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Αυτολήκυθοι: Δημοσθένης κατά Κόνωνος, (1) ήτοι αντί του ευζώνους τινας και ετοίμους παν οτιούν ποιείν και υπομένειν, (2) ή αντί του πένητας και μηδέν άλλο κεκτημένους ή ληκύθους, (3) ή αυτουργούς, (4)ή αντί του εις πληγας ετοίμους και οιον τύπτοντας και μαστιγούντας και υβρίζοντας, (5) ή λέγοι αν τους εκ προχείρου διδόντας αργύριον....

He further states that Menander used the word in two of his comedies, and attempts to support the last of the above interpretations by shewing from Diphilus, that money was occasionally carried about in the dýcubos: and the last but one by appealing to Menander for the fact that the thong or strap (iuas) by which the inkubos was suspended about the person might be detached from the flask and used as a whip. None of these five explanations is convincing and the last two are almost certainly wrong. An indication of the true meaning may however be gathered from the second. Any respectable Athenian in going to the public baths would be naturally attended by his slave carrying the master's dúkubos or oil-flask, &c. Compare, for the Roman custom, Varro R. R. 1. 55. 4 (Olea) dominum in balnea sequitur. The fraternity of young men alluded to in the text, may have gone on the principle of discarding the attendance of their slaves and carrying their own dýkubol, either to be free from the slight restraint which the company of their servants might put upon their practical jokes and wild escapades, or by way of assuming a lower grade of respectability than their birth would warrant, and availing themselves of that disguise either as a mere freak of youthful pleasantry or as a cloak for acts of outrage and disorder. If this view is tenable, the general sense of the title may be kept up by some such rendering as 'gentleman beggars,' 'amateur tramps.'

This explanation is in part confirmed by one of the guesses recorded in Bekker's Anecdota Graeca 465, 17 where αυτολήκυθος is explained ο πένης από του εαυτώ τας ληκύθους εις τα βαλανεία εισφέρειν. Again, Hesychius has αυτολήκυθοι: οι πένητες, οι μόνην λήκυθον έχοντες ή δι' εαυτών βαστάζοντες την λήκυθον, ου δι' οικετών. Pollux, x. 62, refers to the passage in Demosthenes, and quotes a parallel from the comic poet Antiphanes, Meineke Com. Graec. fragm. ΙΙΙ. 7 και αυτοληκύθους δέ τινας Δημοσθένης εν τω κατά Κόνωνος ονομάζει ούς σαφέστερον αν τις εν τω 'Aντιφάνους 'Αθάμαντι κεκλήσθαι λέγοι

χλαμύδα και λόγχην έχων αξυνακόλουθος ξηρος αυτολήκυθος. As another nickname attaching to one of these Clubs we have Τριβαλλοι in 8 39 ; and in Athenaeus a coterie of Athenian wits is mentioned in the time of Philip of Macedon and therefore nearly coincident in date with the Clubs in the text ; these wits or γελωτοποιοί went by the name of the sixty,' (Athen. xiv. 614). Cf. also Lysias, fragm. 53, κατά Κινησίου : ου μετά τούτου ποτέ 'Aπολλοφάνης και Μυσταλίδης και Λυσίθεος συνειστιωντο, μίαν ημέραν ταξάμενοι των αποφράδων, αντί νουμηνιαστών κακοδαιμονιστας σφίσιν αυτοίς τούνομα θέμενοι και


On the Tριβαλλοι of Or. 54 8 39. The Triballi were a wild Thracian people occupying the region north of the range of Haemus and south of the Danube, now known as Servia. Their character is often described in unfavourable terms: thus Isocrates (de pace 8 50) speaks of their δυσγένεια as opposed to the ευγένεια of Athens, and (Panath. $ 227) denounces them as leagued against all their neighbours: άπαντές φασιν ομονοείν μεν (τους Τριβαλλους) ως ουδένας άλλους ανθρώπους, απολλύναι δ' ου μόνον τους ομόρους και τους πλησίον οικούντας αλλά και τους άλλους όσων αν εφικέσθαι δυνηθώσιν. Lastly the comic poet Alexis (who flourished in B.C. 356, a date but slightly anterior to the present speech) attacking, apparently, some rude and uncivilised custom, describes it as too barbarous even for the Triballi, ουδ' εν Τριβαλλοϊς ταυτά γ εστίν έννομα | ου φασί τον θύοντα τους κεκλημένους | δείξαντ' ιδείν το δείπνον, εις την αύριον ή πωλείν αδείπνους åtep Onk' aútoîs ideîv (ap. Athen. xv. p. 671). Cf. Ar. Aves 1530.

