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διά του χωρίου, την αιμασιαν περιωκοδόμησε ταύτην. και ως ταύτ' αληθή λέγω, παρέξομαι μεν και μάρτυρας 1275 υμίν τους ειδότας, πολύ δε, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι, των μαρτύρων ισχυρότερα τεκμήρια. Καλλικλής μέν γάρ φησι την χαράδραν άποικοδομήσαντα βλάπτειν έμε αυτόν· εγώ δ' αποδείξω χωρίον όν τούτ' άλλ' ου

3 αυτόν Ζ.

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of words is discussed. He apparently understands επινέμειν in this passage to refer to a

common trespass;' but this is sufficiently expressed by Badiξόντων διά του χωρίου, and it is therefore better to give έπινεμόντων that special application to the encroachment of cattle' which it constantly bears.

αιμασιάν.] Never used in the sense of a 'hedge,' but always of a 'wall of dry stones.' In Odyss. XVIII. 359 and XXIV. 224-230, αιμασίας λέγειν is explained in a scholium, oikoδομών έκ συλλεκτών λίθων, and Hesychius paraphrases the word το εκ πολλών λίθων λογάδων αθροισμα. Thus in TheocrΙ. 45, a boy watching a vineyard is described as sitting εφ' αιμασιαϊσι, and in v. 93 we have roses growing in beds beside the garden-wall, ρόδα των άνδηρα παρ' αιμασιαΐσι πεφύκει. Cf. Plat. legg. 881 Α, περιβόλους αιμασιώδεις τινάς, τειχών ερύματα.

In Bekker's Anecdota Graeca p. 356, we have the definition, το εκ χαλίκων ώκοδομημένον τειχίον, where the next few words, κυρίως δε τοις ηκανθωμένους λέγεται φραγμούς, shew thatsuch walls were sometimes topped with thorns (Odyss. xiv. 10, αυλήν...δείματο...ρυτoίσιν λάεσ. σιν και εθρίγκωσεν άχέρδη, cf.

XXIV. 230), just as in England rough stone-walls are frequently finished off with furze and other prickly shrubs.

$S 12–15. The plaintiff contin is I have damaged his estate by obstructing the water-course.' In reply, I shall prove that what he calls a water-course is no such thing, but really part of our own ground, for it has fruit-trees growing in it which were planted before my father built the enclosure, and it contains a burial. place made before we acquired the property.

All this is in evidence, gentlemen, as also the fact that the wall was built while the plaintiff's father was still alive, and without any protest on the part of my opponents or the rest of my neighbours.

12. την χαράδραν.] emphatic, as is shewn by its prominent position and by the next sentence.

βλάπτειν έμε αυτόν ;] The order of words, (1) the infinitive, (2) the subject, (3) the object, is exactly parallel to that in Οr. 54 8 31 μή πατάξαι Κόγωνα 'Αρίστωνα.

χωρίον......αλλ' ου χαράδραν.] 'private ground and no watercourse.' Isocr. ad Dem. 8 2 των σπουδαίων αλλά μή των φαύλων είναι μιμητάς.

13 χαράδραν. ει μεν ούν μη συνεχωρείτο ημέτερον ίδιον

είναι, τάχ' άν τούτο ήδικούμεν, εί τι των δημοσίων ωκοδομούμεν νυνί δ' ούτε τούτο αμφισβητούσιν, έστι τ' εν τω χωρίω δένδρα πεφυτευμένα, άμπελοι και συκαι. καίτοι τις εν χαράδρα ταύτ' αν φυτεύειν αξιώσειεν, ουδείς γε.

τίς δε πάλιν τους αυτού 14 προγόνους θάπτειν; ουδε τούτ' οίμαι. ταύτα τοίνυν

αμφότερ', ώ άνδρες δικασται, συμβέβηκεν και γαρ τα δένδρα πεφύτευται πρότερον ή τον πατέρα περιοικοδομήσαι την αιμασιάν, και τα μνήματα παλαιά και πριν ημάς κτήσασθαι το χωρίον γεγενημένα εστίν. καίτοι τούτων υπαρχόντων τις αν έτι λόγος ισχυρότεpos,

ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι, γένοιτο; τα γαρ έργα φανερώς εξελέγχει. καί μοι λαβέ πάσας νυνι τας μαρτυρίας, και λέγε.

