Page images


μαι προς υμάς είπείν και γαρ εκ τούτων την ασέλγειαν θεάσεσθε αυτών. εποίησαν μέν γάρ έξω μέσων νυκτών την ώραν, ούτε τας μαρτυρίας αναγιγνώσκειν εθέλοντες ούτε αντίγραφα διδόναι, τών τε παρόντων ημίν καθ' ένα ούτωσι προς τον λίθον άγοντες και εξ

+ Bwuòv Z cum libris. matters, protracted the proceed- νυκτών. Αr. Νub. 1, το χρήμα ings beyond midnight, to the των νυκτών όσον. disgust of all the bystanders, ούτε-διδόναι.] “by refusing to and at last even of themselves. read aloud the depositions or to They then, with an evasive put in copies of the same.' The object, put in a challenge, offer- depositions were indispensable, ing to surrender certain slaves and the defendants' refusal to be examined by torture as to would obviously protract the the assault, and they will make proceedings, and lead to lengthy much of this challenge. But debates between the Arbitrator had it been a bona fide offer, it and the parties to the suit.would have been made not at the των παρόντων SC. μαρτύρων.-last moment, but long before. καθ' ένα έκαστον, one by

ή δίαιτα.] Civil actions at one,' singillatim. Or. 9 $ 22, Athens, before being brought καθ' έν' ούτωσι περικόπτειν και into court, were almost invaria- λωποδυτεϊν των Ελλήνων (Buttbly referred to arbitration. mann's index to Midias S.V. The Arbitrators (διαιτηταί) were κατά). either public and appointed by ούτωσι.] merely, sic temere, lot (κληρωτοί), or private and Homer's αύτως, Or μάψ ούτως, chosen (aipetol) by the parties to just bringing our witnesses up the impending suit. In cases to the altar and putting them brought before a public arbitra- on their oath and nothing tor the parties might appeal to more,' without allowing them a higher Court; whereas the de. to proceed with their depocision of a private arbitrator sitions. was final.

See esp. Or. 21 λίθον.] The mss have Bwa (Meid.) 8 94 τον των διαιτών νόμον. uòv, retained by the Zurich The dialta here described was editors (Baiter and Sauppe), of the former kind. (See further but altered into λίθον by Din. . Dict. Antiq. 8. v. dialta and dorf and Westermann, on the Excursus to Kennedy's Demosth. authority of Harpocration, who Leptines &c. p. 395-403.) has the following article : λίθος:

εποίησαν ώραν.] “They pro- Δημοσθένης εν τώ κατά Κόνωνος longed the time beyond mid- των τε παρόντων καθ' ένα ημίν night. For the plural νύκτες ούτωσι και προς τον λίθον άγονin the sense nocturna tempora τες και εξορκούντες (sic).' έοίκασι cf. Plato Phileb. 50 D νύν ούν δ' 'Αθηναίοι πρός τινι λίθω τους λέγε πότερα αφίης με ή μέσας όρκους ποιείσθαι ως 'Αριστοτέλης ποιήσεις νύκτας, Protag. 310 c, εν τη 'Αθηναίων πολιτεία και and Symp. 217 D πόρρω των Φιλόχορος έν των υποσημαίνουσι.

[ocr errors]

ορκίζοντες, και γράφοντες μαρτυρίας ουδέν προς το πράγμα, αλλ' εξ εταίρας είναι παιδίον αυτώ τούτο και πεπονθέναι τα και τα, ά μα τους θεούς, ώ άνδρες δικα

σται, ουδείς όστις ουκ επετίμα των παρόντων και εμί27 σει, τελευτώντες δε και αυτοι ούτοι εαυτούς. επειδή

δ' ουν ποτ' απείπον και ενεπλήσθησαν ταύτα ποιούντες, προκαλούνται επί διακρούσει και τα μη σημανθήναι τους εχίνους εθέλειν εκδούναι περί των πληγών παϊδας, ονόματα γράψαντες. και νύν οιμαι περί τούτ'

οίομαι Ζ. So Ηesychius, λίθος: βώλος, all sorts of irrelevant depoβωμός και βάσις. Ρlutarch, sitions, one of which was that Solon 25, ώμνυεν όρκον έκαστος Conon's son was illegitimate των θεσμοθετών εν αγορά προς [and therefore Conon was not τώ λίθω.

legally responsible for his ac. The word βωμόν was perhaps tions; further that he, Ctesias, originally an interlinear or has undergone certain ill treatmarginal explanation of λίθον, , ment which justified the outand subsequently thrust the rage he committed on Ariston. right word from the text.

