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και της ευθείας ο ρήτωρ, δεικνύς ως ουκ είχεν η τράπεζα χρήματα ίδια του Πασίωνος. τούτο δε πεποίηκεν, ίνα η παραγραφή μάλλον ισχύη, της ευθείας δεικνυμένης» το 'Απολλοδώρω σαθράς.

Την μεν άπειρίαν του λέγειν, και ως αδυνάτως έχει Φορμίων, αυτοι πάντες οράτε, ώ άνδρες Αθη

δεικνυομένης Ζ. 27. τούτο δε πεποίηκεν κ.τ.λ.] unable to speak good Greek. “He has done (or does ') this to In a later speech arising out of give greater force to the special the present action, Apollodorus, plea, by proving that, even on its bimself the son of one who was own merits, the case of the once a slave, taunts him with plaintiff is quite untenable.' his foreign extraction and his (σαθράς, thoroughly rotten, un- indifferent pronunciation. Or. sound.) Cf. υπόθεσις of Or. 32, 45 κατά Στεφάνου Α, 881 βάρβαρος Zenoth. δείκνυσιν ότι θαρρεί μεν έωνήθης and S 30, ίσως αυτόν τη ευθεία, εκ περιουσίας δε αυτώ υπειλήφατε, ότι σολοικίζει τη και παραγραφήν ο νόμος δίδωσιν. φωνή, βάρβαρον και ευκαταφρό

$S 1.-3. The defendant Phor- νητον είναι, έστι δε βάρβαρος mio's obvious inexperience and ουτος τα μισείν ούς αυτή προσήκε incapacity for public speaking τιμών, τώ δε κακουργήσαι και διοmake it necessary for his friends ρύξαι πράγματα ουδενός λείπεται. to state his case on his behalf. In $ 77, Apollodorus himself They confront the plaintiff Apol- apologizes for his broad brogue lodorus with a special plca in Or loud voice (λαλείν μέγα); bar of action, not to waste time the speaker of προς Πανταίνετον and evade the main issue, but to makes similar excuses for his secure a final settlement of the διάλεκτος (Or. 37-88 52, 55); and case. Their friend, the defend- a like tribute to the sensitiveant, has conferred many kind- ness of an Attic audience is paid nesses on the plaintiff; and has by the Mytilenaean in Antifurther been released from all phon's de Caede Herodis (Or. v. the legal claims of the latter, 8 5) δέομαι υμών...εάν τιτη γλώσonly to find himself at last the ση αμάρτω, συγγνώμην έχειν μοι victim of a vexatious lawsuit. και ηγείσθαι άπειρία αυτό μάλλον However, a brief recital of the ή αδικία ήμαρτήσθαι. transactions of the litigants will αδυνάτως έχει.] “Is quite inprove that the plaintiff's case is capable, referring mainly to his utterly untenable.

inexperience and want of facility 1. την απειρίας του λέγειν.] in speaking. Thus in Antiphon Like all slaves at Athens, Phor- μ. 8. V. S 2 ή του λέγειν αδυναμία mio (once the slave of the banker is contrasted with η εμπειρία Pasion) was of barbarian birth; των πραγμάτων. and though subsequently re- οράτε.] In a general sense, warded with the rights of free- 'you all of yourselves observe.' dom and citizenship, remained


ναίοι ανάγκη δ' έστι τους επιτηδείοις ημίν, ά συνισμεν
πολλάκις τούτου διεξιόντος ακηκοότες, λέγειν και δι-
δάσκειν υμάς, ίν ειδότες και μεμαθηκότες ορθώς τα

δίκαια παρ' ημών, και αν η δίκαια και εύορκα, ταύτα 2 ψηφίσησθε. την μεν ουν παραγραφήν εποιησάμεθα της δίκης ουχ ϊν έκκρούοντες χρόνους έμποιώμεν, αλλ'

ίνα των πραγμάτων, εάν επιδείξη μηδ' οτιούν άδιν κούνθ' εαυτόν ουτοσί, απαλλαγή τις αυτο γένηται