13. ει μή συνεχωρείτο ίδιον είναι, τάχ' άν ήδικούμεν, εί τι των δημοσίων ώκοδομούμεν.] In this conditional sentence, we have one apodosis ήδικούμεν άν, corresponding to a double protasis. The second protasis εί– ώκοδομούμεν reiterates the first with a slight change of idea. The supposition stated at the beginning of the sentence is thus re-stated with some slight redundancy at the end, and reaches the hearer in two parts, which enter his mind separately and there unite. So in Plat. Phaedo 67 Ε, ει φοβούντο και αγανακτοιεν, ου πολλή αν αλογία είη,...εί μή άσμενοι εκείσε ίοιεν. The idiom may be illustrated by the effect upon the brain of the double images of external objects entering the eyes separately and subsequently uniting. Numerous varieties of construction, of which the present is a single instance, are grouped

under the general heading of 'Binary Structure' in Riddell's Digest of Platonic idioms, $ 204. ημέτερον ίδιον.]

See note on 8 8, ad fin.

πεφυτευμένα.] planted' and not growing wild, like the épcνεός Or συκή αγρία.

τίς...θάπτειν.] The telling question, 'who would think of burying his ancestors in a water-course ?' (a question seriously put, unless perhaps we ought to take it as one of the touches of humour characteristic of this speech), is of course not meant to apply to all the tombs subsequently men. tioned (14), as some of them were there even before the land came into the speaker's possession.

14. και γάρ...και.] for not only ...but.' A frequent idiom, though one but little observed. P.]

τούτων υπαρχόντων.] Cf. 8 9 init.


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m Bekk.

15 'Ακούετε, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι, των μαρτυριών.

αρ' υμίν δοκούσι διαρρήδην μαρτυρείν και το χωρίον είναι δένδρων μεστόν και μνήματέχειν τινά και τάλλ' άπερ και τους άλλους χωρίοις συμβέβηκεν; και πάλιν ότι περιωκοδομήθη το χωρίον ζώντος μέν έτι του τούτων πατρός, ουκ αμφισβητούντων δ' ούτε τούτων ούτ'

άλλου των γειτόνων ουδενός ; 16 "Αξιον δ', ώ άνδρες δικασται, και περί των άλλων 1276 ών είρηκε Καλλικλής ακούσαι. και σκέψασθε πρώτον k Bekk. (Berlin).

χωρίον Zet Bekker st. cum FΣΦB. 1 Βekk.

του τούτου Ζ cum FΦΒ. των τούτου Σ.

σκέψασθαι Ζcum ΣΦ. 15. âp.) We should expect and a water-course would be αρ' ουχ, which, like nonne, dis- quite unnecessary. Next, no one tinctly implies an affirmative surely would think of allowing answer. But apa is not unfre- water passing down the highway quently used alone, to denote a to flow into his own land; on simple interrogation, the con. the contrary, he would of course text shewing whether a nega- dam it off, if it ever made intive or, as here, an affirmative road. reply is expected. Xen. Cyr. Now the plaintiff wants me to IV. 6. 4, άρα βέβληκα δις εφεξής : let the water flow into my own (L. and 8.).

land, and to turn it off into the μνήματα...τινά.] Not μνήματα road again after it has passed παλαιά as before. The de- his property. Why then, the scription is made as general as owner next below my neighbour possible to shew that the piece opposite will complain. In short, of ground in question had all if I take the water from off the the essential characteristics of road, I cannot let it out again private property.-τάλλ' άπερ. either into the road or into my The speaker does not specify neighbour's properties. And no what is included in this et other course is open to me, for I cetera, but the depositions pro- presume the plaintiff won't combably went into further detail. pel me to drink it up. 88 16-18.

The plaintiff 16. σκέψασθε.] The other speaks of the stoppage of a water- reading σκέψασθαι (closely con.

Now, firstly, I don't nected by και with ακούσαι) is suppose that in the whole of perhaps less preferable, but is Attica there is such a thing as accepted by the Zurich editors, a watercourse by the side of a partly on the authority of the public road. The water would Paris Mς Σ. naturally flow down the road




μεν εί τις υμών εόρακεν" ή ακήκόε πώποτε παρ' οδόν χαράδραν ούσαν. οίμαι γαρ εν πάση τη χώρα μηδεμίαν είναι. του γαρ ένεκα, ο διά της οδού της δημοσίας

έμελλε βαδιείσθαι φερόμενον, τούτω διά των ιδίων 17 χωρίων χαράδραν εποίησε τις; έπειτα τίς αν υμών είτ'

