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prietor, led to a stream of intermittent rain-water gradually forming a channel for itself (uallov wdoroíel § 11) through a burial-ground' planted with fruit-trees. The plaintiff appears to have contended that the channel thus formed was a water-course within the terms of the law; the defendant relies on the existence of the trees and the tombs to prove that it was not a recognised channel, but part of his private ground, accidentally inundated, and repeatedly traversed by water, more than fifteen years before. It was this damage, he contends, that led to his father building the wall for the protection of his property.

Lastly, we have several points that are curiously suggestive on the state of the country-roads in the hilly districts of Attica; the road itself is assumed to be the natural channel for the drainage of the neighbouring hills, and a proper water-course beside the road is declared a thing unheard of. In fact, like some of the present roads of Attica, as described in a modern writer's amusing sketches of Greek brigandage, the road and the stream were one and the same thing, and, except in dry weather, the former hardly existed.

1 For purposes of irrigation, και καλοί νόμοι κείμενοι ουκ άξιοι Plato would allow the tenant to παροχετεύειν λόγοις, αλλ' ο βουdivert water from streams that ληθείς επί των αυτού τόπον άγειν were common property by cut. ύδωρ αγέτω μεν αρχόμενος εκ των ting himself a channel any- κοινών ναμάτων... ή δ' αν βούληται where except through a private άγειν, πλην δι' οικίας ή ιερών τι house or through temples or νών ή και μνημάτων, αγέτω. tombs. Legg. p. 844 A, Tv 2 Edmond About, quoted on υδάτων πέρι γεωργοίσι παλαιοί

p. 231.

EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOLS USED IN THIS EDITION IN RECORDING

VARIOUS READINGS.

As a general rule, wherever our text (that of W. Dindorf's third Edition) agrees with that of the Zurich editors, we have not thought it necessary to notice any variations in the mss. Where Dindorf differs from the Zurich editors, the difference is in most cases due to the greater weight given by the latter to the readings of the Paris Mς Σ.

Z stands for the Zurich text of Demosthenes as printed by J. G. Baiter and H. Sauppe in their admirable edition of the Oratores Attici, in one volume (1850).

Bekk. Bekker's Berlin edition of 1824. Bekker's stereotyped edition (Bekker st.) was published at Leipzig in 1854, including a list of all the variations between the two editions, and this list is incorporated in the notes to the present volume, except in the case of Or. 36, where the only variations are the following: § 6, line 2, αυτήν (Βekk. st.) for ταύτην την: 8 8 τούτους...αντιμοιρεί (st.) for τούτοις...τάς αντιμοιρίας: 8 24 ίδηθ' (st.) for ειδήθ': 8 36 οδύρεται (st.) for οδυρείται and 60 αυτόν (st.) for αυτόν υμίν. When Dindorf differs from the Zurich editors, he generally agrees with Bekker. When a note begins with Bekk., it is meant that Din. dorf's text is supported by Bekker's Berlin and Leipzig editions; then, after a slight space, follows the reading of the Zurich editors (Z) with the mss supporting it, introduced by the word cum. The mss thus quoted by the Zurich editors are as follows:

2. [Cited by some editors as S.] in the Public Library of Paris (No. 2934), on parchment; century X. This is admitted on all hands to be the best ms, and its readings are very often accepted by Bekker and still more frequently by the Zurich editors. For a protest against excessive deference to its authority, see the Preface of Mr Shilleto's fourth edition of the De falsa legatione, pp. vii, viii, xiv.

F. Codex Marcianus, in the Library of St Mark's, Venice (No. 416), on parchment; century XI. This ms generally agrees with the Codex Bavaricus (B).

$. In the same Library (No. 418), on parchment; century XI.

k. In the Public Library of Paris (No. 2998) on cotton paper (bombycinus), forma quadrata; century XIV. ' Contains Or. 54 (κατά Κόνωνος).

r. In fthe same Library (No. 2936), on parchment forma maxima; century XIII.

Al. Augustanus primus, formerly at Augsburg (Augusta Vindelicorum), now at Munich (No. 485), on parchment, paene quadratus; century XI (according to Dindorf), or XII (according to Z).

B. Bavaricus, now at Munich (No. 85), on cotton-paper (“bombycinus') forma maxima; century XIII.

γρ. A contraction for ypápetal, used in the mss themselves to introduce the marginal citation of a various reading.

In the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge there is a Ms of Demosthenes bequeathed to the University by Mr Kerrich, an account of which has been given by Mr Paley in the Journal of Philology, vol. v. p. 28, and in a collation of the de falsa legatione published by the Philological Society of Cambridge. The readings of the ms appear to correspond to the vulgate before the time of Bekker, and it seems therefore of no great value. It contains the arguments only to the Private Orations to the present volume, and its variations from Dindorf's text are duly recorded under the abbreviation Kerrich ms.

XXXVI.

ΠΑΡΑΓΡΑΦΗ ΥΠΕΡ ΦΟΡΜΙΩΝΟΣ.