According to the speaker, Conon and his two companions were, as mere striplings (uerpákia), known by a name borrowed from these lawless Triballi. Now if the speech was (as is very probable) delivered in B. C. 341 (see note on 3 étos tpitov) when Conon was rather more than 50 years of age ($ 22), he would be a perpá klov, or about 15 years of age, 35 years previous, viz. B.C. 376. By a coincidence which has apparently remained unnoticed, this brings us to the very year in which the wild Triballi crossed the Haemus with a strong force, ravaged the southern coast of Thrace near Abdera and were forced to retreat by the Athenian commander Chabrias (Diodor. xv. 36). The name of the barbarous tribe would therefore be on the lips of all Athens during the youth of Conon and his friends, and would readily find currency as a slang term of the day.

We may compare with the Tpıßalloi, the disorderly Clubs to which Conon's son belonged, the idúpallol and aŭtodńkubol of § 14; and we may suggest in passing that the special form of the appellation, apart from its general applicability, probably turned on a play of words (e.g. TpíBelv toùs allows or others more or less obvious). Cf. Photius 8.v. (quoting this passage) oi èv Tols Badavelous avaγώγως διατριβόμενοι"...οι δε τους εικαίους και τους βίους κατατρίβοντας. Ηesychius (inter alia) οι επί τα δείπνα ÈAUTOùs Kaloûvtes. The Scholia on Æschines i. $ 52 (rovode

τους αγρίους άνδρας) couple together Τριβαλλοι (cf. Plin. N. H. vir. 2) and Kávravpol as infamous appellatives, and lastly the comic poet Eubulus (fl. B.C. 375) has the line Τριβαλλοποπανόθρεπτα μειρακύλλια.

As an exact parallel to the Triballi in the text and the other clubs already mentioned, we have in English literature the nocturnal fraternity of the Mohock-club,-a name borrowed from a sort of cannibals in India' (i.e. North America). The practical jokes of that 'worthy society of brutes,' and 'well-disposed savages,' will be familiar to the readers of the Spectator (Nos. 324, 332 and 347; anno 1712). Cf, also Gay's Trivia iii. 325

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Who has not heard the Scowrer's midnight fame?
Who has not trembled at the Mohock's name?
Was there a watchman took his hourly rounds,

Safe from their blows, or new-invented wounds ? As German parallels we have the names Polacken, Tartaren, Husaren, and Kroaten (quoted by Reiske); similarly in French, Cosaques and Pandours (mentioned by M. Dareste).



ΥΠΟΘΕΣΙΣ. Καλλικλής, προς όν ο λόγος, και ο την δίκην υπ εκείνου φεύγων γείτονες ήσαν εν χωρίω, οδώ μέση διειργόμενοι. δυσομβρίας» δε συμβάσης, εις το Καλ

λικλέους χωρίον ύδωρ εμπεσον εκ της οδού κατελυμή5 νατο. επί τούτω διώκει βλάβης τον γείτονα είναι

γάρ φησιν εν τω Τισίου χωρίω χαράδραν εις υποδοχήν του ύδατος του εκ της οδού ποιηθείσαν, ήν αποικοδομήσαντα νύν αιτίαν εαυτω βλάβης γενέσθαι.

ο δε του Τισίου παίς πρώτον μεν παλαιών και ου δι' το εαυτού το έργον δείκνυσι ζώντος γαρ έτι και του

Καλλικλέους πατρός αποικοδομηθήναι την χαράδραν φησίν υπό του Τισίου°· έπειτα συνίστησιν ως ουδε χαράδρα τις το χωρίον εστί. διασύρει δε και την

διωκόμενος Ζconiecit Sauppίus. διώκων libri. φεύγων Bekker cum H. Wolfio.

étroußplas Z et Bekker stereo. Leipsig ed. 1855. (habet & in margine non modo duooußplas quod nusquam alias legitur, sed etiam επομβρίας quod occurrit infra 8 11, γενομένης επομβρίας). δηωβίας Φ. δηνάβιας Kerrich ms. δη βίας Β, δινοβίας Βekk. (Berlin ed.).

coitlov (sic) Kerrich ms. Η άποικοδομήσαντα νύν αίτιον Βekk. (Berlin ed.) αποικοδομηθείσαν νύν αιτίαν Βekk. (st. Leipsig ed.)

° ουδε χάραδρα τις αλλά χωρίον εστί Σ ιη margine (cf. 8 12 αποδείξω χωρίον όν τούτ' άλλ' ου χάραδραν).

Argument line 12. συνίστησιν] proof of,' e. g. Polyb. III. 108, 4, seems to mean he joins issue. επειράτο συνιστάνειν ότι... We Perhaps ενίστησιν, “he objects,' may therefore perhaps render P.] The word is used in late it he attempts to prove.' Greek in the sense 'to give line 13. διασύρει.]makes light

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