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cu the monasteries bad been finally marked out for destruction,

kis unrivalled powers of sarcasm and invective were turned with terrible force upon the most palpable and indefensible abuses. The gross absurdities perpetrated in connexion with the veneration of relics were especially singled out by him for feathing ridicule. “I think,' he cried, in his famous second son bfore Convocation, 'ye have heard of St Blesis's heart wlich is at Malverne and of St Algar's bones, how lung t!ey deluded the people; I am afraid, to the loss of many souls. Whereby men may well conjecture that all about in this realm there is plenty of such jugglin; conceits'.'

The myal commissioners, on their errand of confiscation, caught up the hint with alacrity. As seen in their letters to Cromwell, they appear to have been actuated by a spirit in which contempt for superstition and greed of gain were Bornewhat oddly compounded, and the rich settings and jewels thiut adorned the relics rendered these monastic treasures a special object of their cupidity. I have Malkow's ere that Prier struke of,' wrote the bishop of Dover. Dr London sent Tird that he had already captured two heads of St Ursula and hui tidings of a third. Ap Rice, at Bury, reported the filing of the cules that St Lawrence was tosted withall, the puring of S: Elmunles naylles, St Thomas of Canterbury's panekny ff and bis bootes, and divers skulles for the hedw.e' The completc enumeration included objects which, tigh designed by monastic imposture to excite veneration, it appears profanity now to name. To such excesses had an ancient superstition been carriel, which, as at first harboured by the (liristian Church, might undoubtelly claim the sancon of some of the most illustrious of her teachers,

On Cambriduse the final dissolution intlicted a blow of which the outward and visible traces long remained. The L.sp executed under the direction of archbishop Parker thirtysix years later shews the sites and surrounding orchards of tre out of the four foundations of the Mendicant Friars

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+ IW.133.

* Lattere mining to the Suppres. * m the Unasteries (ed. Thos,

Wright. Camden Society), pp. 212, 231, MJ, eto.

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still unoccupied, -the house of the Augustinian Friars near CTAP.LV the old Botanic Gardens, looking on to what is now Pembroke Street, - that of the Dominicans standing where Emmanuel College with its gardens was shortly to appear, while a solitary small tenement in one corner of a broad expanse of orchard ground, which is traversed by the King's Brook, alonc represents the once splendid buildings of the Franciscans'. Of these foundations, none fell much regretted. The reputation which the Augustinian house had acquired under Barnes' presidency faded away with liis departure; and the men who had ruled the Dominican society for the last quarter of a century, Jullys, Oliver, and Pickering, haul acquired little esteem in the university, and were notoriously opposed to all reform?

It was natural that the university should hold that it had the first claim to benefit by the dissolution of the houses in its immediate neighbourhood, and we accordingly now find the pens of its most distinguished scholars not infrequently employed for the purpose of urging upon royalty and other influential personages the consideration of its case. The The Carmel example, in this respect, was first set by Queens' College. Between that foundation and King's College there stood the ancient house of the Carmelites, which now presented a pitiable spectacle of external and visible decay. Their poverty indeed had already led them to alienate portions of their property to the authorities of King's College and of Queens”. The latter of these societies was at this time presided over

its and

Culing

? Their ancient importance may be 1.531, one Disse, appears to baro inferred froin the fact that the house been a bachelor of divinity and to Lal been, in the rein of Ricbard 11, have preached in the univerzity sc lected as the place of assembly for church. Prpare of Ilint. MSS. Com. the Purliament which met at Cam. mixxion, iv 117. briidue. Baker- Navor, p. 38.

3 Scarle, lixt. of Queens' Coll., p. * An exception however is to be 191-6. On 25 Nos. 133), the car. mnde in favour of the prior at the melites leased to William Du-sing. time of the dissolution, who is de. A fellow of kingin, a karin with a scribeul by Hilsey, bishop of Roches. house thereupon, which lay on the ter, in a letter to ('runwell, as 'n north side of their church. This man of good lernyne and a preclare piece of ground was tinalig cridad to of God's treue gospell,' and al-o as hing's College for £26. Or. Mil. iur. opposed to imaye worslip. Eiling ing the prosentship of John Chele. Leilers (3), 111 *. The band of the Coopér, Tunalx, d. d C., p. 2;%. Franciscun house in Canabrid in

ly Dr Vey, a warm supporter of the Reformation, and distinguished by the ability with which he had discharged the daties of the office of cominissary to Cranmer in the diocese of Norwich. To his prudence and aptitude for practical a:Tairs', the college was largely indebted throughout this periind, and in the work of administration he was effectively semanded by two of the fellows,-one the celebrated Thomas Saith, the other, Richard Wilkes, afterwards master of Christ's College.