P.] The διαιτηταί might hold å.] The antecedent is not their arbitration in any temples, τα και τα, but the general sense halls or courts available, e.g. of the whole of the preceding in the temple of Hephaestus as clauses; 'a course of conduct in Isocr. Trapez. S 15, έλόμενοι which, &c.' δε βασανιστάς απαντήσαμεν εις τελευτωντες εαυτούς.] το Ηφαιστείον. Similarly in επετίμων και εμίσουν, at last Or. 36 § 16 we have seen the they were indignant at and distemple of Athene on the Acro- gusted with themselves. The polis mentioned as the scene speaker feeling that, by im. of an arbitration. In any case plying that his opponents had an altar for the administration had the sense to desist, he has of oaths would be readily at made too much of a concession hand, and it is unnecessary to to them, hurries over his suppose that in the present pas- admission, and in the next sage any special public altar is sentence cuts the matter short intended. .

by the opening words επειδή δ' εξορκίζοντες] Also used in ούν i. e. whether this was the Aeschin. fals. leg. 8 85, εξόρκι- real reason or no, at any rate ζουν τους συμμάχους, in the same when at last they did desist, sense as the more common εξορ- &c.' κούν (for which see Οr. 45 8 58). προκαλούνται γράψαντες.]

ουδέν προς το πράγμα] SC. with a view to gain time and ούσας, utterly irrelevant.”. to prevent the document-cases τούτο, sc. Ctesias. They brought being sealed up, they put in a


έσεσθαι τους πολλούς των λόγων αυτούς. εγώ δ' οίμαι" δείν πάντας υμάς εκείνο σκοπεϊν, ότι ούτοι, εί του γενέσθαι την βάσανον ένεκα προκαλούντο και επί

στευον το δικαίω τούτω, ουκ αν ήδη της διαίτης απο28 φαινομένης, νυκτός, ουδεμιάς υπολοίπου σκήψεως

ούσης, προκαλούντο, αλλά πρώτον μεν πρό του την δίκην ληχθήναι, ηνίκασθενών εγώ κατεκείνην και, ουκ είδως εί περιφεύξομαι, προς άπαντας τους εισιόντας τούτον απέφαινον τον πρώτον πατάξαντα και τα πλείσθ' ων υβρίσμην διαπεπραγμένον, τότ' αν ευθέως ήκεν έχων μάρτυρας πολλούς επί την οικίαν, τότ' αν τους οικέτας παρεδίδου και των εξ 'Αρείου Πάγου τινάς

challenge, offering to surrender (lit. that they are willing to surrender) certain slaves, whose names they wrote down, to be examined as to the assault.

The πρόκλησις, or challenge, demanding or offering an enquiry into a special 'issue' before an Arbitrator very frequently related to the testimony of slaves presumably cognisant of the matter in dispute. In many cases the challenge would take the form of demanding that the opponent's slaves should be given up to torture (to elicit facts which that opponent was alleged to have concealed or misrepresented) (Dict. Antiq. p. 398 a.) Harpocr. πρόκλησις ειώθεσαν, οπότε δικάζουντό τινες, εξαιτείν ενίοτε θεράπαινας ή θεράποντας εις βάσανον ή εις μαρτυρίαν του πράγματος, και τούτο εκαλείτο προκαλείσθαι, το δε γραμματείων το περί τούτου γραφόμενον ωνομάζετο πρόκλησις. (See Οr. 45 8 59-62, and Or. 59 $ 124-5.)

In the present instance Conon offers to allow certain slaves to be examined. The plaintiff evidently refuses, and this refusal, he says, is sure to be made a strong point against him. He therefore insists that the πρόκλησις in question was a mere ruse to protract the proceedings before the Arbitrator,

and that had it been a bona fide offer it would have been made at an earlier date, and with all the proper formalities ($ 27–29).

τους εχίνους.] All the legal documents (μαρτυρίαι, προκλήσεις &c.) produced during an arbitration or, indeed, any preliminary examination, e.g. an ανάκρισις, were enclosed in one or more caskets, or éxivou (possibly of a cylindrical shape), which were sealed up and carefully preserved, to be ready in the event of an appeal. See Οr. 45 SS 17 and 57, Οr. 39 8 17, and cf. Οr. 48 (Olymp.) 8 48, τάς συνθήκας πάλιν σημήνασθαι, τα δ' αντίγραφα εμβαλέσθαι εις τον εχίνον.

το δικαίω τούτω.] “this plea.'

ήδη διαίτης αποφαινομένης.] when the award was just being announced.’ αποφαίνεσ. θαι, in middle of the διαιτητής Dem. Or. 33 (Apat.) § 19, els ών (se. άνευ των συνδιαιτητών) αποφανείσθαι έφη την δίαιταν 8 20 ερήμην κατ' αυτού απε. φήνατο της δίαιτας (cf. 8 21 την απόφασιν εποιήσατο) : in passive (as here) of the award itself. Reiske's Index (to which these references are due) is wrong in rendering it as a past tense, sententia iam pronuntiata.

παρεκάλει ει γαρ απέθανον, παρ' εκείνοις αν ήν η 1266 29 δίκη. ει δ' άρ' ήγνόησε ταύτα και τούτο το δίκαιον

έχων, ως νύν φήσει, ου παρεσκευάσατο υπέρ τηλικούτου κινδύνου, επειδή η ανεστηκώς ήδη προσεκαλεσάμην αυτόν, εν τη πρώτη συνόδω προς τα διαιτητή παραδιδους εφαίνετάν' ων ουδέν πέπρακται τούτω. ότι δ' αληθή λέγω και διακρούσεως ένεκα η πρόκλησις ήν, λέγε ταύτην την μαρτυρίαν έσται γαρ εκ ταύτης φανερόν.

