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22

μενος υπέρ αυτών. ώς δ' αληθή λέγω, και τούτων υμίν τους μάρτυρας παρέξομαι.

ΜΑΡΤΥΡΕΣ. "Όσας μεν τοίνυν μαρτυρίας παρασχέσθαι είχαν υμίν, ώς έστιν'Αρεθουσίου τάνδράποδα, δεδήλωκα υμίν. βούλομαι δε και περί της προκλήσεως ειπείν, ήν ουτοί με προκαλέσαντο και εγώ τούτους. ούτοι μεν γάρ με προύκαλέσαντο, ότε η πρώτη ανάκρισις ήν, φάσκοντες έτοιμοι είναι παραδιδόναι εμοί αυτώ τανδράποδα βασανίσαι, βουλόμενοι μαρτυρίαν τινα αυτούς ταύτην

SS 22–25. I now propose to ην...με προκαλέσαντο.] For deal with the Challenge which the double acc. cf. Or. 56 § 17 my opponents proposed to me, προκαλείσθαι τινα πρόκλησιν. and also with that which I my. η πρώτη ανάκρισις.] the first self proposed to them.

preliminary investigation,' see At the preliminary hearing of note on ανακρινοίμην 8 14 supra. my case against Arethusius, they παραδιδόναι... τανδράποδα βαput in a Challenge, and offered σανίσαι.] The principle of extherein to deliver up the slaves, tracting evidence by the torture to be tortured by myself, their of slaves, was one of the weakobject being to claim the Chal- est points in the judicial system lenge as a piece of evidence in of Athens (some interesting their own favour in the event of criticisms on it may be found my refusing to accept it.

in Forsyth's Hortensius p. 40, I replied to the Challenge by and in Mahaffy's Social Life in stating in the presence of wit- Greece p. 226-8).- έμοί αυτώ is nesses, that since this was not a emphatic, just as, six lines fur. private but a public cause and ther, ει εμοί εξεδίδοσαν contrastsince the slaves, as I contended, ed with δημοσία. The speaker were the property of the state, it holds that the slaves belong to was not for myself to torture the state and should have been them, as I was only a private handed over to the public ofperson; on the contrary, it was ficial and not to a private indi. a question for the board of vidual like himself. police or for certain persons ταύτην.] Not the evidence chosen by the Council of the given by the slaves, but the state. On these conditions I was mere offer to allow them to be willing to accept their Challenge, tortured, wishing this (offer) and I challenged them to accept to be a kind of evidence on my own proposal. They declined their own side.' ταύτην is atmy offer.

tracted into the same gender 22. προκλήσεως.] On the sub- Ας μαρτυρίαν; τούτο would have ject of Challenges, see Or. 45 made the same sense, but would

have been less idiomatic.

§ 15.

23 γενέσθαι. εγώ δ' απεκρινάμην αυτοίς εναντίον μαρ

τύρων ότι έτοιμος ειμι ιέναι εις την βουλήν μετ' αυτών και παραλαμβάνειν μετ' εκείνης ή μετά των ένδεκα, 1254 λέγων ότι, ει μεν ιδίαν δίκην εδικαζόμην αυτοίς, ει εμοί εξεδίδoσαν, παρελάμβανον άν, νύν δε της πόλεως

είη τανδράποδα και η απογραφή: δείν ουν δημοσία 24 βασανίζεσθαι. ηγούμην γάρ ου προσήκειν έμοι ιδιώτη

όντι τους δημοσίους βασανίζειν ούτε γάρ της βασάνου
κύριος έγιγνόμην ούτε καλώς έχειν τα λεγόμενα υπό
των ανθρώπων έμε κρίνειν. ηγούμην τε δεϊν την
αρχήν ή τους ήρημένους υπό της βουλής γράφεσθαι,
και καταστημηναμένους τας βασάνους, και τι είποιεν.

1 κρίνειν Ζ.
k είπαιεν Ζ cum BF. είπoιεν Αr.

ειπεν Σ.
23. el ... el.] Two or even (της βουλής) ή μετά των ένδεκα.
three protases, not co-ordinate, Reiske wrongly renders: illum
may belong to one apodosis, Archontem ad cuius tribunal
6. g. Plat. Men. 74 Β, εί τις σε haec causa pertineret, aut de-
ανέροιτο τούτο, τι εστι σχήμα και lectos a senatu.' Frequently it
εί αυτό είπες ότι στρογγυλότης, is the context alone that decides
εί σοι είπεν άπερ εγώ, είπες δή- whether η αρχή or even οι άρ-
που αν ότι σχημά τι (Goodwin, χοντες refers to the Archong or
:Moods and Tenses § 55. 1). to some other public function.

