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November, 1539, both contains a distinct allusion to the mu probability of the foundation of another college and dwells at length upon the great importance of the Franciscan buildings to the university'. In the following January, again, a letter, pro Academia, written by Roger Ascham, e senatu nostro, to Thirleby, bishop of Westminster', expresses the concern of the community at the little progress they are making in their endeavours to attain the latter object of their desire,– 'the house of the Franciscans,' says the letter, 'is not only an ornament to the university but is especially suited for holding congregations and for the transaction of the other business of the body.

Another feature common to these two letters is that they Three alike describe the university as much straitened in its peene Bir niary resources and materially diminished in numbers. The letter to the king speaks of the students in the colleges as in applying with commendable industry to their studies, but adds that these are now almost the only stuilents left in Cambridge'. Ascham declares that 'poverty casts asiile shame in begging,' and implores Thirleby to have compassion on his

the uni

.11: اه ، ۱۹۱۱ را به ۲ ، ۱۰ ، ۱۱- !دل ۰۱/۱۰,vi

I 'Interea temporis fratrum jam 3.Franciucanorum ncleanon molo vacua coenobia, ki vel in id tempt18 deena et ornamentinin ara la mine, sred quo collegiuin aliquod erigere Ofiqurtunitats. Ma* a comitis et plucrbil luar Joj. erruma, wlw! omnia wsbomine?! mtia crufirjosla ripreste, nontrar unum, ut pcemnitas habent.' Aurdalni, tiprial, p. :3.52 oxinnt, aliter oli pooblema, etc.......... * Sain niso ita sortantib'ls pirata Irauriwatorum nodas, wbi urlu ino wigniorra ante romilingur melnut role. brubuntur, quan me sulldorein wrino AP 11 nebudane. Arulmasin. domnim tune 16cte marius, quamplio viti di un piane, **Se querel soit tinta kratain rein nobis omnibus, quan inil compolina porini, inamo pro. Decesariam nostrae reipulo, quam NT6*118* rrinse in di rislinunium tua Junitieentia dignam, ki vel eat pluriini nolikut, kive quae sit alia mojo lar iaria, facies, non corninowle cunque car-a, illud pto minor litterae, plenius ac in« lius visa Pro hal ton, iurbim vrhulumtironum vise cancelarii Diri For enarralit.' trinum rehimentit enne imunum, Letter to Hon. IIII. Epist. decil. I di piaceri. quo alun! a !! 1. qui 207-!1; Baker JS5.1333. Darwili, diubnis litteris el continenter incun. “Scriptae erant litterae df". Writhize burnt, aut nellos apuén is, aut purpuan leo et D. Thomae Crom, Canc. bos. purus inreniri. Qaam rem euzun tro, dat. lor. e), sub eolein tenore, numerur, ail innumerarn tham pie. viz. de Franciscurum acdibus et de bein edocendam. Academiae duro povo collegio institut pilo,' Ibid. nisi valde ppulosae ac fredentes

: He was of Trinity Hall and had fuerint, mint emitere, ne izzo me. proceedheid r.c.. in 1951. Cooper, lius ac reriis quam tna prudentia otth. 1 27.

nurin' Epidl. deud. iwi.

Jestitute and unhappy university!! A third letter, addressed sont the same time by the university to Wriothesley, affirms t.3: while in scholarship the Cambridge of the present far surpzéses the past, in point of numbers it can sustain no comparison eres with quite recent times? That this condition of affairs

, in a great measure, the result of the dissolution of the I-919-eries is directly stated in the last of these letters', nor Ga we suppose that it had been unforeseen by the academic 1. rities both at Oxford and Cambridge. The suppression éle few houses in their midst represented, it is to be reE-Led, but a trifling diminution in the monastic clement a: e...f university when compared with that resulting from

slition of such foundations throughout the country. Trading tiine past, the members of these societies, on *** up to the university, had been permitted to reside in

2. runt colleges and hostels,-a relaxation of the nionasIris which probably dated from the time when the ::ins of the 'religious' haul been so great as to make it very to chuct that two members of the same bonso

:I not be allowed to give either ordinary lectures or

pr's on the Sentences at the same time. In marked o'q** to this provision, we find a royal injunction of the 1 91935, issued at a time when the avowel policy of the C:-* was directed rather to reformation than to abolition, e, in the ablat or prior of every house to maintain one uw) of its members (according to the revenues of the

:) at some university,—'which brethren,' says the in::on, 'after they were learned in good and holy letters, ::t, when they returned home, instruct their brethren, 2) cantly teach the word of God.' That a stimulus

" Fot. 312.

tempore non tam ampla compendia 3 qui none Cantabrigine de meliocri doctrina et eruditione

*mes dant operam, eos qni xperentur, quanta tum cum Jonaste. .rranea in Academia fue. ria cantana que valuere, qure fue.

pline s!ile fare intelli. fant indoctorum omnium fvtfupia, s! L'esprime inter eos coin. exactari solebant.' Ibid.

9 ***, * ratat* nuine ro vin. Towments, 13:M. Put tutan tu bocorum esse Wilkins, conc. 111 700; kee also Tix qui quam cresInt.' Leichton's letter to Cromwell in

Wright's suppression of the Monus. **'s 1. air lembrei hane exse terse", p. 71. CD inimus, quod cuin hoc



the ulu

As .

trditer to


religious thought of the nation throughout the century to CAP. L which the sister university could make no claim.