παρ' υμίν κυρία. όσα γάρ παρά τοις άλλοις έστιν αν-
θρώποις ισχυρά και βέβαια άνευ του παρ' υμίν αγωνί-

σασθαι, ταύτα πάντα πεποιηκώς Φορμίων ουτοσί, και 945 3 πολλά μέν εύ πεποιηκώς Απολλόδωρον τουτονι, πάντα

δ', όσων κύριος των τούτου κατελείφθη, διαλίσας και

α αν η δίκαια κ.τ.λ.] The relative clause to ταύτα ψηφίσησθε is placed before it partly for increased emphasis, partly to bring δίκαια closer to τα δίκαια in the previous context.

2. ϊν έκκρούοντες χρόνους έμποιωμεν.] With the evasive object of wasting time, or (with Kennedy) for the sake of evasion and delay.' The phrase xpóvous εμποιείν occurs in Or. 9 8 71, 23 3 93. Cf. Οr. 47 S 63, διατιβάς εμποιών......τεχνάζων του χρόνον εγγενέσθαι. For εκκρούοντες, cf. Οr. 54 κατά Κόνων. $ 30, and for the general sense, Τhuc. III. 38, χρόνου διατριβής έμποιείν and κατά Στεφ. Α, 8 4, p. 1102, χρόνου γιγνομένου και της γραφής εκκρουομένης. Liddell and Scott give a phrase εκκρούειν χρόνον, “ to waste time, and, to prove it, inadvertently refer to the last passage and to the words of the text, where xpóvous clearly comes after εμπoιώμεν. .

απαλλαγή κυρία.] A legal and valid (or final) acquittal from all future actions, πραγμάτων.

άνευ του παρ' υμίν αγωνίσασθαι.] Without standing a trial in your court.'

πεποιηκώς....εύ πεποιηκώς...... διαλύσας ... παραδούς ... αφεθείς.] Although all these participles refer to Phormio, who is the sub. ject of the first part of the sertence, the principal verb συκοφαντεί refers to Apollodorus. Το obviate the harshness of this anacoluthon it has been proposed (by G. H. Schaefer) to follow one of the MSS., the Augustanus primus, in reading πεποίηκε for πεποιηκώς, and also to strike out και before πολλά, , and place a full stop at έγκλημάτων. [But we should still expect όμως δ', Or αλλ' όμως. Perhaps it is better to regard this as an instance of the .nominativus pendens.' P.) (Funkhaenel, quaest. Dem. p. 75 sq.)

3. τούτου.] Apollodorus.

διαλύσας κ. παραδούς κ.τ.λ.] 'Having duly paid and delivered up everything--and having thereafter received a discharge from all further claims.'

Reiske. παραδούς δικαίως, και πάντων αφεθείς μετά ταύτα των εγκλημάτων, όμως, ως οράτε, επειδή φέρειν τούτον ουχ οδός τ' έστι, δίκην ταλάντων είκοσι λαχών αυτώ ταύτην συκοφαντεί. εξ αρχής ούν άπαντα τα πραχθέντα τούτω προς Πασίωνα και Απολλόδωρος ως άν δύναμαι διά βραχυτάτων είπείν πειράσομαι, εξ ών εύ οίδ' ότι ή τε τούτου συκοφαντία φανερά γενήσεται, και ως ουκ εισαγώγιμος η δίκη γνώσεσθε άμα