ΜΑΡΤΥΡΙΑ, 30 Περί μεν τοίνυν της βασάνου ταύτα μέμνησθε,

28. τον πρώτον πατάξαντα.] “I of the speech against Aristowas pointing out the defendant, crates, Or. 23. -By τούτο το to all who came to see me, as δίκαιον is meant την πρόκλησιν. the man who struck the first 29. προσεκαλεσάμην.] Icited, blow. In a case of assault, the summoned him,' served him question who struck the first with & πρόσκλησις, not to be blow would be, of course, im- confounded with προύκαλεσάμην, portant. Οr. 47 S 40 βούλομαι "I challenged him, put in a τους μάρτυρας παρασχέσθαι οι πρόκλησις.' One ms (the Auείδόν με πρότερον πληγέντα. gustanus primus) actually has ή δ' αικία τούτ' έστιν, δς αν αρξη προεκαλεσάμην, manifest χειρών αδίκων πρότερος. Cf. blunder. - • If he did not know Οr. 23 8 50, Isocr. Οr. 20 8 1, this serious responsibility, and Lysias, Or. 4 § 11.

if having (as he will now tell έχων μάρτυρας πολλούς.] Το you) this plea on his side (i. e. give full and legal attestation the offer of the slave), he took to the πρόκλησις. So also in no precautions against such a Οr. 45 8 61, and elsewhere, & risk (i.e. of a capital charge for πρόκλησις is attested by & μαρ- murder), yet at least, when on τυρία.

my recovery I issued a sum. εξ 'Αρείου Πάγου τινάς.] as mons against him, in our first special witnesses. S 25 ει παθείν meeting before the Arbitrator τι μου συνέβη, φόνου...άν ην υπό- he would have shewn himself δικος. On the jurisdiction of willing to give up the slaves.' the Areopagus in cases of homi. SS 30–33. He thereupon put cide, see especially SS 65—70 in false evidence, alleging that

[ocr errors]

την ώραν ηνίκα προκαλείτο, ών ένεκ' έκκρούων ταύτ' επoίει, τους χρόνους τους πρώτους, εν οις ουδαμού τούτο βουληθείς το δίκαιον αυτώ γενέσθαι φαίνεται, ουδε προκαλεσάμενος, ουδ' αξιώσας, επειδή τοίνυν ταύτα πάντα ήλέγχετο, άπερ παρ' υμίν, προς το διαι

τητη, και φανερώς εδείκνυτο πάσιν ών ένοχος τους 31 εγκεκλημένοις, εμβάλλεται μαρτυρίαν ψευδή, και

επιγράφεται μάρτυρας ανθρώπους ους ουδ' υμάς

certain witnesses, boon companions of his own, deposed that they found the defendant's son and myself fighting in the market-place and that the defendant did not strike me. On my own part, I produce the evidence of strangers who came up by accident, attesting that they saw me struck by the defendant. What motive could these strangers have had for giving, false evidence' on my side ?

30. ών ένεκ' εκκρούων ταύτ' επoίει.] Ας delay and evasion were the object (ών ένεκα) of the defendant's conduct (S 27 επί διακρούσει and 8 29 διακρούσεως ένεκα), we may at first sight suspect (with Westermann) that εκκρούων is an interpolation; it may, however, be defended on the ground that it enables the speaker to reiterate emphatically the real motive of his opponent, - “his purpose, his evasive purpose, in doing. In this view, we may, if we please, punctuate the passage ών ένεκα, εκκρούων, ταυτ' επoίει. Cf. fals. leg. 9 144, εκκρούσας εις την υστεραίαν, and see Οr. 36 8 2 and Or. 45 8 4.

αξιώσας.] sc. το δίκαιον γενέσθαι, to have claimed to have this plea allowed him,' i.e. the plea founded on his appeal to the evidence of his slaves.

ηλέγχετο.] The construction is, ούτος ήλέγχετο ταύτα πάντα προς τη διαιτητή άπερ (accusative) νυν παρ' υμίν ελέγχεται. Thus the nominative to ήλέγχετο is the same as that of εδείκνυto in the next clause, and no change of construction is requisite.

πάσι.] not masc., but to be taken with τους έγκεκλημένοις.

31. εμβάλλεται.] sc. εις τον εχίνον (8 27), Οr. 49 8 65, εμβαλομένου εμού όρκον εις τον εχίνον. Trans. 'puts in a false deposition endorsed with names which, I take it, you will recognize, when you hear them.'

επιγράφεται.] Οr. 53 % 14, κλητηρα επιγράφεται. The phrase hardly means 'to give in one's list of witnesses' (L and S), but rather to have their names inscribed as witnesses.' επιγράφεται, it will be noticed, is previous in order of time to εμβάλλεται. Τhis ύστερον πρότερον enables the speaker to lead up more easily to the mention of the names of the witnesses.

Westermann draws attention to the following μαρτυρία as indisputably authentic, and therefore serving as a standard by which others purporting to be original depositions may be tested. (See note on Or. 35 (Lacr.) 8 10.)

[ocr errors]


« PreviousContinue »