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9. Η κούσατε μεν της μαρτυρίας, ώ άνδρες δικασταί,

νομίζω δ' υμάς, εί και μηδέν των άλλων αισθάνεσθε πω, τούτό γε αυτό θαυμάζειν, τό τήν μεν άρχήν της μαρτυρίας είναι πρόκλησιν, την δε τελευτην διαθήκην. ου μην αλλ' έγωγ' οίμαι δεϊν, επειδάν, και των μεμαρτυρημένων ώσπερεί κεφάλαιόν έστιν, επιδείξω ψεύ

δος όν, τηνικαύτ' ήδη και περί των τοιούτων ποιείσθαι το τους λόγους. έστι δή μεμαρτυρημένον αυτούς προκα

λείσθαι Φορμίωνα ανοίγειν τας διαθήκας, ας παρέχειν προς τον διαιτητών Τισίαν 'Αμφίαν τον Κηφισοφώντoς κηδεστήν: εμέ δ' ουκ έθέλειν ανοίγειν· είναι δε

ας αυτοί μεμαρτυρήκασι διαθήκας, αντιγράφους εκείΙΙ νων. είθ' η διαθήκη γέγραπται. εγώ τοίνυν περί μεν

του προκαλείσθαι με ή μη ταύτα Φορμίωνα ουδέν πω have preferred the former, and (A. Schaefer, Dem. III. 2. p. 30 would every one else ; for 171). So far, the case clearly where (as here) there is room for tends against Apollodorus. cool calculation, no one would 9. ου μην αλλ'...] “Neverthebe so foolish as to abandon less, however, Pinot but that.' his own interests and do what The ellipse which this combiwould damage his case ; and yet, nation of particles always in. by deposing that I refused to volves may be here supplied by open the' will,' these witnesses Some such words as ου μήν (υμάς represented me as doing what is τούτο χρή θαυμάζειν) or (παραimprobable, unreasonable, and λείπειν τούτο χρή) αλλ' έγωγε contrary to all experience. κ.τ.λ. Kühner's Gk. Gr. $ 535,7.

In brief, the first point which των μεμαρτ...κεφάλ.] sc. έμε the plaintiff attempts to make ουκ εθέλειν ανοίγειν.-τηνικαύτα in proving the evidence to be Sc. in 88 15–28. false, is that assuming he was 10. ας παρέχειν.] SC. μαρτυchallenged to open the will,' pollol. For the infinitive in the he sees no reason why he should relative clause influenced by the have refused a challenge which principal verb, cf. Or. 36 $ 25. it would have been to his in. είθ' ή διαθήκη γέγραπται. terest to accept. On the other "Then follows a copy of the will, side, it may be noticed that the or (with Kennedy) and then plaintiff had a strong reason for the will is set out. Deinde refusing to open the will' and sequitur (in testimonio eorum) thus give express recognition to testamentum exscriptum, sequian important document, the tur exemplum testamenti.' Sea, contents of which as he himself ger, Classical Journ. lx, p. 267. says elsewhere (§ 21) were de- 11. περί...υπέρ.] These prepotrimental to his own interests. sitions are here, as often, prac.

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λέγω, ουδε υπέρ του τας διαθήκας αληθείς ή ψευδείς είναι, άλλ' αυτίχ υμάς περί τούτων διδάξω αλλ' α μεμαρτυρήκασι, μή μ' εθέλειν το γραμματειον ανοίγειν. ώδί δη σκοπείτε. του τις άν ένεκα έφευγεν ανοί

γειν το γραμματείον; ίν' η διαθήκη νή Δία μη φανερά πε5 12 γένοιτο τους δικασταίς. ει μεν τοίνυν μη προσεμαρτύ

