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Cambridge, but also at the Sorbonne and at Louvain,- CILAP avantages for which he was indebted to the liberality of his uncle, a prebendary of St Paul's and a staunch Catholic, who had discerned in his nephew talents which lo designed should be employed for the defence of the ancient faith. But the younger Ridley had taken to the study of Greck, and the knowledge to which he thus gained the key had cularged his views. He had recently, moreover, read the famous treatise on the doctrine of transubstantiation that went by the name of Ratramnus, and haul become convinced of the crror of the Roman doctrino'. lle wils now somewhat over forty years of age, and, with at once more learning and more discretion than Latimer, was becoming one of the most trusted Icaulers of the Reformers. Like the master of St John's, he had already openly borno his protest against the Six Articles.

The other, Matthew Parker, was somewhat Ridley's Wine junior and at this time temporarily withrawn from the university to his college of Stoke-by-Clare", of which, llis mortire through the interest of Ann Boleyn, he hail recently been

Collere appointed dean. It was a pleasant country retreat situated amid green fields and orchards-his Tusculanum, as his young friend Walter Haddon was wont to style it, in professed envy of his lot. Parker was certainly not forgotten at Cambridge, from which he was only some twenty miles removed; but he was at this time in indifferent health and we may well believe that this period of comparative sepse was of inestimable service in enabling him to gather fresh strength for the varied activity and arduous duties of his subsequent career. He was now just thirty-six years of age, a man in whom great natural energy was combined with a singularly retiring disposition which led him, in marked contrast to most of his contemporaries, rather to shun the

I'ARKER

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| Downes, Lires, ib. See also the year 1310, when dreigning a sj. Author's llistory, Vol. 1 10, n. 3. inilar foundation at Thetfund, took

: A college for the training of the them for a model. --a liigla tribute secular clerky. Parker's statutes for from one who wascertainly not friend. the foun lation were consilere so ly to Parker's party. Siryre, Lije of ju licious that the duke of Norfolk in l'arkir, r. 13.

- bonours and prefermeut which from time to time were pre

sated for his acceptance'. Like his friend Skip, just created bishop of Hereford, he had declined Wolsey's alluring invitation to Cardinal College; and it was only under con. serable pressure that he was prevailed upon to act as caplain to Ann Boleyn. While decply read both in the Filers and the Refuriners, he had also acquired a high ripitation as a preacher, and whether he discoursed before rired congregations like those at Madingley, Grantchester, apBarton, or to the more critical audiences at court, his Pirlarity in this respect was already inferior to that of Latiner alone. His retired life at Stuke did not altogether kecure him from attack on account of his courageously arowed sympathies with the Reformation, and in the year 15.30 he had been accused by the townsmen of Clare of 1.2..festing undue contempt for the Catholic ritual?. But d! the great part which he was yet to take in controversy ap) in state affairs, he would seein at this time to have had Do conception, and we picture him to ourselves in bis calm s.clusion at Suke ever and anon deeply pondering the dark questions whereby he had seen so many well-trained intellects perplexed and ever watchfully observant of the stormy times in which he had scen so many a strong purpose and stout Leart go down

Among Parker's most intimate friends was John Skip, wirse name must not be passed by here altogether untired. He had been promoted in the year 1339 to the til pric of Hereford and in the following year resigned the Lestership of Gonville Hall. Prior to this he had been for 6.3.e time resident at court as chaplain to Ann Boleyn, and in this capacity he had continued to render the university fodenice by skilfully directing the royal bounty to the RS of phor and meritorious students, thus ably seconding tie bevolent efforts of Dr Butts.

But while the standard of scholarship was thus rising and * See on this feature in hie charac. Parker Cormyndence, p. 199. Det his bike? to Cecil ( 173), in : The artiles are printed in the by be swaks of his own ‘natural Parker Currespondence, pp. 7-9.

Tol overmucb-bamı la iness."

Cambridge, but also at the Sorbonne and at Louvain, - CILAP.L advantages for which he was indebted to the liberality of his uncle, a prebendary of St Paul's and a staunch Catholic, who had discerned in his nephew talents which lo designed should be employed for the defence of the ancient faith. But the youvger Ridley had taken to the study of Greek, and the knowledge to which he thus gained the key had cularged his views. He had recently, moreover, read the famous treatise on the doctrine of transubstantiation that went by the name of Ratramnus, and haul become convinced of the crror of the Roman doctrine'. He was now somewhat over forty years of nye, and, with at once more learning :11101 more discrction than Latimer, was becoming one of the most trusted leaders of the Reformers. Like the master of St John's, he had already openly borno his protest against the Six Articles.

