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του, τοσαύτα δ' αυτόν τούτον αγαθά ειργασμένον όσ' υμείς ακηκόατε, τούτον οίεται δεϊν ελών τηλικαύτην δίκην αδίκως εκβαλείν. ου γαρ άλλο γ' έχoις" ουδέν αν ποιήσαι. είς μεν γαρ τα όντα εί βλέπεις ακριβώς,
ταύθ' * ευρήσεις ών έστιν, εάν', ο μη γένοιτο, εξαπατη5ο θώσιν ουτοι. οράς τον Αριστόλοχον τον Χαριδήμου; ποτ’ είχεν αγρόν, είτά γε νύν πολλοί πολλοίς γάρ * ΣrA1. εκβάλλειν Ζ.
1 Βekk. έχοι Ζcum Σ. Σ Βekk. αυτά Ζcum FΣΦB. Ο ΣrA1. αν Ζ. 1 Σ. Αρχίλοχον Ζ.
theless ruined; the defendant not misled into condemning him.' only paid a rent for the bank The property consists largely of but kept up the business for the deposits at the bank, invested family of the plaintiff, who, so in different speculations, and far from being grateful, takes incapable of being realised at a no account of all this, but even moment's notice. If Phormio persecutes and calumniates him. has to pay damages, there will Our friend, if for a moment we at once be a run upon his bank; may call him so, little thinks his customers, to secure their that honesty is the best policy property before it is paid away (as is proved by the defendant's in damages, will claim their des prosperity). The plaintiff at posits, and Phormio, like others any rate is a case in point; he before him, will be bankrupt. has (if we are to believe him) έχoις ουδέν άν.] Notice the lost all his money; had he been strong affinity or attraction that a man of sound sense he would åv has to the negative; which is not have thrown it away.
the reason of the common hy49. έκβαλείν.] Ιn Οr. 45 κατά perthesis ουκ άν oίμαι σε ποιείν, Στεφάνου Α 8 70, Apollodorus &ο. Goodwin's Moods and taunts Stephanus (one of Phor- Tenses, § 42. 2, n., and Short's mio's witnesses in the present Order of Words in Attic Greek trial) with turning his own uncle
xoiv. (3) (ο). out of his patrimony, for arrears 50. 'Αριστόλοχον.] In 45 8 64 of debt: τοκίζων...εξέβαλες εκ Stephanus is described as cringτης πατρώας ουσίας.
ing to Aristolochus the banker ου γάρ άλλoγ.] i.e. If heavy in his prosperity, and deserting damages are granted the plain- his son when in great distress tiff, the penalty will prove none after Aristolochus was ruined other than (will not fall short and had lost all his property. of) turning the defendant out ποτ' είχεν αγρών κ.τ.λ.] “He of house and home. 'Examine had a farm once,'-*he owned the nature of his property close- some land in his day; that ly and you will soon see whose land has passed to many owners it really is (cf. Teles quoted now.' TOTÈ (olim) is seldom in § 11 n.) and into whose found in so emphatic a position. hands it will fall, if (which –πολλοί (so. έχουσι τον αγρόν). heaven forbid) the court is
εκείνος οφείλων αυτών έκτήσατο. και τον Σωσίνoμoν και τον Τιμόδημον και τους άλλους τραπεζίτας, ού, έπει διαλύειν εδέησεν οίς ώφειλον, εξέστησαν απάντων των όντων. συ δ' ουδέν οίει δεϊν σκοπεϊν ουδ' 96ο
ών ο πατήρ σου πολλώ βελτίων ών και άμεινον σου 51 φρονών προς άπαντ' έβουλεύσατο· ος, ώ Ζεύ και θεοί,
τοσούτω τούτον ηγείτο σου πλείονος άξιον είναι και σοι και εαυτό και τοις υμετέροις πράγμασιν, ώστε ανδρός όντος σου τούτον, ου σε των μισθώσεων κατέλιπεν επίτροπον και την γυναίκα έδωκε και ζών αυτόν ετίμα, δικαίως, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι οι μεν γαρ άλλοι τραπεζίται μίσθωσιν ου φέροντες, άλλ' αυτοι εαυτούς εργαζόμενοι πάντες απώλoντo, ούτος δε μίσθωσιν φέ
ρων δύο τάλαντα και τετταράκοντα μνάς υμίν έσωσε 52 την τράπεζαν. ών εκείνος μέν χάριν είχε, συ δ' ουδένα
ποιεί λόγον, αλλ' εναντία τη διαθήκη και ταϊς απ' εκείνης αραϊς γραφείσαις υπό του σου πατρός ελαύνεις,
διαλύειν.] 80. (τούτους) οίς ώφειλον “to settle with, to satisfy, their creditors.' Cf. Or. 37812 n.