ρουν τη προκλήσει την διαθήκην ουτοι, λόγον είχε τιν' αν το φεύγειν έμε ανοίγειν το γραμματείονπροσμαρτυρούντων δε τούτων και των δικαστών ομοίως άκουσομένων, τί ήν μοι κέρδος το μη εθέλειν ; ουδε εν δήπου. αυτό γάρ τουναντίον, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι,

κάν ει μηδεν προκαλούντο ούτοι, λόγω δ' έχρώντο 13 μόνον, και παρείχε τις αυτούς γραμματείον ως διαθή

κην, εμόν ήν το προκαλείσθαι και ανοίγειν ταύτην, ίν' ει μεν άλλ' άττα των υπό τούτων μεμαρτυρημένων Ο ενεκεν Ζ.

κελεύειν ανοίγειν Φ (γρ. margine). recte, opinor; sin, deleam kai ante dvolyelv' G. H. Schaefer. tically synonymous. Cf. infr. was the use then of my refusing 8 50, and Fals. Leg. 8 94, p. 371,

to open it?' ου περί του εί ποιητέον ειρήνην... Kåvel.] The åv strictly be. αλλ' υπέρ του ποίαν τινά.

longs to the apodosis éudu viv, του τις άν ένεκα έφευγες κ.τ.λ.] but is here, as often, put as • What reason would any one early as possible. Cf. Or. 36 § 42, have had for declining, &c.' oίμαι... κάν εί...λέγοι, κάλλιον • Malim ένεκεν και έφευγεν. εναι. Sometimes the construcLatine porro,' says Dobree, who tion of the apodosis shews that would similarly read in Or. 37 kår el is regarded as much the 8 27, τίνος γάρ ένεκα και έπειθον, same as kai ei, e.g. Plato Meno ut in tali reusitatum est dicere.' 72 c, κάνει πολλαι και παντοδαπαι (Cobet, Νου. Lect. 606.)

εισιν, εν γέ τι είδος ταυτόν άπασαι νή Δία.] Οr. 36 8 39, and Or. έχoυσι. Kühner, Gk. Gr. S 398, 54 8 34 n.

p. 210. Buttmann calls this 12. ει... μη προσεμαρτύρουν.] "äv consopitum,” where its force ‘Had they not deposed to the is, as it were, dormant. It is pewill, as well as to the challenge, culiar to the laterormiddle Attic. I might reasonably have de- 8 13. ν' –έχρώμην.] Οr. 36 clined to open the document 8 47, ένα-εφαίνετο η. (purporting to be a copy of the άλλ' άττα των κ.τ.λ.] = άλλ' will): but, as they actually de- άττα τα, i.e. had the conposed to both, and as the jury tents of the alleged will been would have to hear the will different from the terms deposod whether I opened it or not, what to by these witnesses. For this

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ήν τάκεί γεγραμμένα, μάρτυρας ευθύς των περιεστηκότων πολλούς ποιησάμενος τεκμηρίω τούτω και περί των άλλων, ως κατασκευάζουσιν, εχρώμην ει δε ταύτ' ενήν, τον παρασχόντ' αυτόν ήξίουν μαρτυρείν. έθελήσαντος μέν γάρ υπεύθυνον ελάμβανον, ει δ' έφευγε, πάλιν αυτό τούθ' έκανόν τεκμήριον ήν μοι του πεπλάσθαι το πράγμα. και δη και συνέβαινεν εκείνως μεν ένα είναι, προς όν τα πράγματα εγίγνετό μοι, ώς δ'

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ανου.

rather uncommon use of άλλος with gen. (like έτερος, αλλότριος, διάφορος) cf. Χen. Mem. IV. 4. 25, πότερον τους θεούς ηγή τα δίκαια νομοθετείν ή άλλα των δικαίων, This is one of the nonDemosthenic uses that strike us in this oration.-Dobree suggests άλλ' άττα αντί των.