ΥΠΟΘΕΣΙΣ. Πασίων και τραπεζίτης τελευτών επί δύο παισιν εξ Αρχίππης, Απολλοδώρω και Πασικλεί, Φορμίωνα οικέτης εαυτού γενόμενον, τετυχηκότα δε έτι πρότερον ελευθερίας, επίτροπος του νεωτέρου των παίδων 5 Πασικλέους κατέλιπε, και την μητέρα αυτών, παλ

λακήν εαυτού γενομένην, έδωκεν επί προικι γυναίκα. 'Απολλόδωρος ούν νέμεται προς τον αδελφόν την πατρώαν ουσίαν πλην της τραπέζης και του ασπι

δοπηγείου ταύτα γάρ Φορμίων έμεμίσθωτο παρά το Πασίωνος εις ωρισμένου χρόνον τινά. και τέως μεν

ελάμβανε το ήμισυ της μισθώσεως εκάτερος, ύστερον δε και αυτά νέμονται, και γίγνεται το μεν ασπιδοπηγείον 'Απολλοδώρου, Πασικλέους δε η τράπεζα. αποθανούσης δε και της μητρός ύστερον, νειμάμενος

Argument. τελευτων επί δύο παισιν.] “Dying with (in possession of) two children,' i. e. 'leaving two children behind him at his death;' an idiom not unfrequent in late Greek, e. g. Herodian (fl. A, D. 238) IV. 2. 1, έθος εστι Ρωμαίοις εκθειάζειν βασιλέων τους επί παισι διαδόχοις τελευτήσαντας.

6. επί προικί.]For the construction cf. Or. 28, Aphob. B, § 16, την εμήν μητέρα εγγυών επί ταϊς

P. S. D. ΙΙ.

όγδοήκοντα μναΐς. The marriage portion of Archippe amounted to five talents, as we learn from the First Speech against Stephanus, Or. 45 8 74, cf. ib. 8 28, ηκούσατε το πλήθος της προικός, τάλαντον εκ Πεπαρήθου, τάλαντον αυτόθεν, συνοικίαν εκατόν μνών, θεραπαινας και χρυσία κ.τ.λ.

12. αυτά.] They share between them the properties themselves, viz, when Phormio's lease of them had expired.

1

15 και την εκείνης ουσίαν, ένεκάλει το Φορμίωνι ως

πολλά έχοντι εαυτού χρήματα. καθίσαντες ούν εαυτους διαιτητας, ώς φησι Φορμίων, Απολλοδώρω προσήκοντες, Νικίας και Δεινίας και Ανδρομένης, έπεισαν

'Απολλόδωρον διαλύσασθαι προς Φορμίωνα τα έγ20 κλήματα λαβόντα πεντακισχιλίας. ο μεν ουν 'Απολ

λόδωρος μετά ταύτα πάλιν είληχε δίκην Φορμίωνο αφορμής: αφορμήν δε οι 'Αττικοί καλούσιν όπερ ημείς 944 ενθήκην. ο δε Φορμίων παραγράφεται, νόμον παρε

χόμενος τον κελεύοντα περί ών άν άπαξ αφή της και 25 διαλύσηται μηκέτι εξείναι δικάζεσθαι. άπτεται μέντοι

21. είληχε.] In Grammarian's Greek, this stands either for λαγχάνει or έλαχε. 8ο πέπoμφε is used in the Argument to Or. 34, line 31, and so πεποίηκεν below. P.]

22. δίκην αφορμής.] “A suit referring to Capital,'' a suit for the recovery of banking stock.' $ 12 εγκαλούντ' αφορμήν.

23. ένθήκην.] Ηarpocrations.υ. αφορμή: όταν τις αργύριον δω ένθήκην, αφορμή καλείται ιδίως παρά τοις 'Αττικoίς. And similarly Hesychius. For this late Greek equivalent to αφορμή references are given in Sophocles' Lex, of Rom. and Byzan. tine Greek to Phrynichus 223 (fi. A.D. 180) and Basilius of Caesarea III. 320 (f. c. A.D. 379).

παραγράφεται κ.τ.λ.] Phormio raises a special plea in bar of action, by appealing to a statute enacting that, on matters on which a release and quittance has once been granted, no subsequent litigation shall be lawful. See note on 8 25 αφείς και απαλλάξας. Pollux: παραγραφή: όταν τις μη εισαγώγιμον λέγη είναι την δίκην, ή ως κεκριμένος, ή διαίτης γεγενημένης, ή

ως αφειμένος, ή ώς των χρόνων
εξηκόντων (S 26) εν οίς έδει κρίνεσ-
θαι" where he enumerates the
four principal circumstances
under which an ordinary action
is not maintainable. (Cf. C. R.
Kennedy, Dem. Vol. 1. Ap-
pendix, IX. p. 378.)

παρεχόμενος.] adducing,'
προϊσχόμενος. A use of the par-
ticiple analogous to παρέχεσθαι
μάρτυρας (Aphob. Οr. 27 8 8),
said of one who is pleading his
own cause, and so, inf. $ 54, and
often elsewhere. P.]

25. άπτεται της ευθείας.] Sc. δίκης. “Touches on, handles, grapples with, the general issue, ευθυδικία being the direct course of an action argued on the merits of the case, as opposed to παραγραφή. Οr. 34 υπόθ. 1. 32, and ib. 4, ευθυδικίαν εισιόντα; Οr. 45 κατά Στεφάνου $ 6 (where Apollodorus is speaking of the defendant in the present case) προλαβών μου ώστε πρότερον λέγειν διά το παραγραφής είναι και μη ευθυδικία (qu. -αν) εισιέναι. Isocr. παραγρ. προς Καλλίμαχος 88 1–3 μηδείς θαυμάση ότι φεύγων την δίκην πρότερος λέγω του διώκοντος κ.τ.λ.

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