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φύσει πονηρός ών ταύτα πράττειν, αλλά αμυνόμενος 1246 τον αδικούντα. .

I "Οτι μεν ου συκοφαντών, άλλ' άδικούμενος και υβρι

ζόμενος υπό τούτων και οιόμενος δεϊν τιμωρείσθαι την απογραφήν έποιησάμην, μέγιστον υμίν έστω τεκμήριον, , ώ άνδρες δικασται, τό τε μέγεθος της απογραφής, law in such cases allows the the services of his friends he bringer of the information (viz. had himself drawn up the speci. three-fourths of the valuation). fcation (αυτός εγώ απέγραψα)

The court will now permit me a fact which proved that he was to justify myself by shewing how prompted by the motive of a ungratefully I have been dealt purely personal revenge, eswith by my opponents and by re- pecially as he waived all claim lating, so far as time permits, to his share of the fine. the most atrocious and flagrant oιόμενος δείν τιμωρείσθαι.] “Το of all the wrongs which they avoid the fatal charge of sycohave inflicted upon me.

phantia, any one prosecuting a 1. ου συκοφαντών κ.τ.λ.] Apol- fellow-citizen for some public lodorus is anxious to rebut, at offence endeavoured to shew the very outset, the obvious im- that he had private and perputation of συκοφαντία. . To sonal grounds of enmity against prove that, so far from being the accused; and if he sucactuated by a spirit of petty and ceeded in proving this, it was vexatious litigiousness, he has considered the most natural been inspired by what an Athe- and reasonable thing in the nian tribunal would regard as world that he should endeavour a thoroughly legitimate motive, to satisfy his hatred by becom. the motive of revenge, he ap- ing public prosecutor.' Wilkins' peals to two points. The first Light of the World p. 30 (where is the small amount (two and a reference is made to Lewes' a half minae) at which the History of Philosophy 1. 108). slaves in dispute were valued. For illustrations of the Greek If the informer proved his case, view of the reasonableness of the law allowed the informer to revenge, see note on Isocr. ad have three-fourths of the amount. Dem. § 26. Apollodorus would thus have a Tò méycos.] 'the size,' 'the claim for barely two minae (or amount,' a neutral word, here less than £8), a sum too small meaning probably the small to provide a sufficient motive amount,' 'the paltriness of the for συκοφαντία. If that had been specification.' Herod. 11. 74, his object, he would of course μεγάλεϊ μικρός. The sum of two have made a higher valuation, and a half minae seems to refer looking only to his share of thé to the value of the two slaves reward as the informer. His taken together. (Boeckh, Publ. second point is the fact that Econ. I. 94, note 300, 97. b. of instead of availing himself of Second German ed.). Reiske,

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και ότι αυτός εγώ απέγραψα. ου γαρ δήπου συκοφαντεϊν γε βουλόμενος απέγραψα αν πένθ' ημιμναίων άξια ανδράποδα, ως αυτός ο αμφισβητών τετίμηται αυτά, εκινδύνευον δ' αν περί τε χιλίων δραχμών και του μηδέποτε μηδένα αυθις υπέρ έμαυτού γράψασθαι ουδ' αυ ούτως άπορος ήν ουδ' άφιλος» ώστ' ουκ αν εξευρεϊν τον απογράψονται αλλά των εν ανθρώπους απάντων ήγησάμενος δεινότατον είναι άδικείσθαι μεν αυτός, έτερον δ' υπέρ εμού του αδικουμένου τούνομα παρέχειν, και είναι άν τι τούτοις τούτο τεκμήριον, Ε ουδ' άφιλος Βekker.

om. Z cum Σ. however, explains το μέγεθος της inflicted on a prosecutor who απογραφής : magnitudo mulctae in a public accusation failed to mihi luendae, si causa cadam. obtain a fifth part of the votes.

της απογραφής.] “ the specif- This fine was attended by com. cation,' or 'inventory,' of pro- plete or partial disfranchise. perty, used especially of infor- ment. Or. 58 (Theocrin.) § 6 mation as to State property εάν επεξιών τις μη μεταλάβη το alleged to be unlawfully held πεμπτον μέρος των ψήφων, χιλίας by a private person. Har- αποτίνειν, κάν μή επεξίη, χιλίας pocration, απογραφή: όταν τις ετέρας, ίνα μή συκοφαντή μηδείς λέγη τινα έχειν τι τών της πό- μήτάδειαν έχων εργολαβή και λεως, απογραφής ποιείται ο ένα. καθυφιή τα της πόλεως. γόμενος, δηλών πόθεν έχει τα ώστ' ουκ αν εξευρείν.] A mixed χρήματα και πόσα ταύτα είη...τί phrase between ώστ' ουκ αν δε ήν το κινδύνευμα τώ την απο- εξεύροιμι and ώστε μη εξευρείν. γραφή ποιουμένω, εν τώ Δη- The use of äv with wote and the μοσθένους προς Νικόστρατον περί infinitive is rare, but it occurs των 'Αρεθουσίου ανδραπόδων, ει when a mere contingent result γνήσιος, δήλον γίγνεται. Ηe- is described. P.] sychius, απογραφή αρίθμησις ή 2. τούνομα παρέχειν.] lend ή γινομένη μήνυσις. Cf. Οr. 22 his name,' i. e, allow himself (Androt.) 8 54, το τά χωρία δη- to be used as a cat's paw. μεύειν και τας οικίας, και ταυτ' [Euripides has παρασχεϊν όνομα απογράφειν.