εξέστησαν.] Had to give up, were ousted from.' 45 & 64 απώλετο και των όντων εξέστη. Apatur. § 25, Pantaen. 37 § 49, Ar. Acharn. 615 (K. F. Hermann Privatalt. 8 71, 3). εκστηναι (like εκπεσείν) would answer as a passive to έκβαλείν. The regular word for becoming bankrupt is ανασκευάζεσθαι (contrasted with κατασκευάζεσθαι to establish a bank); Dem. Apatur. 33 8 9 της τραπέζης ανασκευασθείσης. Οr. 49 8 68 τοις ανεσκευασμένους των τραπεζιτών. Cf. infra 57, ανατρέψαι, η.
51. εαυτοίς έργ. πάντες απώ«λοντο.] This frequent failure of
bankers on their own account,
δύο τάλ. κ.τ.λ.] Cf. 37.
52. ταϊς αραΐs.] Solemn imprecations on those who violated the conditions of the will.
ελαύνεις, συκοφαντείς, διώκεις.] «Harass, calumniate, prosecute.' διώκεις comes rather feebly after the stronger word συκοφαντείς, and in spite of the authority of the Paris MS. there is much to be said for the old order retained by Bekker : ελαύνεις, διώκεις, συκοφανTeîs. The latter is to some extent confirmed by the Rhetorician Tiberius (περί σχημάτων, 6. 31), who refers to this passage as an instance of a figure of speech described by
συκοφαντείς, διώκεις ee, ώ βέλτιστε, εί οιόν τε σε τούτο είπείν, ου παύσεις, και γνώσεις τούθ', ότι πολλών χρημάτων το χρηστών είναι λυσιτελέστερόν έστι; σοι γούν, είπερ αληθή λέγεις, χρήματα μεν τοσαύτ' είληφότι πάντ' απόλωλεν, ώς φής" ει δ' ήσθα επιεικής, ουκ άν ποτε αυτά ανήλωσας.
'Αλλ' έγωγε μα τον Δία και θεούς πανταχή σκοπών ουδέν ορώ, διότι αν σοι πεισθέντες τουδί καταψηφίσαιντο. τί γάρ και ότι πλησίον όντων των αδικημάτων εγκαλείς; αλλ' έτεσι και χρόνοις ύστερον αιτια
ee Zet Dindf. cum Σ'Α. διώκεις, συκοφαντείς Βekk.
h Bekk. διά τι Z cum Σ'Α'. another Rhetorician (Alexander, years after the alleged offence, περί σχημάτων, C. 10) as and meanwhile has found time πλείον επί του αυτού νοήματος formcessantlitigation, especially επιμονή μετά αυξήσεως. His in public causes where his perwords are: επιμονή δέ έστιν όταν sonal interests were but partially τις πλείω ρήματα ορθά αλλήλοις affected. While prosecuting so επιβάλλη, ως εν τώ υπέρ Φορμίω- many others, how came he to let νος προς τον 'Απολλόδωρον, άγεις
Phormio alone? The presump(sic), ελαύνεις, διώκεις, συκο- tion is that the plaintiff was φαντείς. δείνωσιν το σχήμα never really wronged by him, and έχει.