τεκμηρίω κ.τ.λ.] Sc. τούτω εχρώμην τεκμηρίω ως και τάλλα κατασκευάζουσι.-In the next clause aútov (“to give evidence himself') is contrasted with the several witnesses, οι περί Στέφ

εθελήσαντος μέν.] i.e. ει μεν ηθέλησε contrasted with ει δ' έφευγε. We should naturally expect εθελήσαντα, as the use of gen. absolute, in reference to the same person as the acc. υπεύθυνον, is somewhat exceptional, the rule being that the gen. absolute is generally found only when there is no other case in the sentence to which the participle might attach itself. Cf. however, Xen. Cyr. Ι. 4. 2, ασθενήσαντος αυτού (se. του παππου) ουδέποτε απέλιπε τον πάππον. (Kühner, Gk. Gr. § 494 b, Madvig, Gk. Synt. 8 181 R. 6.)

υπεύθυνον.] Liable to a prosecution for ψευδομαρτυρία.

και δη και κ.τ.λ.] Kennedy translates; And the result was,

that in that way, I had one person to deal with,' doubtless intending by the categorical form of the sentence to shew that in the Greek the condi. tional is only implied and not directly expressed, in other words συνέβαινεν (like ήξίουν... ελάμβανον...ήνabove)is put without άν.– Malim και δή καν συν. έβαινεν et mor έστιν ουν όστις αν υμών,” says Dobree, comparing § 33 bis, and also proposing in $ 34 τίς γαρ αν ανθρώπων. The last two emendations are accepted in Dindorf's text.

[All the imperfects in this remarkable sentence, which does not read altogether like the style of Demosthenes, depend on the preceding ένα, in which case it would have happened that, &c.' The addition of är would be quite out of place here, though it is necessary in the clause έστιν ουν όστις [άν] υμών, which passes into quite a different construction. P.]

εκείνως.] “In the former case, lit. in that other way,' under the hypothesis just mentioned (as opposed to the fact ως ουτοι μεμαρτυρήκασι), 6ο. ει τον παρασχόντήξίουν μαρτυρείν, including the subsequent subdivision of that supposition into the two further hypotheses, εθελήσαντος μεν κ.τ.λ. and ει δ' έφευγε κ.τ.λ.

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ούτοι μεμαρτυρήκασι, προς πολλούς. έστιν ουν όστις 14 αν υμών ταύθ' είλετο; εγώ μεν ουδένα ηγούμαι. ου

τοίνυν ούδε κατ' άλλου πιστεύειν εστε δίκαιοι. και γαρ, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι, όσοις μεν πρόσεστιν οργή των πραττομένων ή λήμμά τι κέρδους ή παροξυσμός ή φιλονεικία, ταύτα μεν άλλος άν άλλως πράξεις προς τον αυτου τρόπον όσοις δε τούτων μεν μηδέν, λογισμός δ' εφ' ησυχίας του συμφέροντος, τίς ούτως άφρων όστις αν τα συνοίσονταφείς, εξ ων κάκιον έμελλεν αγωνιείσθαι, ταύτ' έπραξεν; α γαρ ούτ' είκότα ούτ' ΙΙο6 εύλογα ούτ' αν έπραξεν ουδείς, ταύθ' ούτοι μεμαρτυ

ρήκασι περί ημών. 15 Ού τοίνυν μόνον εξ ών έμε μη εθέλειν το γραμμα

k Bekker (st. Leipsig ed.). 'àv deesse vidit Schaeferus’ Z. 1 συνοίσοντα Δ. προς πολλούς.] 80. τα πράγ- (Liddell & Scott) it is a medical ματα γέγονέ μοι.

term, in the sense perpetuated 14.. ού...ουδε κατ' άλλου πισ. in our paroxysm. The verb τεύειν.] Well then, you cannot however is found in Dem. 57 849, fairly believe it of any one else η πόλις πάσα...όργιζομένη παρώeither.'