in Helena 1100 and 1653, where ου δήπου.. απέγραψα άν..ανδρά- Helen is said to have ‘lent her ποδα.] We should expect τάν- name' for the fraud put upon δράποδα. “I should not have Paris in marrying a mere elowestimated the slaves as worth lov. In both passages however 2. minae.' Kennedy translates : the genuineness of the verse “I should not have scheduled inay be doubted. P.] slaves worth two minas and a τεκμήριον-ως ψεύδομαι.] My half. Dobree prefers απέγραψα opponents might have said, “If μεν αν...

you really had a quarrel against χιλίων δραχμών.] The ine us, why did you not file the

οπότε εγώ λέγοιμι την έχθραν προς υμάς, ως ψεύδομαι (ου γαρ άν ποτε έτερον απογράψαι, είπερ εγώ αυτός ήδικούμην), διά μεν ταύτ' απέγραψα. απογράψας δε εάν αποδείξω τανδράποδα 'Αρεθουσίου όντα, ούπερ έγέγραπτο είναι, τα μεν τρία μέρη, ά εκ των νόμων 1247

το ιδιώτη το απογράψαντι γίγνεται, τη πόλει αφίημι, 3 αυτώ δ' εμοί τετιμωρήσθαι αρκεί μόνον. ει μεν ούν

μοι ήν ικανόν το ύδωρ διηγήσασθαι προς υμάς τα έξ αρχής, όσαγαθά πεπονθότες υπ' εμού οίά με ειργασμένοι εισίν, εν οίδ' ότι υμείς τ' άν μοι έτι μάλλον συγγνώμην είχετε του οργίζεσθαι αυτούς, τούτους τ' ανοσιωτάτους ανθρώπων ηγήσασθε είναι νύν δ' ουδε διπλάσιόν μοι τούτου ύδωρ ικανόν αν γένοιτο. τα μεν ούν μέγιστα και περιφανή των αδικημάτων, και όπόθεν η απογραφή αύτη γέγονεν, ερω προς υμάς, τα δε πολλά εάσω.

action against us in your own of conditional sentences here name?' Perhaps we should combined. If the time allowed read: ου γάρ αν εάν ποτε έτερον had been sufficient, you would απογράψαι, for I never should have made allowance for me..., have allowed another, &c.' P.] but, as the case is, even twice

τα τρία μέρη.] Three-fourths as much time would not suffice.' of the valuation was allowed by (Goodwin, Greek Moods § 49. 2 law to be paid to the individual and 8 50. 2.)-On το ύδωρ cf. who brought the action. This Οr. 54 88 36 and 44 n. regulation,' says Boeckh, “ap- όσα...οτα.] • What benefits pears to have been confined to they have received from me and concealed property, which was what a requital they have paid discovered by the informer.' In me for them,' or, better, the à majority of other cases the return they have given me for third part only was received by all the benefits I have conferred the accuser (Publ. Econ. II. upon them.' For this idiomatic 130).-τφιδιώτη τράπογράψαντι, use of the double relative, cf. • to the individual informer' K. Soph. El. 751, οιέργα δράσας ó idcórns is here contrasted with οία λαγχάνει κακά, also Ovid, ή πόλις.

Fasti v. 460, cernite sim qualis 3. ει ην ικανών...ύμείς αν συγ- qui modo qualis eram; and Corneγνώμην είχετε...νύν δε ουδε διπλά- lius Nepos, Atticus, 18, 3, notans σιον...ικανόν αν γένοιτο.] The quis a quo ortus quos honores student will be careful to dis- quibusque temporibus cepissct. tinguish between the two forms

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4 Νικόστρατος γάρ ουτοσί', ώ άνδρες δικασται, γεί

των μοι ών εν αγρώ και ηλικιώτης γνωρίμως μέν μοι είχε και πάλαι, επειδή δ' ετελεύτησεν ο πατήρ και εγώ εν αγρώ κατώκουν, ούπερ και νύν οικώ, και μάλλον

Bekker. om. Z cum Σ. (ούτος Alr.) SS 4—9. My opponent's bro. 4. Νικόστρατος γάρ.] γάρ is ther, Nicostratus, was my neigh- almost invariably used at the bour in the country, and, being beginning of narratives like the about the same age, we were present; the English idiom ge. thrown much together and be- nerally requires us to omit it came more and more intimate in translation, though we may with one another. I granted him sometimes renderit, 'Well,then,' whatever he asked of me, and he to proceed, then.' Cf. Or. 55 on his part was of some service S 10 του γαρ χωρίου κ.τ.λ. to me in taking charge of my γνωρίμως είχε.] γνώριμος is a property whenever I was abroad much weaker word than φίλος, , on public or private business. as has already been noticed, on