The reiteration of ei in the aries. Thus in Or. 22 (Androt.) present passage has been con- 8 26 τοις άρχουσιν εφήγου refers sidered open to objection; it oc- to the Eleven, and in Lysias, curs however in Or. 54 § 15, in Οr. κατά των σιτοπώλων SS 5 án undoubtedly genuine speech –10, οι άρχοντες is several times of Demosthenes (A. Schaefer, used of the five oltopúlakes in Dem. u. s. Zeit III. 2. 188 and the Peiraeus. On την αρχήν for Lortzing, Apoll. 33).

• the authorities,' abstract for δημοσία βασανίζεσθαι.] to be concrete, see note on Or. 45 8 58. questioned publicly,' i.e. “to be γράφεσθαι.] to have the antortured by a state-officer.' swers written down,' or 'to

24. ούτε της βασάνου κύριος take down the answers.' Plato έγιγνόμην.]i.e. I did not acquire Theaet. 143 Α, έγραψάμην υποcontrol of the 'question,'—au- μνήματα I wrote me down some thority over the examination. memoranda.' This sense of

ούτε καλώς έχειν] sc. ηγούμην, the middle must not be con“it was unsuitable, I thought, founded with the technical for myself to decide as to the meaning 'to indict.' answers of the slaves.'

κατασημηναμένους.] having την αρχήν] sc. τους ένδεκα, 88 sealed up the testimony exappears by comparing8 23, μετά torted.' The documents were

οι άνθρωποι, παρέχειν εις το δικαστήριον, ίν' ακού

σαντες εκ τούτων εψηφίσασθε όποϊόν τι υμϊν έδόκει. 25 ιδία μεν γαρ βασανιζομένων των ανθρώπων υπ' εμού

αντελέγετ' άν άπαντα υπό τούτων, ει δε δημοσία, ημείς μεν άν έσιωπώμεν, οι δ' άρχοντες ή οι ήρημένοι υπό της βουλής έβασάνιζον αν μέχρι ου αυτοίς εδό

ταύτα δ' εμού εθέλοντος ουκ άν έφασαν τη αρχή παραδούναι, ουδ' εις την βουλήν ήθελον ακολουθείν. ώς oύν αληθή λέγω, κάλει μοι τους τούτων μάρτυρας.

ΜΑΡΤΥΡΕΣ. 26 Κατά πολλά μέν ούν έμοιγε δοκούσιν είναι αναί

κει.

put into an éxivos or casket,' 25. ιδία βασανιζομένων των which was sealed up and after- ανθρώπων] equivalent to ει ιδία wards produced in court and έβασανίζοντο. Hence in the corthere opened. Οr. 54 8 17 ση- responding clause, instead of μανθήναι τους εχίνους.

δημοσία δε, which would have βασάνους, as is proved by the been equally good Greek, we have subsequent clause, whatever ει δε δημοσία 80. έβασανίζοντο the slaves said,' is here used, (Goodwin, Moods and Tenses not of the torture itself, but of $ 109. 6). the extorted evidence. Har. [The drift of the argument is : pocr. βάσανος: 'Αντιφών: λίθος 'I objected to a private exami. ούτω καλείται, ή το χρυσίον παρα- nation, because my opponents τριβόμενον δοκιμάζεται. Υπερεί- would have said that my report δης δ' εν τώ κατ’ 'Αντίου τα εν of their statements was untrue; τοις βασάνοις ειρημένα υπό whereas if the examination των βασανιζομένων και αναγρα- were public, the responsibility φέντα βασάνους ώνόμασε. (Αnaxi- would have rested wholly on menes) rhet. XVI. 1, βάσανός έστι the authorities.' P.] μεν ομολογία παρα συνειδότος, οι άρχοντες.] “The Eleven.” άκοντος δε.

See note on την αρχήν in 8 παρέχειν κ.τ.λ.] to produce 24. in court'the evidence obtained &S 26—29. My opponents are by torture. The torture itself, really claiming what is public it appears, did not take place property, that is, your own proin court (see note on Or. 45 816). perty, men of the jury, and I

ίνα-εψηφίσασθε.] For ίνα in shall prove this by your own which case,' cf. Or. 36 § 47. laws. When the jury were proεκ τούτων should be taken with posing to condemn Arethusius to εψηφίσασθε and not with ακού- death, my opponents proposed a σαντες, cf. Οr. 45 82 εξ ών (ακού- pecuniary penalty and proσαντες)...γνώσεσθε.

mised jointly to pay it. So far

σχυντοι αμφισβητούντες των υμετέρων, ουχ ήκιστα δε υμίν αυτούς επιδείξω εκ των νόμων των υμετέρων. ούτοι γάρ, ότε οι δικασται εβούλοντο θανάτου τιμήσαι το 'Αρεθουσία, έδέοντο των δικαστών χρημάτων τι

