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his people's wrongs, charged to execute the judgment of the Almighty, as “ the lion of the tribe of Judah :" —

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13. Jehovah shall come forth as a champion,

And like a warrior shall he rouse his' ardour.
He shall call out, and raise the shout!

And upon his enemies he shall exert his strength. 14. Must I for ever be silent?

Must I hold my peace, and contain myself?
Must I cry out like a travailing woman?

Must I stand appalled' while I pant with desire ? 15. I will make desolate the hills and the mountains,

And I will dry up all their herbage;
And I will turn the rivers into arid tracts,'
And I will dry up the lakes!

By these metaphors, no doubt, the change which the manifested wrath of Almighty God will make in the countries that are the seat of the enemy, is intended. It agrees with what was before predicted of the mystic Edom. *

Again, we view him as the leader of his people, by that miraculous route that restores their happiest remnant:

16. And I will lead the blind by a way they know not,

By paths they know not will I conduct them.

1 Dwx, vulgo desolabo, sed incerta est verbi significatio ac tiva; malim ergo exponere obstupesco ; sequitur et hio pariter, i.e.

miror."-Sim. Ler. Heb.

, With Houbigant and Lowth, reading any for Enx.

* Chap. xxxiv.

I will turn darkness into light before them,
And the rugged places into a smooth plain.
These things will I do for them,
And I will not forsake them,

This language seems to impress us with the idea, that the people who are the object of this guidance are themselves ignorant of the issue; and what follows below corroborates the conjecture. But, first, the confusion of the idolatrous foe, with whom we are well acquainted from former prophecies, is described :

17. They were turned backward, they were utterly confounded,

Who trusted in the graven image:
Who said to the molten image,
"! Ye are our Elohim."

What follows is, I conceive, addressed to the people in the Desert -.“ led by a way they knew not:"

18. O ye deaf, hear ye,

Look, ye blind, that ye may see; 19. Who is so blind as my servant,

Or so deaf as he to whom I send my messengers ?'
Who is blind as he that is fully instructed,'
And deaf as the servant of Jehovah ?

« Ut ad quem nuncios meos Arab. pluro, obwobem, intemisi.”—Vulg. CHALDEE, and BP. grum se alicui tradidit, v. e. Deo." LOWTH. Stock and Vitringa are I have preferred, on the whole, Bp. with our authorised translation. Lowth's rendering; or we may

i obwrş is rendered by Bishop render, “ He that is wholly de: Lowth, " fully instructed.” Simon voted, to me;" or, perhaps, “ Ho illustrates its meaning, “ Consum who is the subject of the fulfilment matus, perfectus, vel portius, qui of promises and prophecies," u totum Deo tradit, unitarius,"

20. Thou hast seen indeed,' but thou wouldst not observe ;

Though thine ears were opened, thou wouldst not hear. 21. Jehovah'was gracious unto him for his righteousness sake,

He hath magnified the law, and made it glorious.'

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There is certainly something doubtful in the construction of these lines, and some obscurity in their application. Upon the whole, I conceive them, as has been observed, to relate to the Israelites; “ the blind led by the way they know not,” of a former verse. These, notwithstanding the wonderful dispensation of which they are the objects, are still blind and ignorant. But Jehovah, for his truth and righteousness sake - his pledged truth, and his covenant in the righteous Saviour, accepts them; and the divine revelation, of which they were onee the keepers, and of which they are still so much the subject, will be wonderfully magnified and honoured in God's last dealings with this people,

But, as it appears from the verses that follow, this people as a nation are doomed to the very last to suffer chastisement for their sins, * in the same manner as they have hitherto done for many centuries : and we who hear these words, are bid to mark these judgments with particular attention, in our prospects and forebodings of what is to come to pass hereafter:

min mona, see Bishop Lowth's note.

• The last mentioned author renders these lines, “ Yet Jehovah was gracious to him for his truth's sake. He has exalted his own praise, and made it glorious." I

conceive “ law," or “ instruction," here, is put for revelation in general. Bishop Horsley conceives the whole to be a description of the Messiah's patient endurance of “reproach and injury in the days of his flesh.”

• Psalın l. 7.

22. But this is a people spoiled and plundered,

They are all of them snared in the toils,
And are concealed in the houses of the prisons.
They are for a prey, and none delivereth;

For a spoil, and none saith, Restore. 23. Who among you heareth this,

Let him attend, and understand for the future. 24. Who hath given up Jacob for a spoil,

And Israel to the plunderers ?
Is it not Jehovah,
He against whom they have sinned?
For they were not content to walk in his ways,

And they hearkened not unto his law. 25. Therefore hath he poured upon them the heat of his wrath,

And the violence of war:
And it has kindled a flame around him, and he observeth

And it hath set him on fire, but he regardeth not.

All this, I conceive, will much illustrate the prophecy in the sixty-eighth psalm.


On the Forty-third Chapter.

At length the time of their deliverance arrives : the constant providence that attends them in all seasons of their adversity, and their complete triumph at last, is descanted on at some length in the following chapters : and the subject of our more immediate inquiry, the second advent, as we have been before admonished, is

in its approach, and in the signs of its coming, most intimately connected with the closing scenes of Israel's eventful history, and of the history of the Holy Land, the promised lot of their inheritance.

The leading subject of the whole series of prophecy from the fortieth chapter, I would again remark, is the coming of the Redeemer, and the final deliverance of his people. This is not only the ultimate, but also the prineipal and immediate theme of these prophecies. The deliverance from the Babylonian captivity by Cyrus, as we shall see, soon comes in the view of the prophetic vision; and is pointed out as a matter of immediate interest to the remnant of Israel, so lately rescued from the Assyrian invasion. This event also, as bearing some faint resemblance to that greater deliverance, and to that greater deliverer to be hereafter, may be considered as a type of the same. I cannot, however, consider the general prophecy as an allegory and type in Bishop Lowth's sense of these terms. For, in that case, our business would first be to find out the literal and immediate meaning and application of these prophecies to Cyrus, and to that Israel which he sent forth from Babylon, The language of the prophet might, in this case, be only strictly proper of these events, and the application of it to the coming of the Messiah, and to the gathering of the people to him, might be merely figurative, and by very remote allusion. But, I believe, , this is far from being the true nature of these prophecies. The Redeemer, at the epocha of his second coming, and the final restoration of his people, I am more and more convinced, are the objects which, though more distant, the vision is intended immediately to show to us; and it shows them in their true colours, and not under the

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