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σημεία του τούτον συκοφαντείν εγκαλούντ’k αφορμήν. . αλλ', oίμαι, μέγιστον μέν έστιν απάντων τεκμήριον του μηδεμίαν λαβείν αφορμήν εις ταύτα τουτονι το έν τι μισθώσει γεγράφθαι προσοφείλοντα τον Πασίων ' επί την τράπεζαν, ου δεδωκότα αφορμήν τούτω, δεύτερον δε το' τούτον έν τη νομή μηδέν εγκαλούντα φαίνεσθαι, τρίτον δ', ότι μισθών ετέροις ύστερον ταύτα

k εγκαλούντα Ζ. om. Z cum ΣΦ. TÒ Toûtov Bekk. cum marg. S. debtor to the bank. (2) On the first two refer to the defendant, partition of the property, plain- the third to the plaintiff, Apoltif put in no claim to such stock. lodorus. The ambiguity arising (3) After the termination of de- from the same pronoun being fendant's lease of the bank, applied to two different persons, plaintiff let it to others for the would be readily dispelled by same sum and no less; and did the orator's delivery. Cf. § 42 n. not specially transfer to them TT pocopellovta.] sc. 11 talents any banking-stock besides. (4) $3 4—6.-vouộ, § 8 fin. The plaintiff during the life of μισθών ετέροις κ.τ.λ.] i. e. to his mother, who was perfectly Xenon and the others in § 13. familiar with all these details, The argument is: assume the made no demand on the defend- defendant defrauded the plainant; it was only when she died tiff of bank-stock amounting to that he set up a fraudulent claim,

20 talents. Then the stock in not for any banking-stock as question could not have formed now, but for a sum of 3000 dr. part of the business when the The claim was submitted to the plaintiff let it to the later lessees. urbitration of some relatives of The plaintiff then should either the plaintiff, and upon their have let it to them at lower award the defendant for peace

terms than to the defendant, or and quietness' sake paid the have handed over to the bank money and a second time received

an equivalent to the stock alfrom the plaintiff a release of leged to be missing. He did all his claims.

neither; he made fresh 12. συκοφαντείν κ.τ.λ.] Ken- transfer and he charged them nedy: “ This claim of the plain- the same rent. Therefore the tiff's to a sum of banking-stock property must have been in the is false and fraudulent.'- eye same condition as when the καλούντ' αφορμήν, the first dis- defendant originally leased it tinct reference in the speech to from the plaintiff's father.the nature of the plaintiff's The context compels us to

He alleges that the de- make Apollodorus the subject of fendant had a grant of capital the sentence μισθών-φανήσεται, from Pasion and had appro- but the bank, it will be remempriated it.

bered, became the property not τουτονι... τούτω...τούτον.] The of Apollodorus, but of Pasicles,

no

case.

ταύτα του ίσου άργυρίου ου φανήσεται προσμεμισθω13 κως ιδίαν αφορμήν. καίτοι εί, ήν ο πατήρ παρέσχεν,

υπό τούδε απεστέρητο, αυτόν νυν προσήκεν εκείνους άλλοθεν πορίσαντα δεδωκέναι. ως τοίνυν ταύτ' αληθή λέγω, και έμίσθωσεν ύστερον Ξένωνι και Ευφραίω και Εύφρονι και Καλλιστράτω, και ουδε τούτοις παρέδωκεν ιδίαν αφορμήν, αλλά τας παρακαταθήκας και την άπό τούτων εργασίαν αυτήν έμισθώσαντο, λαβε μοι την τούτων μαρτυρίαν, και ως το ασπιδοπηγείον

είλετο. 14 Mεμαρτύρηται μεν τοίνυν υμίν, ώ άνδρες Αθη

ναίοι, ότι και τούτοις έμίσθωσαν και ου παρέδωκαν ιδίαν αφορμήν ουδεμίαν, και ελευθέρους αφεΐσαν ως μεγάλα ευ πεπονθότες, και ουκ εδικάζοντο ούτ' εκείνοις τότούτε τούτω. δν μεν τοίνυν χρόνον η μήτηρ έζη και πάντα ταύτ' ακριβώς είδυία, ουδέν έγκλημα πώποτε εποιήσατο προς τουτονι Φορμίωνα 'Απολλόδωρος" ως δ' ετελεύτησεν εκείνη, τρισχιλίας εγκαλέσας 949

ακριβώς ταύτ' ειδυΐα Ζ cum Σ. ακριβώς ειδυΐα ταύτα . ταύτ' ακριβώς είδυΐα Βekk. when the latter came of age brothers. . and Phormio's lease expired ; ελευθέρους αφεΐσαν.] Xenon, we must therefore conclude Euphraeus and the other lessees that the elder brother acted as appear (like Phormio) to have agent on behalf of his less ex- been slaves originally. The perienced younger brother. family shew their gratitude for