In view of the impending dissolution, Dr Mey had already ol:ained from the Carmelites a formal promise of the transfer { their property into the bands of the college authorities'. It was however necessary that this transfer should be sanctived by the Crown, and for this purpose a letter, couched in a superior Latinity, at once suggestive of Smith's hand, was forwarded to Cromwell, beseeching his good offices in their behalf. It sets forth that the friars, owing to the decline of false religion and of the supplies once yielled by the practice of mendicancy, bad already nearly all forsaken tle bouse; and those who remained were unable alike to maintain themselves and to keep the premises in repair. The writers doubt not that it is the royal design (cujus te mir immerito capit et principem esse putamus) to convert the house to better and more reputable uses, and they suggest that the premises, though not extensive, would be flest useful to the college. They proceed accordingly to urge their claims on the royal favour. They recall how, windercr royalty had visited Cambridge, Queens' College L:d almost invariably been selected as its place of sojourn, the college standing remote from the noise of the town, and bing not without a certain charm of situation. But if the jacent property should pass into other hands it was inpasbie to say to what base uses it might not be turned: a granary, or perchance a tannery, might arise, which the

' Dicepea says of bim he was railing corruptions and abuses with.

und in the constitution both out consulting his opinion.' Lires, (Leih and State, and there was P. crrrv. *** any considerable stop lahen : Scarle, llist. of Queens' Coll., p. buurts the reformation of the pre- 2:22.

CHAP. L

of the

college would find a great annoyance and royalty itself, on a future visit, most displeasing! On the other hand, the bestowal of these buildings on the college would be a lasting source of comfort and congratulation to the society, and attended, the petitioners would fain hope, with some advantage to his royal Majesty himself'.

Cromwell, who was then with Henry at Arundel Castle, did not keep the petitioners long in suspense. Their appeal was dated the 8th of August, and on the 16th an answer was returned that the college was empowered, in conjunction with the provost of King's, Dr George Day, to take possession of the property, and, after drawing up a complete inventory of the goods, to hold the same until the royal pleasure was further known. On the 28th of the same month, the Car- Surrender melites, now only six in number, signed a formal deed of Carmelita surrender; and for the next seven years the bursar's accounts shew us the college authorities employed in taking down windows, repairing locks, removing nettles from the neglected garden ground, and finally, in the year 1.341, purchasing of the king's officers the entire building materials of the ancient fabric.

On the 8th of November in the same year, the last of Suppresso these foundations, that of the venerable and once illustrious partai society at Barnwell, surrendered to Dr Leigh in the chapterhouse. Although the valuation made by the commissioners in 153+ shows that the revenues of the priory were still considerable'-they were exceeded by those of only two of the colleges in Cambridge, King's and St John's,-the fact that but six canons, besides the prior, attested the deed of surrender, proves that the house had participated in the prevalent decay.

Encourageil apparently by the success of the authorities are 12 at Queens', the university now commenced to press its claims * more boldly on the attention of the crown, and in the October ihat the of 1338 addressed to Henry a letter congratulating him on I JIS, Cotton, Faustinn,' c. vii, 3 The revenne wag estimated at

The unte

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wulks 102; Searle, Ibill. 'Auditions,' pp. £2:36. 118. 101dCooper, unals,

vi, vii.

1 370.

: Scarle, Ibid. pp. 228.9.

ww his policy of confiscation and at the same time pleading in

suficiently plain language for some share in the spoil. It servilely compared itself to the trembling soldier whom Angustus, as told by Suetonius, rebuked for the groundless trepidation with which he presented his petition! The unLuing clemency, the virtues, and the ardent regard for piety slich distinguish Henry, embolden the petitivücrs to ask lue that for which otherwise they could scarcely have venturul w hope. They dilate on the splendid results alreaily alised by the royal policy: the Roman pontiff shut out fr on the realm, - his indulgences, diploinas, and other empty po*«ICUS (nugre) given to the winds,-the superstitious life, sair n-ligion, and monstrous rites of monasticism abolished, the friars, 'a race begotten of fraud and falsehood, the rem. Daat of the Pharisees and false philosophers,' expelled. But it is not, they urge, sufficient to root up the evil weeds, good med must also be sown; and the university is deeply moved by the spectacle of the downfall of these societies in its midst, -moved, not to deplore their fate, but to hope that these aziat haunts of superstition and vain religion may yet be

le subservient to Christian doctrine and to the spread of wird learning-that, in brief, these same houses, from chce 'swarms of lazy drones and great throngs of impostors Fire once wont to insure,' may be converted into collears, the Dists of young men di-tinguishowed by their aptitude for lian.ing or of older blits well qualified for foreachingo!

Tint this and similar pulitions were recrived with ot Last apparent favour, may be inferred from the sequel. It bongan to be rumoured that it was the royal design to found anwan) splendid college, endowed from monastic revenues;

le we find the university, as the next step, venturing epeals to buy for the gift of the poble premises of the }ranciscans. A petition to Henry, drawn up apparently in

1 Svetopise, Angustus, c. 53.

rpe, Vemorials, i ii. Apr. 26. Bhange (Ibid. Vol. 1, pt. i. c. 41)

Ceret, in the abinet given by kilret', 1 362 repinot the beste efy as rulertiog in this pati.

tion to the monastic foundations generally; bat the espression movet nos fratereulorum mistrorum ruina' proses I think. very clearly that the pit oners bad at the tine only th: Cambridne bones in si.

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