ταυτ' ακούσαντες. 4 Πρώτον μεν ούν υμίν αναγνώσεται τας συνθήκας,

επειδή φέρειν τούτον ουχ οιός which belongs to B.C. 394, while τ' έστι.] i. e. since (or, at a time Pasion was probably still a when) Phormio cannot submit μέτοικος, and not yet rewarded any longer to the unconscion- with the citizenship of Athens, able claims of Apollodorus (and purports to be a speech written therefore declines to make any in prosecution of Pasion for further concessions), the latter defrauding a subject of Satyrus, has vexatiously instituted the king of Bosporus. The father present action. The subject of of Demosthenes had some money the subordinate clause appears in Pasion's bank (Or. 27 § 11). to be Phormio. For the sense, Pasion, according to his son, compare the language ascribed Apollodorus, had conferred many to Apollodorus in 8 33, μίσθω- benefits on the state, e.g. by σιν ήθελεν αυτώ φέρειν Φορμίων presenting five triremes and πολλήν...έπει δ' ου ποιεί ταύτα, a thousand shields (Or. 45 τηνικαύτα, φησί, δικάζομαι, and 8 85), and his credit was good especially κατά Στεφ. Α, 8 5, throughout all Greece (Or. 50 επειδή ποιείν τε ουδέν ώετο δείν ών 8 56). He died in B.C. 370 (Or. τοτε ώμολόγησε, και τα χρήματα 46 § 13). αποστερείν ενεχείρησεν α της ουκ εισαγώγιμος.] Οr. 45 και 5 τραπέζης είχεν αφορμήν, δίκην (of this very trial), παρεγράψατο ηναγκάσθην λαχείν.-For δίκην την δίκην ήν έφευγε Φορμίων ουκ λαχών, cf. Οr. 54 8 1, έλαχον εισαγώγιμον είναι. See υπόθεσις δίκην η.

1. 23, παραγράφεται, η. συκοφαντεί.] Cf. Οr. 55 8 1 η. SS 4—11. Statement of the

-πραχθέντα τούτω, Οr. 34 transactions of Phormio with 8 36 n.

Pasion and Apollodorus. After Πασίωνα.] Pasion, originally Phormio had become his own the slave of Archestratus (S 48), master, but before he had reand accountant to the banking- ceived the rights of Athenian firm of Archestratus and An- citizenship, Pasion gave him a tisthenes, was set free by his lease of the Bank and the masters and succeeded them Shield - Manufactory. Subsein their business (S$ 43-48). quently Pasion became ill and The Trapeziticus of Isocrates, died, leaving a will whereby

καθ' ας έμίσθωσε Πασίων την τράπεζαν τούτο και το ασπιδοπηγείον. καί μοι λαβέ τας συνθήκας και την πρόκλησιν και τας μαρτυρίας ταυτασί. ΣΥΝΘΗΚΑΙ. ΠΡΟΚΛΗΣΙΣ. ΜΑΡΤΥΡΙΑΙ.

Αί μεν ούν συνθήκαι, καθ' ας έμίσθωσεν ο Πασίων τούτω την τράπεζας και το ασπιδοπηγείον ήδη καθ' εαυτόν όντι, αυταί εισιν, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι δεί δ' υμάς ακούσαι και μαθεϊν έκ τίνος τρόπου προσώφειλε 5 τα ένδεκα τάλαντα ο Πασίων επί την τράπεζαν. ου

Phormio married his former master's widow (Archippe), and became guardian to his younger son (Pasicles). The elder son (Apollodorus) proceeded to appropriate to his private use large sums out of the common estate, and the guardians accordingly deemed it prudent on behalf of their ward to determine on a partition of all the effects except the Bank and Shield-Manufactory, leased to the defendant, who was one of the guardians. The defendant paid a moiety of the rent of that property to the elder son, Apollodorus, who when Pasicles came of age discharged the defendant from his liability under the lease and from all further claims. The said property was thereupon divided between the two brothers, the elder exercising his option in favour of the Shield-Manufactory, as the safer though less remunerative business, and leaving the Bank, with its higher but more hazardous revenue, to his younger brother.

4. συνθήκας.] The terms are given in Or. 45, S 32, μίσθωσιν φέρειν τούτον άνευ της καθ' ημέραν διοικήσεως δύο τάλαντα και τετταράκοντα μνας του ενιαυτου εκάστου...προσγέγραπται δε τελευταίον οφείλει δε Πασίων

ένδεκα τάλαντα εις τας παρακαταθήκας.'