13. τούδε...αυτόν.] Defendant their services by giving them and plaintiff respectively.--vûv freedom (ώς μεγάλα ευ πεπον'in that case,' referring to the θότες). G. H. Schaefer less hypothesis εί - απεστέρητο. satisfactorily understands the αυτόν, standing first in the words • set free from all further clause, must mean ipsum.

claims : a sense which is at εμίσθωσεν.] Granted the lease first sight partly supported by (on behalf of Pasicles). Below και ουκ εδικάζοντο below. we have εμισθώσαντο, referring, ως ετελεύτησεν.] The speaker as usual, to the lessees.

insinuates that Apoll. purposely αυτήν.] “Alone;' explained waited till his mother's death, by oυ παρέδωκαν ιδίαν αφορμήν. as her familiarity with all the 14. έμίσθωσαν ...

παρέδωκαν.] details of her late husband's The plurals refer to the two property would have thwarted

m

αργυρίου δραχμάς προς ας έδωκεν εκείνη δισχιλίαις

τοις τούτου παιδίοις, και χιτωνίσκον τινά και θερά15 παιναν, έσυκοφάντει. και ουδ' ενταύθα τούτων ουδέν

ων νυν εγκαλεί λέγων φανήσεται. επιτρέψας δε τω τε της εαυτού γυναικός πατρί και το συγκηδεστη τα αυτού και Λυσίνω και 'Ανδρομένει, πεισάντων τούτων Φορμίωνα τουτονι δούναι δωρεάν τας τρισχιλίας και το προσόν και φίλον μάλλον έχειν τούτον ή διά ταύτ' εχθρον αυτόν είναι, λαβών το σύμπαν πεντακισχιλίας, και πάντων αφείς των εγκλημάτων το δεύτερον εις το

η εαυτού Ζ.

his plots against Phormio. Her death is described by Apollodorus in Or. 50 $ 60, • While I was abroad my mother lay ill and was at death's door, and therefore little able to help in retrieving my affairs. It was just six days after my return that, when she had seen me and spoken to me, she breathed her last, when she no longer had such control over her property as to be able to give me all that she desired.' The death took place in Feb. B.C. 360. .

a pòs als.] She had left Phormio's children 2000 drachmas, but Apollodorus claims more than that sum also as his own. His avaricious and mean character is shown by his claim to a χιτωνίσκος, a chemise, or “slave's frock, perhaps. A man who would make such demands was little likely to omit his present claims, if he had then believed in the justice of them. P.]

15. επιτρέψας, κ.τ.λ.] The plaintiff submitted the claims to the arbitration of Deinias and Nicias ($ 17), his own father-inlaw and brother-in-law respectively. Pollux: έλεγον δε επιτρέ

ψαι δίαιταν, και η δίαιτα εκαλείτο επιτροπή.

δούναι δωρεάν.] By making a present' of the 3000 drachmae, Phormio satisfies Apollodorus without admitting his legal claim to the sum.

το προσόν.] Not the 2000 drachmae of $ 14; for they were already given by the mother (έδωκεν εκείνη), but the • additional articles' χιτωνίσκος και θεραπαινα. [το προσόν may however refer toπρoς αις κ.τ.λ. supra. He got the 3000 and the 2000 also that had been left to Phormio's boys. Hegot from him 5000 in all, and gave him a full release from all further claims; and yet now again he says Phormio has kept back some of Pasion's money ! But (he argues) the discharge then given justifies the παραγραφή now put in. P.]

αφείς...το δεύτερον.] The former release is mentioned in $ 10 fin. This second release is solemnly given in the temple of Athêne on the Acropolis. Isocr. Trapez. 8 20, ταύτα συγγράψαντες και αναγαγόντες εις ακρόπολιν Πύρωνα......δίδομεν αυτώ φυλάττειν τας συνθήκας.

16 ιερόν της Αθηνάς ελθών, πάλιν, ως οράτε, δικάζεται,

πάσας αιτίας συμπλάσας και εγκλήματα εκ παντός του χρόνου του προ τούτου (τούτο γάρ έστι μέγιστον απάντων), ά ουδεπώποτ' ήτιάσατο. ως τοίνυν ταύτ' αληθή λέγω, λαβέ μοι την γνώσιν την γενομένην έν ακροπόλει, και την μαρτυρίαν των παραγενομένων, ότ' ήφίειτων εγκλημάτων απάντων Απολλόδωρος, λαμβάνων τούτο το αργύριον.

