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14. I will ascend above the cloudy heights,

And be as the Most High.

15. Nay, but to Hades must thou go down,

To the recesses of the pit !
16. They that see thee shall view thee closely,

They shall consider thee;
" Is this the man that made the earth to tremble,

That did shake kingdoms?
17. That made the world as a wilderness,

And destroyed its cities?
That opened not the house of his prisoners,

All the kings of the nations? 18. They all lie in honour,

Each in his house;
19. But thou art cast out from thy tomb,

As a rejected sucker;
Clothed with the slain, with the pierced by the sword,

They cast thee on the stones of the pit.
20. As a trampled carcase, thou canst not be put together,

To be with them in thy burial :
Because thou hast destroyed thy land,

Hast slain thy people.
Never more shall be renowned'

The seed of the wicked.

21. Prepare ye slaughter for his children,

For the sin of their father:
That they rise not, nor inherit the earth,

Nor fill the face of the earth with cities.

The commencement of this song of triumph might be applied to the fall of the king of Babylon, or of any great conqueror and tyrant that had been the



· Rather, “Shall not be named for ever;" į. . the family shall not be perpetuated. See Vitringa on the place, vol. i.

p. 439.

mankind; but must be especially applicable to the fallen hero of that great day, when “ the Lord of hosts shall break the staff of the wicked, and the sceptre of rulers," in his last conflict with the apostate nations. At that time, we know from other Scriptures, “ the oppressor" and “the spoiler ceaseth for ever.” The sword of the warrior, like the axe in the hand of the woodcutter, will no more thin the earth of its inhabitants, or invade the chosen residence of Israel. God's enemies too, at that time, we know, will “ not die the common death of all men,” or “ be visited after the visitation of all men;" but “ the Lord will make a new thing, and the earth shall open her mouth and swallow them up, and all that appertain to them, and they will go down alive into the pit.” The same fate, we shall learn hereafter, awaits a still mightier foe, in a still more distant period. The fall of Satan himself is, perhaps, included in the type, and indeed part of the language used respecting the typical personage, is such as could hardly be applied to any objects of human ambition.

The “ morning star” of the twelfth verse appears to be another symbol to denote the former splendor of the now fallen foe. His arrogancy, too, in opposing himself to the God of heaven, is strongly marked in the thirteenth and fourteenth verses. If we have respect to the Babylonian monarch, he had violated his sanctuary upon earth, the holy places of Jerusalem, with apparent impunity; and, puffed up with pride, he seemed to bid defiance to the Almighty himself, like another Pharaoh, exclaiming, “ Who is the Lord, that I should let Israel go? I know not the Lord.”

But the language of the sacred song evidently describes a threat of the adversary against the holy place of the

tabernacles of the Most High, that is not executed; but the boaster is cut off in the midst of his vain threatenings. Hence I conclude, that this belongs to the great antitype of the king of Babylon, who certainly perishes in an attack upon Jerusalem in the last conflict. Compare what we have read in the last oracle, where the king of Assyria was in some sort the type; but especially the forty-eighth psalm.

After this sacred song of anticipated triumph, the prophecy draws to its close; and the twenty-second and third verses may be called its application to the literal Babylon—which is followed by a more general application to the last foe.

22. I will stand up against them, saith Jehovah Sabaoth,

And I will cut off from Babylon the name and remnant,

The increase and the posterity, saith Jehovah. 23. And I will make her the inheritance of the bitterns, pools of

And I will plunge her into the mire of destruction :'

Saith Jehovah Sabaoth.

What follows, introduced by the oath of the Almighty, in reference, perhaps, to the oath in Deut. xxxii. 40, applies the grand burden of the whole to the last enemy. 24. Jehovah Sabaoth hath sworn, saying :

Surely as I devised, so hath it been,

And as I have proposed, shall this stand;
25. According as I broke the Assyrian in my land,

So on my mountains will I trample HIM:
And his yoke shall be removed from off them,
And his burden shall be taken from their shoulders.

See Simon, in NOKI.

26. This is the purpose which is purposed concerning the whole

earth, And this is that hand which is stretched out against all

nations. 27. Surely Jehovah Sabaoth hath purposed; who then shall

disannul? And his hand is stretched out; who then shall turn it back?

It is plain, from the correct rendering of these words, that something is contemplated as already done; and a similar design respecting some other occurrence is declared, fixed, and determined. What these two events are, is next explained : as “ I break,” or have broken, the Assyrian in my hands, so will I crush HIM: that is, in the usual style of Scripture, the great emphatic adversary. The destruction of Sennacherib would take place in a few years; it is contemplated as past and done. In like manner, on the mountains of Israel, should the great subject of the foregoing prophecy, typified by the king of Babylon, come to his end. The literal king of Babylon could not be intended; because neither on the mountains, nor in the land of Israel, did any monarch of that race meet his fate. That the Scripture, therefore, be not broken, his antitype must fall there. The twenty-sixth verse, indeed, plainly teaches us to extend the meaning of the whole prophecy beyond the partial history of the then contending and rising kingdoms. I

16 The circumstance of this judgment being to be executed on God's mountains, is of importance: it may mean the destruction of Sennacherib's army near Jerusalem, and have a still further view.


Compare Ezek. xxxix. 4, and see Lowth on this place of Isaiah." Bishop LowTH. Vitringa observes to the same effect, “ The schemes of impious ambition ascribed to the Babylonian despot, suit ex


Remarks on the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Chapters.

I Pass over the burdens of Philistia and of Moab in the latter part of the fourteenth, and in the fifteenth and sixteenth chapters: though I am persuaded they have a bearing, in their close, on the glorious kingdom of Messiah, “ when he shall have had mercy on his land and on his people.”

But in the seventeenth and eighteenth chapters we have a prophecy that more directly concerns the object of our inquiry. It is entitled the “ Burden of Damascus;" but the title by no means corresponds with the prophecy. The subject is the dispersion of the ten tribes, and their restoration in the last days. Damascus being at this time in close confederacy with Israel, their joint destruction is mentioned and contrasted together; and hence the title which the Jewish editors have attached to the prophecy. 1. Lo, Damascus is removed from being a city,

And is become a heap of ruins !

actly with the character of the man of sin,' * as delineated by Daniel and St. Paul, and seem to indicate that the prophecy extends to much later times than those of the Babylonian empire. The Babylonian monarchs were in some

measure types of Antichrist, as they seem to have affected divine honours. See Judith, viïi. 8. Vitringa conceives that there is a manifest allusion to Antichrist in this passage.” — HORSLEY,

It should rather be “ the wicked."

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