εώρακες Ζ. οιμαι εποίησε τις ;] The hundred paces further on, the speaker, after asking whether road was lost in a wide and any of his audience has ever deep ravine, hollowed by the seen or even heard of a water- rains of two or three thousand course running by the side of winters. I supposed with some a public way, takes upon him- show of justice that the ravine self to declare that he does not must be the road, for I had believe there is anything of the noticed in my previous excurkind in the whole of Attica, sions that the Greeks dispense The startling character of this with making a road wherever assertion, which could hardly the water has been kind enough have been untrue, is only to take that duty on itself. In equalled by the delightful this country, where man but frankness with which he as- slightly thwarts the laws of nasigns the reason; "what could ture, the torrents are royal roads; induce any one,' he asks, to the rivers turnpike-roads; the make a channel through his rivulets cross-country roads. private grounds for water, Storms do the office of highway which, if let alone, would be engineers and the rain is an in. sure to flow down along the spector who keeps up without public road?' The passage is any control the means of comsingularly suggestive on the munication, great and small.” state of the mountain roads of (p. 45=p. 42 Eng. transl. 1862.) Attica; the public road, so [We must remember that called, would in numbers of road-making, as we have it, is a cases be little better than the modern art, and that the want path of a mountain-torrent, of roads is still the cause of which might be used in dry backward civilisation and comweather for purposes of transit, merce in many countries. The but in very wet seasons would hollow or sunken lanes, common revert to the possession of the in many parts of England, are waters. In the days of De- caused by the excavating power mosthenes many of the moun- of water running along tracks. tain roads were, we presume,

The Romans raised their roads not much better than those of (viam munire) apparently to modern Attica, as described in avoid this. As an illustrative Edmond About's lively book on passage, we may quote Iliad Greek brigandage, Le Roi des ΧΧΙΙΙ. 420, ρωγμός έην γαίης, η Montagnes :

χειμέριον άλεν ύδωρ εξέρρηξεν “I crossed at & leap the οδοίο, βάθυνε δε χώρον άπαντα. Ρ.] Eleusinian Cephisus . . . One Badicioda..] The Classic fu

εν αγρώ νή Δί' είτ' εν άστει το διά της οδού ρέον ύδωρ εις το χωρίον ή την οικίαν δέξαιτ' άν αυτού; αλλ' ουκ αυτό τουναντίον, κάν βιάσηται ποτε, αποφράττειν άπαντες και παροικοδομείν ειώθαμεν; ουτος τοίνυν αξιοϊ με έκ της οδού το ύδωρ εισδεξάμενον εις το έμαυτού χωρίον, όταν το τούτου παραλλάξη χωρίον, πάλιν εις την οδόν εξαγαγείν, ουκούν πάλιν και μετά τούτόν μοι γεωργών των γειτόνων εγκαλεί

το γαρ υπέρ τούτου δίκαιον δηλον ότι κάκείνοις υπάρ19 ξει πάσι λέγειν, αλλά μην εί γε εις την οδόν οκνήσω

το ύδωρ εξάγειν, ή που σφόδρα θαρρών εις το του



ture of βαδίζω (retained even by Plutarch and Lucian); the other forms, βαδίσω and βαδιώ, are characteristic of the worst Greek, extrema barbaries (Cobet, υar. lect. 329).

αυτό τουναντίον.] on the very contrary,' so also in Or. 22 (An. drot.)8 7.αν τουναντίον was the vulgar text until corrected by Reiske, on the authority of two Μss and the margin of Σ ; but the correction is so certain that authority is hardly wanted.

αποφράττειν και παροικοδομείν] "dam and wall it off.' The former implies an abrupt cutting off of the water by a transverse dam athwart the stream; the latter probably expresses a wall built parallel to the stream to narrow its course.

ούτος τοίνυν-εγκαλεί.] This man, Callicles, expects me, to take the water from the road (where it has no χαράδρα) into my farm, and when it has passed his, again to carry it out of my farm into the road. But, in that case, the farmer who occupies next to him would complain;' i. e. he would say that I ought to carry it beyond

his' farm also, lest it should come in from the road. It is clear that the defendant's farm, on one side of the road ($ 10), extended considerably beyond that of the plaintiff Callicles on the other. For he says that, if bound to carry it beyond one farm, he was bound to carry it beyond a second or a third, before he allowed it to re-enter the public road. P.]

εξαγαγείν.] draw off,let out.' Χen. Oec. 20 8 12, το δωρ εξάγεται τάφροις.

εγκαλεί.] Not present, but future. The context is decisive and the margin of the Paris ms has εγκαλέσει, pointing to the same conclusion, though the note seems due to a copyist who did not recognise in εγκαλεί the regular Attic future. In Or. 23 (Aristocr.) § 123, we have εγκαλέσουσιν; so also in Οr. 19 § 133. The simple verb kalê hardly ever (Cobet says, never) has any other future than καλώ (var. lect. 28, 29).

18. ή που.] Surely, I should scarely be bold enough to turn it on to my neighbour's land;' —'I should be a very bold man

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