ΓΝΩΣΙΣ. ΜΑΡΤΥΡΙΑ. 17 'Ακούετε της γνώσεως, ώ άνδρες δικασταί, ήν

έγνω Δεινίας, ου την θυγατέρα ούτος έχει, και Νικίας και την αδελφήν της τούτου γυναικός έχων. ταύτα τοίνυν λαβών και αφείς απάντων των εγκλημάτων, ώσπερ ή πάντων τεθνεώτων τούτων ή της αληθείας ου γενησομένης φανεράς, δίκην τοσούτων ταλάντων λαχων

τολμά δικάζεσθαι. 18 Τα μεν ούν πεπραγμένα και γεγενημένα Φορμίωνο

αφίει Ζ. 16. συμπλάσας.] Having con- $S 18—21. Anticipation of the cocted,” heaped together,''raked arguments likely to be brought

forward by the plaintiff. He την γνώσιν.] The award' of will repeat what he stated bethe arbitrators. Or. 27, § 1, fore the arbitrator, that his τους οικείους επιτρέπειν and τοίς mother destroyed his father's υπ' εκείνων γνωσθείσιν εμμένειν. papers at the defendant's insti. Cf. 8 17.. - έν ακροπόλει. So supr. gation. If so (1) how came the το ιερόν της Αθηνάς. Pollux, plaintiff to make a partition of διήτων δ' εν ιερούς. Cf. Οr. 54 his patrimony, without any 8 26, τον λίθον, η.

papers to determine its amount? λαμβάνων.] “On the receipt of Unless those claims were false this money,'

Viz. the 5000 and fraudulent, which the plaindrachmae.

tiff will scarcely admit, he 17. τούτων.] των μαρτύρων των must have gained possession of παραγενομένων, $ 16.

his father's papers, and his τοσούτων ταλ.] 8 3, ταλάντων mother could not have made είκοσι.

away with them. (2) Why was τολμά.] It was acting in open no question raised when the defiance of the law to bring an plaintiff's younger brother came action after a full acquittance of age and was receiving from had been given. .

his guardians an account of

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προς 'Απολλόδωρον εξ αρχής άπαντ' ακηκόατε, ω άνδρες Αθηναίοι. οίμαι δ' 'Απολλόδωρον τουτονι

950 ουδέν έχοντα δίκαιον ειπείν περί ών εγκαλεί, άπερ παρά τω διαιτητή λέγειν ετόλμα, ταύτ' έρείν, ως τα γράμματα ή μήτηρ ηφάνικε πεισθείσα υπό τούτου, και

τούτων απολωλότων ούκ έχει τίνα χρή τρόπον ταύτ' 19 εξελέγχειν ακριβώς. περί δή τούτων και ταύτης της

αιτίας σκέψασθε ηλίκ' άν τις έχοι τεκμήρια είπείν ότι ψεύδεται. πρώτον μεν γάρ, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι, τις αν ενείματο τα πατρώα μη λαβών γράμματα εξ ων έμελλενPP είσεσθαι την καταλειφθείσαν ουσίαν και ουδε εις δήπου. καίτοι δυοϊν δέοντα είκοσιν έτη εστίν εξ ότου ενείμω, και ουκ αν έχoις επιδείξαι ως ένεκάλεσας

otouai Z (see Veitch, Gk. Vbs., and Dindf. Praef. p. xiii.). ΓΡ ήμελλεν Ζ (see Isocr. Paneg. 8 83 n.).

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their trust? (3) On what papers did the plaintif base all his many law-suits for the recovery of large sums due to his father?

18. τα μεν ούν κ.τ.λ.] Transition from the διήγησις Or πρόθεσις to the πίστεις or proofs' (Ar. Rhet. ΙΙΙ. 13), from the brief recital of the transactions between plaintiff and defendant (SS 4–17) to the legal and other arguments.

τη διαιτητή.] Pollux: πάλαι δ' ουδεμία (?) δίκη πριν επί διαιτητας ελθείν εισήγετο. Cf. 54 % 26, ή δίαιτα η.

τα γράμματα.] Not Pasion's will, but his private papers and ledgers or banking-books, γράμματα τα τραπεζιτικά (Or. 49 88 43, 59 quoted below in note on 8 21, έκ ποίων γραμμάτων). Cf. Οr. 49 $ 5, οι τραπεζιται ειώθασιν υπομνήματα γράφεσθαι ών τε διδόασι χρημάτων, κ.τ.λ. and Or. 52 8 4.

19. ένείματο.] Who would have taken his share of his father's property, if he had not the books from which alone he could know the amount of property left?' He refers to the division of the patrimony de cided on by the guardians in consequence of the elder brother spending largely out of the common fund, § 8 fin. This event took place eighteen years before the date of the speech; which, if we could assume that the partition was in the same year as the father's death, viz. 370, would belong to B.C. 352. This however we cannot assume, indeed the language of 8 8, πολλά αναλίσκειν, κ.τ.λ., implies that the elder brother's course of extravagance lasted some time before the partition was decided on. We may therefore perhaps place the partition in B.C. 368, and the speech in B.C. 350. See Introduction.

2

P. S, D. ΙΙ.

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