But although the influence of the Reformation was predominant, there still existed at Cambridge a considerable party who viewed with equal dislike the new learning and the new theology. Alanc, as we have just scon, lud been plence of

had driven from the university by their machinations, and two years later the same feelings found more formal expression verty. nt St John's College. In that society the more reasonable nnd respectable conservative element was still opposing a pertinacious check to the innovating policy supported by the younger fellows. In 1537 this struggle reached a crisis, and 1.rtinn at Dr Metcalfe, who had held the mastership ever since the case year 1518, was induced under something like compulsion to be Metcall retire from the post. He had been greatly esteemed by Fisher, of whose virtues and habits of thought lie was no unfit representative. Roger Ascham, who was then a young Ae'an's student in the college, long afterwards described him as one sides who ‘was parciall to none, but indifferent to all: a master for the whole, a father to every one in that college. There was none,' he goes on to say, 'so poore, if he had either wil to goodnes, or wit to learning, that could lacke being there, or should depart from thence for any neel. I am witnes myself, that mony many tymes was brought into yong mens studies by strangers whom they knew not'.' It was however well known that Metcalfe was distrusted by the new chana cellor and the court, for although he bad yielled to the recent innovations with both teir per and tact, he was sups posed to regard them with secret dislike and to be still a Catholic at heart. Under these circumstances the interests of the college may have seemed to call for his removal', I Ascham, Scholemaster (ed. Jayor), unwillingly resigned) that preler.


ment in the same way that Day had 3.It is very observable that Dr done before him, and that unile Day, who succeciled him in the mas. bishop Dar's own roof, to make way tership here and was removed from for a third parron. And yet these hence to King's College, was after. tuo great men, who thua joutled out waris obliged to abulicute his pro. one another, lov been rery dear and vostwhip to make room for Chick, entire in their friendship whilst they and that Sir John Check after a few lived wer Dr Metenlle, to ulioin years' enjoyment did abilicate (i.c. they both owed their rire and life


p. 160.

EL but nothing could well bo moro impolitic than the subscquent

conduct of the socicty. They proceeded to jutition Cromweil for full liberty to clect a new master, 'giving him,' according to Baker, 'strong hopes that all should be transicted to his satisfaction: Cromwell guvo a forinal &xscnt to this petition, although at the samo timo the alloge reccived a significant intimation that Dr Day, one of the royal chaplains and public orator in the university, would be no unfit person for their choice. We must look upon it as a last and fruitless effort to assert their indeprudence that the majority of the voters elected Dr Nicholas Wilson, formerly master of Michaelhouse, who was not only a staunch opponent of the theory of the royal supremacy but had recently been a state prisoner on a charge of misprision of treason. Fortunately Wilson had the prudlence and good sense to decline the perilous honour, and the college, a vaking somewhat tardily to the rashness of its conduct, thereupon proceeded to elect D: Day. The anger of the chancellor, however, was not lightly expressed, and it needed no slight cutrition and all the united eloquence of Fox and the new master to avert from the society the royal displeasure and the consequences of its indiscretion.

The suppression of the smaller monasteries in 1536 and the consequent uprising of the northern counties, though doubilees watched with intense interest both at Oxford and Cambriilge, bad but slightly affected the actual condition of the two universities. But now the tide of revolution rolled cirer, and the visitation of the larger monasteries, followed by their ultimate surrender in 1537 and 1538, both touched the interests and affected the character of academic life very nearly. The work was directed by Cromwell with his usual consummate sagacity. While the most influential of the Dobility and gentry were bribed into acquiescence by the promise or the actual bestowal of the richest abbey lands, the scholar and the church man were induced to keep silence

pening' Baker. Mayor, p. 105. See,
nach to the sano effect. Fuller.
Prcket and Wright, p. 227.

1 Baker. Maror, p. 110.
' Ibid. pp. 111-2.

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by tho hopo of rocing now and xplendid hoincs of learning Mar. I. endowed from the monastic #poils. Jilxl na tho confiscation of the cutates of the alien priorics under Henry v haul given birth to Eton and King's College,—119 thnt of the lands of the smaller monnuteries under Wolsey had resulted in tho foundntion of Cardinal College and the grammar school at Ipswich, so, it was imagined, the final abolition of the monasteries would prove to the universities a yet more splendid gain. At this period the activity of Latimer is astonishing, and Actietty of

Latimer. probably no one individual in those days, Cromwell alone excepted, attracteil to himself a larger share of the nation's interest and sympathy. We trace him at the university, Ile to the where he was Cromwell's most trusted agent and corre-courteenspondent, now furnishing letters of introduction to fellows mwen of St John's about to solicit freedom to clect a master of university. their own choice', or intimating that isaffection' (such as had been shewn in the matter of Wilson's clection) is not yet altogether banished from that society',—now entrcating Cromwell to remember 'poor Clare Hall,' at that time groaning under Crayford's despotic rule,—now suggesting that he should, from time to time, send for the inasters of the different colleges and inspect the statutes, dismissing the former and altering the latter whenever he might see cause'. We see him in his own diocese issuing injunctions to his clergy to procure for themselves copies of the Institution, and to the monasteries to provide themselves with English bibles and testamonts and with schoolmasters who could teach grammar. We find him, again, at Paul's Cross, sounding Tie inhigh and clear the koy-note to which the pulpits throughout naine time

wunasteria England were enjoined to attunc their exhortations. When

? 15 July, 1.537. “For these two : Sep. 1, 1337. As for S. John's fellows of St John's College, Cam. college, I can say no more but that bridge, do come to your lorilwhip in all factions and affections be not yet the name of the whole college, to exiled out of Cambridge: and yet, the intent to shew your lorilship the my good lord, extend your goodness tenor of their statute as touching the thereunto, fora-much as you be their election of a new master,' etc. (La- chancellor, that in your time they bo timber.Corric, 11 37N). With refer. not trolden under foot.' Ibid. 11 ance, evidently, to the election of Metculse's successor.

* Ilid, 11 378.


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