that the claim now put in, so ου παύσει κ.τ.λ.] “Do stop, and long after the event, is utterly make up your mind to this false and groundless. truth, that being honourable To meet these charges, it will pays a man better than being be much to the purpose to produce very wealthy.'
evidence of the bad character of πολλών χρημάτων το χρηστών the plaintif, and also of the inλυσ.] Honesty is the best policy. tegrity and kindly feeling, the The collocation of the cognate generosity and the public services Words χρήματα And χρηστος may of the defendant. be only accidental.
53. έτεσι και χρόνοις ύστεσοι γούν.] “In your case, at pov.] i.e. 'years and ages later,' any rate;' yoûv is exempli gratia,
so many years after,' in illustration of a general ‘years and years later.' The maxim.
phrase is curious and is perhaps SS 53—57. But though (for rightly suspected by Seager, who sake of argument) the speaker suggests the emendation ÉTEOL has pointed out the results which και χρόνοις τοσούτοις ύστερον would ensue, if the defendant (Classical Journal 1829, Vol. 30, were condemned, he protests that No. 59, p. 109). It is defended by he can see no ground for such G. H. Schaefer who refers to condemnation. Plaintiff brings Pausanias X. 17. 3, έτεσι δε forward his charge, ever so many ύστερον μετά τους Λιβύας αφίκοντο.
αλλ' ότι τούτον απράγμων ήσθα τον χρόνον, αλλά τίς ουκ οίδεν όσα πράγματα πράττων ού πέπαυσαι, ου μόνον δίκας ιδίας διώκων ουκ ελάττους ταυτησί, αλλά δημοσία συκοφαντών και κρίνων τινάς1; ουχί Τιμομάχου κατηγόρεις; ουχί Καλλίππου του νυν όντος εν
1 τίνας ού; Dobree. We may compare Lysias 3 g 39 κρίνων τινάς.] The force of οι μεν αλλοι...όργιζόμενοι παρα- the sentence is much improved χρήμα τιμωρείσθαι ζητουσιν, ούτος by Dobree's almost certain δε χρόνοις ύστερον. But the two emendation κρίνων τίνας ού; phrases έτεσιν ύστερον and χρό- ούχι Τιμομάχου κατηγορεις; νοις ύστερον, however defensible κ.τ.λ., where the loss of oύ in themselves separately, do would be accounted for by ουχί not apparently occur in com- following immediately after. bination elsewhere; and it may Οr. 378 14 πολλά δεηθέντος και therefore be worth while to τί ου ποιήσαντος; 478 43 δεομέsuggest either αλλά τοσούτοις νων απάντων και ικετευόντων και χρόνοις ύστερον, or simply αλλά τίνα ου προσπεμπόντων και χρόνοις ύστερον just as in the Τιμομάχου κ.τ.λ.] All these passage of Lysias above quoted. prosecutions are almost certainIn the latter Case έτεσι και may ly connected with the naval be a corruption of a marginal operations extending over the gloss έτεσι κ' i.e. twenty years,' plaintiff's protracted trierarchy a transcriber's note explaining of seventeen months in the χρόνοις by referring to 8 26 Thracian Waters (in Β. Ο. 362παρεληλυθότων ετών πλέον ή 361). In his speech against Polyείκοσι, and 8 38 ετών ίσως είκοσι. cles (Or. 50) Autocles, Meno, and (Mr Shilleto suggests as a pa- Timomachus are mentioned as rallel to έτεσι και χρόνοις, Cic. successive commanders of the Verr. 11. 3. 21 tot annis atque fleet (SS 12-14 and Or. 23 § adeo saeculis tot.)
