108, 116, 198,344
MEMORY, 294
MIND, 78, 79; as substance, 136;

and body, 283 ff., 292 ff., 298 ff.,
303, 308 ff.; the universal or ab-
solute, 140, 143, 144, 148, 180,
183, 185; as action of subject, 254,
274, 279 ff., 297 ff.; realistic theory
of, ch. xii; definition of, 303 ff.,
322; as content, 274, 275 ff.,
286 ff.; relational theory of, 277 ff.,
320, 352 ff.; as interest, 300 ff.,
350 ff.; evolution of, 304; the ani-

mal, 302; the individual, 353
MIRACLES, 88
MONISM, of matter, 68 ff.; of force,

70 ff.; of substance, 72 ff.; episte-
mological, 124 ff., 308; absolutism

and, 166, 245, 373
MONTAGUE, W. P., 316
MOORE, A. W., 209, 218
MOORE, G. E., 321 ff., 331 ff.

PANPSYCHISM, 74, 315
PAPINI, G., 230, 264
PEARSON, K., 76 ff.
PERCEPTION, 205 ff., 226, 289 ff.,

299, 359, 306, 307, 365 ff.
PHENOMENALISM, 365
PHILOSOPHY, and belief, 4, 21 ff.;

and science, ch. ii; and religion,
ch. ii, 85 ff.; theoretical, 29, 40,

107, 154, 329 ff.
PHYSICAL WORLD, 275, 308 ff., 353.

(See also under Body.)
PLATO, 31, 114 ff., 167 ff., 171 ff.
PLURALISM, 242 ff., 371 ff.; and em-

piricism, 242 ff.; and external rela-
tions, 244 ff.; and religion, 246 ff.;

and indeterminism, 249, 253, 344
POINCARÉ, H., 79 ff.
POSITIVISM, 38
PRAGMATISM, definition of, 39,

197 ff., 267, 363, 364; theory of
knowledge of, ch. ix, 231, 325;
and naturalism, 39, 198, 219;
and realism, 213 ff.; and idealism,
217 ff., 239, 247; and empiricism,
242 ff.; and religion, 246 ff., 264 ff.
(See also under JAMES, W.)

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