μήσαι και εμού συγχωρήσαι, και ώμολόγησαν αυτοί συνεκτίσειν. τοσούτου δη δέουσιν εκτίνειν καθ' α

ήγγυήσαντο ώστε και των υμετέρων αμφισβητούσιν. καίτοι οι γε νόμοι κελεύουσι την ουσίαν είναι δημο- 1255 σίαν, ός αν εγγυησάμενός τι τών της πόλεως μη αποδιδω την εγγύης" ώστε και εί τούτων ήν τώνδράποδα,

προσήκεν αυτα δημόσια είναι, είπερ τι των νόμων 28 όφελος. και πριν μεν οφείλειν των δημοσίω ο 'Αρε

θούσιος ώμολογείτο των αδελφών ευπορώτατος είναι:
επειδή δ' οι νόμοι κελεύουσι τάκείνου υμέτερα είναι,
τηνικαύτα πένης ών φαίνεται ο 'Αρεθούσιος, και των
μεν ή μήτηρ αμφισβητεί, των δ' οι αδελφοί. χρήν δ'
αυτούς, είπερ έβούλοντο δικαίως προσφέρεσθαι προς
from fulfilling their guarantee, making pitiful appeals to your
they are actually claiming your compassion. If you disregard
own property; and the laws de. all such pleas in the present
clare that the property of persons case, you will do wisely in
who guarantee the payment of a finding a verdict against Nicos-
sum to the state and fail to do tratus.
80 shall be confiscated; so that 26. τιμήσαι.] See supra 8
even on this ground alone, the 18.-έμου συγχωρήσαι sc. έδέοντο,
laws would require the slaves in implored me to acquiesce in my
question to be state property. opponents having a pecuniary

As soon as Arethusius becomes penaltyimposed on them.-ωμο-
indebted to the treasury, instead λόγησαν αυτοί συνεκτίσειν, “they
of being, as was admitted in for- agreed that they would be jointly
mer days, the wealthiest of the responsible for the payment.'
brothers, he is now made out to Kennedy.
be ever so poor, and part of his 27. των υμετέρων.] The slaves
property is claimed by his mo- claimed by the state, for non-
ther, part by his brothers, as in payment of the fine due from
the present instance by Nicos- Arethusius, are here dexterously
tratus.

represented as the property of I must ask you in conclusion

the jury. to consider that there will 28. πένης ών φαίνεται.] is never be any lack of claimants made out to be a poor man.' to contest your property, and to προσφέρεσθαι.] “ to behave, defraud the state of her dues, by Οr. 40 8 40. P. S. D. ΙΙ.

11

υμάς, αποδείξαντας άπασαν την ουσίαν την έκείνου, 29 τα τούτων αυτών εί τις απέγραφεν, αμφισβητεϊν. εαν

ούν ενθυμηθήτε ότι ουδέποτ' έσται απορία των αμφισβητησόντων υμίν περί των υμετέρων,γαρ ορφανούς ή επικλήρους κατασκευάσαντες αξιώσουσιν έλεείσθαι υφ' υμών, ή γήρας και απορίας και τροφές μητρί λέγοντες, και οδυρόμενοι δι' ών μάλιστ' ελπίζουσιν εξαπατήσειν υμάς, πειράσονται αποστερήσαι την πόλιν του οφλήματος. εάν ούν ταύτα παριδόντες πάντα καταψηφίσησθε, ορθώς βουλεύσεσθε.

αποδείξαντας.] having disclosed' (delivered a formal specification of) “the estate of Arethusius.' -τούτων αυτών i. e. Nicostratus and Deinon.

29. εαν ούν-εαν ούν ταύτα.] The sentence is suspended by a parenthesis of several lines from ή γαρ ορφανούς to oφλήMatos, and it is then resumed by the repetition of εαν ούν.

ορφανούς ή επικλήρους.] orphan-sonsor heiresses,'meaning by the latter 'orphan-daughters' 'portionable-sisters’; an ‘heiress' under the Athenian law was by no means necessarily in good circumstances. (See note on Οr. 45 8 75.).

απορίας.] embarrassments, • distresses.' For this plural

which is not uncommon in Dem. cf. Fals. Leg. 8 146, ευπορίας κτήματα πλούτον αντί των εσχάτων αποριών.-τροφας μητρι και mother's maintenance.'

οδυρόμενοι κ.τ.λ.] “Appeals ad misericordiam formed the staple conclusion of

every speech, and it was not held undignified for the greatest aristocrats, or grotesque for the most notorious scamps, to burst out crying in court, and to bring up their children to excite the compassion of the jury by their tears.' Mahaffy, Social life in Greece p. 369. Cf. Or. 45 8 88 and Or. 54 8 38.

καταψηφίσησθε.] Νικοστράτου.

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