104—5); and while he there απράγμων.] Often used of speaks in general terms of the quiet and easy-going people who maladministration of all the shrink from litigation. Or. 40 Commanders (8 15 τα των στρα8 32 απράγμων και ου φιλόδικος. τηγών άπιστα), he uses the Cf. άπραγμοσύνη and its oppo- strongest language against Ti. sites, πολυπράγμων, πραγμο- momachus, mainly for his νεϊν,-πραγμοσύνη. So also, in treasonable collusion with an the next line, πράγματα πράττων, exiled relative, Callistratus. (See as is clear from the rest of the next note.) Timomachus was sentence, refers to the plaintiff's condemned, and put to death incessant litigation. Or. 27 & 1 (Schol. on Aeschin. 1 § 56). ουδέν αν έδει δικών ουδε πραγμά- Καλλίππου του νυν...έν Σικε
λία.] The context shows that κατηγόρεις.] Young students this Callippus (who must not are apt to confound the imper- be confounded with the plainfect κατηγόρειs with the present tiff in the speech of Apollodorus κατηγορείς.
προς Κάλλιππον Οr. 52) can be
Σικελία; ου πάλιν Μένωνος; ουκ Αυτοκλέους ; ου 961 54 Τιμοθέου; ουκ άλλων πολλών; καίτοι πως έχει λόγον
σε 'Απολλόδωρον όντα πρότερον των κοινών, ών μέρος
none other than the son of Philon, of the deme Aexone,' who, at the request of Timomachus, conveyed Callistratus on board an Athenian trireme to Thasos from his place of exile in Macedonia, after Apollodorus had stoutly refused to allow his own vessel to be used for so unlawful a purpose (Or. 50 g 46–52). He may, with great probability, be identified with Plato's pupil of that name, with whom another of Plato's disciples, the well-known Dion of Syracuse, lived on friendly terms at Athens on his banishment from · Sicily in b.c. 366. In August 357, Dion, with a small force, started from the island of Zacynthus, and during the absence of Dionysius the younger, made a triumphal entry into Syracuse, attended by his friend Callippus who was one of his captains, and is described by Plutarch as λαμπρός εν τοις αγώσι και διάσημος. U1timately, in the spring or sum, mer of 353, Dion was assassin nated by Callippus, who after usurping the government for thirteen months, was defeated in battle by a brother of the younger Dionysius, and after wandering about in Sicily and establishing himself in Southern Italy, at Rhegium, was shortly after (probably in B.C. 350) him. self killed by his friends, with the very sword (as the story runs) with which he murdered Dion. (Plutarch, Dion, 17, 28 58; Plato Ep. vii.; Diodorus xvi. passim.)
In the present passage Apol
lodorus is stated to have prosecuted Callippus του νύν όντος εν Σικελία. The Athenian fleet (with Callippus) reached Athens from the Thracian coasts in Feb. 360, and Callippus started for Syracuse from Zacynthus in Aug. 357, so that the plaintiff's prosecution of him cannot well be placed later than the spring of 357, though it may have been two years earlier in 359, and in any case about the same time as his prosecutions of Timomachus, Meno and Autocles. (A. Schaefer Dem, u. s. Zeit, III. 2. 158–161.)
If the present speech is as late as 350 B.C., Callippus was still alive; at any rate, the news of his death cannot have reached Athens.
ου Τιμοθέου ;] The charge against Timotheus, the celebrated Athenian general, may have been connected with his defeat at Amphipolis B.C. 360. At first sight the allusion might be explained of the plaintiff's private suit (Or. 49) against the general for sums borrowed from Pasion (cf. above $ 36 n.); but the context appears to point expressly to public indictments (δημοσία in the previous sentence and TWV KOLÔ in the next); though this reason is not conclusive, as the first part of the previous sentence refers to δίκαι ιδιαι. .
54. 'Απολλόδωρον όντα κ.τ.λ.] Aculeatum et amarum dictum. Reiske. It is not like Apollodorus, it is inconsistent with his true character, to be going out of his way to undertake public prosecutions where his own interests