ασπιδοπηγείον.] Οr. 45 8 85, ο έμός υμίν πατήρ (Pasion) χιλίας έδωκεν ασπίδας.

την πρόκλησιν.] Probably a challenge to Apollodorus for the production of the articles of agreement between Pasion and Phormio. On the term in general, see Οr. 54 8 27, προκαλούνται, η, and infr. 8 7 η. ήδη καθ' εαυτόν.]

His own master,' no longer subject, as a slave, to the control of another, though still a MÉTOLKOS.

[Below, 8 6, it is said that Phormio saw a difficulty in getting in money due to the bank, if he did not possess the citi. zenship. He saw this when he was thinking of hiring (μισθούμενος) the bank of which Pasion is here said to have given him a lease. Hence there seems a difficulty in rendering non kall εαυτόν όντι, “when he was now his own master.' May it not mean, , While he, Phormio, was at the time in his (Pasion's) service'? P.]

προσώφειλε κ.τ.λ.] The defendant has to explain how it comes to pass that Pasion is entered in the articles of agreement as owing eleven talents to the bank. He shows that

γαρ δι' απορίαν ταύτ' ώφειλεν, αλλά διά φιλεργίαν. η μεν γαρ έγγειος ην ουσία Πασίωνι μάλιστα ταλάντων είκοσιν, αργύριον δε προς ταύτη δεδανεισμένον ίδιον πλέον η πεντήκοντα τάλαντα. εν ούν τους πεντήκοντα


this sum had been lent by Pasion on the security of certain lands and houses on which Pasion as the creditor, being an Athenian citizen, would have a claim, in the event of the loan not being refunded or the interest regularly paid. As Phormio the lessee of the banking business had not yet acquired the rights of citizenship, herefore arranged that Pasion should not transfer these securities to Phormio but keep them in his own hands, and credit Phormio with their value : in other words, enter himself in the articles of agreement as debtor to the bank to the amount of eleven talents.

For προσώφειλε, the compound verb followed by the simple ώφειλε where the repetition of the preposition is not necessary, cf. Cic. Catil. iv. 1, perferrem...feram.

5. απορίαν...φιλεργίαν.] Not * want' but 'thrift, or (with Kennedy) ‘Not on account of poverty, but on account of his industry in business.' In Or. 45 § 33 Apollodorus insinuates that the debt arose from Phormio's mismanagement.

έγγειος ουσία.] “Property in land,' real property,' also called φανερά ουσία. Ηarpocr. αφανής ουσία και φανερά αφανής μεν η εν χρήμασι και σώμασι και σκεύεσι, φανερά δε ή έγγειος.

αργύριον προς ταύτη.] In addition to this he had money of his own (personal property)

lent out on interest to the amount of more than fifty talents. The larger amount so employed shows that he was a usurer by practice or profes. sion. P.]

εν ούντοϊς πεντήκοντα...ένδεκα.] We have just been told that Pasion had more than 50 talents of his own money (αργύριον ίδιον) lent out at interest, and we now ind that εν τοις πεντήκοντα ταλ. dvtous there were 11 talents from the bank-deposits, profitably invested. The latter could hardly be called ίδιον αργύριον, unless the words are used loosely in the general sense of 'personal property' as opposed to Zygelos oủola or 'real property.' But we should perhaps strike out lolov and attribute its insertion to an accidental repetition of Tléov, as ’IAION and IAÉON are not very unlike one another.

Or again, keeping idlov we might alter ¿v oûv into ét' oủv 'in addition to,' over and above the 50 talents. Heraldus proposed oùv oûv, and G. H. Schaefer unsuccessfully attempts to show that ¿v may mean besides,' by quoting the quasi-adverbial use of ev dè in Soph. Ai. 675, 0. C.55, and 0.T. 27.

[In the sense of 'in addition to he should rather have said Tepòs than émi. Perhaps ¿v means mixed up with,'i.e. out at loan to the same borrowers as his own money was. A man may borrow of me, as a banker, privately

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