The other, Matthew Parker, was somewhat Rielley's MATTER junior and at this time temporarily withdrawn from the university to his college of Stoke-by-C'lare”, of which, llis retire through the interest of Ann Buleyn, he had recently been appointed dean. It was a pleasant country retreat situated amid green fields and orchards-his Tusculanum, as his young friend Walter Haddon was wont to style it, in professed envy of his lot. Parker was certainly not forgotten at Cambridge, from which he was only some twenty miles removed; but he was at this time in indifferent health and we may well believe that this period of comparative repose was of inestimable service in enabling him to gather fresh strength for the varied activity and arduous duties of his subsequent career. He was now just thirty-six years of age, a man in whom great natural energy was combined with a singularly retiring disposition which led him, in marked contrast to most of his contemporaries, rather to shun the

L'ANTIL b. t. 155

Cullere

| Downes, Lires, ib. See also author's History, Vol. 1 10, n. 3.

? A college for the training of the secular clergy. Parker's statutes for the foundation were considered so julicious that the duke of Norfolk in

the year 1.310, when designing a si.
milar foundation at Therford, took
them for a molel. -- a high tribute
from one u ho was certainly not friend.
ly to Parker's party. Strype, Lije of
l'arker, p. 13.

11 honours and prefermeut which from time to time were pre

kated for his acceptanco'. Like his friend Skip, just created bishop of Hereford, he had declined Wolsey's alluring invitation to Cardinal College; and it was only under con

derable pressure that he was prevailed upon to act as arteen chaplain to Ann Boleyn. While deeply read both in the

• Fathers and the Reformers, he had also acquired a high reputation as a preacher, and whether he discoursed before nirul congregations like those at Madingley, Grantchester, aud Barton, or to the more critical audiences at court, his popularity in this respect was already inferior to that of Latimer alone. His retired life at Stuke did not altogether scure him from attack on account of his courageously arowed sympathies with the Reformation, and in the year 1339 he haul been accused by the townsmen of Clare of manifesting undue contempt for the Catholic ritual?. But of the great part which he was yet to take in controversy and in state affairs, he would seein at this time to have had Do conception, and we picture him to ourselves in his calm $.cajon at Stoke ever and anon deeply pondering the dark questions whereby he had seen so many well-trained intellects poplexes and ever watchfully observant of the stormy times in which he had scen so many a strong purpose and stout Leart go down.

Among Parker's most intimate friends was Job Skip, wl.rse name must not be passed by here altogether unDed. He had been promoted in the year 1539 to the bepric of Hereford and in the following year resigned the Hier-lip of Gonville Hall. Prior to this he had been for me time resident at court as chaplain to Ann Boleyn, and in this capacity he had continued to render the university Eend service by skilfully directing the royal bounty to the Daf of poor and meritorious students, thus ably seconding the bevolent efforts of Dr Butts.

But while the standard of scholarship was thus rising and ! Se on this feat'ıre in his charac. Parker Correspondence, p. 199. ter ke ktkt lo Ciril (123), in : The articles are printed in the **** be speaks of his own 'natural Parher Correspondence, pp. 7-9. instrol orcmucb-band fatness.'

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2

the promise of not a few of the younger students was singu- CHLAP. larly hopeful, the recent changes were telling with serious at both effect on the general prosperity of both universities. The six years from 1542 to 1548, which mark perhaps the period ozlope' or of the greatest depression, shew us only 191 as adınitted to the degree of B.A. at Cambridge' and at Oxford only 173'. The latter university, indeed, seems to have witnessed a decline yet more serious than that which we have already noted as existing at Cambridge. A letter from the community addressed to Cromwell in 1539 declares that the number of the students has diminished by one balf, and Wood himself admits that Oxford now 'fell into great ruin and decay as well in learning as in virtues, behaviour, and good manners. If we compare with this declaration the language in which Melanchthon at Wittenberg. in 15:37, deplored the neglect that had there overtaken all profound and generous learning, we shall probably be justitied in concluding that the condition of Cambridoro, umsatisfactory though it might be, 'as at least as encouraging as that of any of the universities which espoused the doctrines of the Reformation,

In England however religious differences operated with F.Testa de peculiar intensity ; for while the oath of renunciation of the changes papal authority necessarily excluded all conscientious Catholics, the Six Articles, “a noted touchstone,' as Anthony Wood

' ' truly styles them, “to try the consciences of men,' were a scarcely less formidable stumlling-block to many of the Reformers. To these influences must be added the uncertainty and depression created by the foreboding which had for some years hung over both universities,—that they were apstrated destined before long to share the fate of the monasteries of the According to Harrison, it was not until the king had rebuked statick with more than wonted stemnnoss the greed of the courtiers, declaring that he judged no land better bestowed than that which was given to the universities,' that the machinations

Pelvious

1 Baker USS. 11 35-41.
: Sloane JISS. quotai by Huber,

vol, m ad in.

• Wood-Gorch, 11 69.

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