On one of these occasions, Or. 45 $ 73. The gradually in. when I had left him in charge, creasing intimacy between Apol. three of his servants ran away

lodorus and Nicostratus is well from him. While pursuing them, expressed by the successive he was taken prisoner by a phrases (1) γνωρίμως είχε, (2) privateer, and sold as a slave. μάλλον αλλήλοις εχρώμεθα, (3) On my return, I was told of his πάνυ οικείως διεκείμεθα οf the unhappy plight by one of his present section, and (4) piros brothers, Deinon, and I supplied αληθινός of 8 12. the latter with travelling ex- ετελεύτησεν ο πατήρ.] The penses and thus enabled him to death of Pasion took place B. C. go to the rescue of Nicostratus. 370. (Or. 46 & 13.) The latter, on his return, in- κατώκουν...οικώ.] If any disformed me that he had been tinction is to be drawn, the ransomed for a considerable sum; compound verb should be renand by appealing to me with dered 'I settled' and the sim. tears in his eyes and pointing to ple “I live,' but it is more likely the marks left by the galling that oik@is intended as a virtual fetters (though he is now ashamed repetition of the preceding katenough of those scars that are 4 Kouv. In such cases it is un. the memorials of his slavery), he necessary to repeat the prepo. succeeded in inducing me to for- sition, e. g. Eur. Bacc. 1065 kat. give him the three minae, which ηγεν ήγεν ήγεν εις μέλαν πέδον I had advanced for his brother's and Orest. 181, διoιχόμεσθ', oιχόtravelling expenses, and to con- ueba where Porson remarks that, tribute, as a free gift towards the when a verb is repeated, it is twenty-six minae required for generally used first in its com. the redemption money, the sum pound, then in its simple form. of ten minae which I raised on Cf. Or. 36 § 4 a pooudelle... the security of some of my pro- ώφειλε. . perty.

μάλλον διά το γείτονές τε

αλλήλοις ήδη εχρώμεθα διά το γείτονές τε είναι και ηλικιώται. χρόνου δε προβαίνοντος και πάνυ οικείως διεκείμεθα, και εγώ θ' ούτως οικείως διεκείνην προς τούτον ώστ' ουδενός πώποτε ών έδεήθη ούτος εμού απέτυχεν, ούτός τ' αυ έμοί ουκ άχρηστος ήν προς το επιμεληθήναι και διοικήσαι, και οπότε εγώ απoδημoίην

ή δημοσία τριηραρχών ή ιδία κατ' άλλο τι, κύριον των 5 εν αγρώ τούτον απάντων κατέλειπον. συμβαίνει δή μου τριηραρχία περί Πελοπόννησον, εκείθεν δ' εις Σικελίαν έδει τους πρέσβεις άγειν, ούς ο δήμος εχειροτόνησεν. ή ούν αναγωγή δια ταχέων εγίγνετό μοι. επιστέλλω δη αυτώ ότι αυτός μεν ανήγμαι και ουχ οδός τ' είναι.] We grew more and more the Introduction to this speech. familiar with one another from διά ταχέων.] Thuc. Ι. 80, διά being not only neighbours but ταχέων ελθείν, Isocr. Plataic. also of the same age.' Or. 55 8 3 δια βραχέων αν εποιησά8 23 ad fin. and Or. 35 8 6 μεθα τους λόγους followed by επιτήδειοί μοί είσι και χρώμεθ' αναγκαίον δια μακροτέρων δηαλλήλοις ως οίόν τε μάλιστα. λώσαι. (Kühner Greek Gram

χρόνου προβαίνοντος.] Soph. mar II. 8 434, 1, d.) Phil. 285, ο μέν χρόνος δή διά ανήγμαι.] ανάγεσθαι is conχρόνου προϋβαινέ μοι.

stantly contrasted with κατάδημοσία τριηραρχών.] This re- γεσθαι ; the latter word occurs ference to the speaker's public in 8 6 κατήχθη εις Αίγινας. The services is dexterously inserted verb, with its corresponding to ingratiate him with his audi- substantive åvaywyn, implies a ence, as well as to lead up to the notion that ships in the open subsequent narrative συμβαίνει sea or, as we say, on the "high δή μοι τριηραρχία.-On some of seas,' are at greater elevation the later trierarchal services of than vessels in harbour. So in Apollodorus cf. note on Or. 36 Τhuc. Ι. 48 and VΙΙΙ. 10 μετέωρος § 41.

is an epithet of ships at sea; 5. τριηραρχία περί Πελοπόννη- and similar references to this σον κ.τ.λ.] Thedate of this event, familiar optical illusion may be ifit could be determined with cer- noted in Milton's Paradise Lost tainty, would assist materially II. 636, 'Far of at sea a fleet in determining the date of the descried Hangs in the clouds,' delivery of the

ech. It seems and in Ruskin's 'thymy slopes very probable that this trier- of down overlooked by the blue archy should be identified with line of lifted sea (Modern that referred to in Or. 45 § 3, Painters 111. iv. 14 § 51). which, as we have already seen, επιστέλλω...ότι ανήγμαι και may be placed in the year 368 ουχ οιός τείην.] The historic B.C. See chronological note on present επιστέλλω being virtα.

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