ξυντo, and ib. 8 2 ; also the adj. όσοις...των πραττομένων.] The in Οr. 20 (Lept.) 8 105, λόγοι participle is best taken not as παροξυντικοί προς το...πείσαι. gen. after οργή but after όσοις, λογισμός κ.τ.λ.] “A calm calwhich is neuter. Cf. S 15, όσα... culation of one's interest.' [The των πεπραγμένων.

phrase seems rather unusual, course of action attended by like αφείς τα συνοίσοντα, giving anger, or by getting of gain, or up what was likely to prove his by any exasperation ('keen re- interest.' P.] sentment, 'strong provocation') SS 15—19. Again, the witor by a spirit of jealousy,, nesses depose to a Challenge as

may act in one way, well as to a Will. Now Chal. another in another, according lenges are meant to meet the case to his individual character.' of those transactions, which it

παροξυσμός.] This word, found is otherwise impossible to bring twice in the New Testament before the court. In the present (Hebr. x. 24, Acts xv. 39), is case, what call was there for never used by Demosthenes, a Challenge ? The arbitration nor indeed does it appear to took place in Athens, and they occur elsewhere in the sense of have deposed that the original exasperation' in any of the will was produced before the earlier Greek writers. In the arbitrator ; if this was true, Aphorisms of Hippocrates, 1243 they ought to have put the

In every

one

man

τείον ανοίγειν μεμαρτυρήκασι, γνοίη τις αν αυτούς ότι ψεύδονται, αλλά και εκ του πρόκλησιν ομού διαθήκη μαρτυρεών, οίμαι γάρ άπαντας υμάς είδέναι ότι όσα μη

δυνατόν προς υμάς αγαγείν εστι των πεπραγμένων, 16 τούτων προκλήσεις ευρέθησαν. οίον βασανίζειν ουκ

έστιν εναντίον υμών ανάγκη τούτου πρόκλησιν είναι

original will into the box and Με Σ has θέλειν, which was the producer should have proved adopted in Dindorf's earlier it by evidence, in which case the editions. jury, after weighing the credi- προκλήσεις.] Ηarpocr. 8. υ. bility of the deposition and in- ειώθεσαν οπότε δικάζοντο τινες, specting the seals of the will, εξαιτείν ενίοτε θεραπείνας ή θεράwould have decided according- ποντας εις βάσανον ή εις μαρτυρίαν ly; and, had I thought myself του πράγματος, και τούτο εκαλείτο wronged by the verdict, I might προκαλείσθαι, το δε γραμματείον have proceeded against the de- το περί τούτου γραφόμενον ώponent in question. But, as it νομάζετο πρόκλησις. παρά πολ. is, no single witness has under. λοις δε εστι ρήτορσι. Δημοσθένης taken the whole responsibility; δ' εν τω κατά Στεφάνου και περί no! they have cleverly divided ών προκλήσεις γίνεται δηλοί. it, by one witness (Cephisophon) 16. βασανίζειν ουκ έστιν εναντίον deposing to having a document υμών.] In Dobree's Adversaria, inscribed 'Pasion's Will;' and we have the suggestive note another (Amphias), to having Quo interrog. Qu. the fact.' produced it after being sent to As a general rule doubtless this do so by the former witness ; but examination of slaves took place whether it was genuine or not, in private, before a magistrate was more than he knew.'- In or arbitrator or other authorized fact, Stephanus and his friends person, in the presence of a have made the Challenge a mere number of bystanders either mask under cover of which they

concerned as witnesses or meremight depose to a will, so that ly present out of curiosity (Or. 47 the jury were led to believe that § 12); and the text as it stands the will was my father's, and I would seem to imply that admyself was debarred from being ministration of torture in open heard on my wrongs, and so that court was not allowed.-We by these very means my opponents

find Aeschines (Fals. Leg. $ 126) might ultimately be convicted of proposing to question’ certain having given false evidence-a slaves in public : άγωμεν δε και result which they hardly ex- τους οικέτας και παραδιδωμεν εις pected.

βάσανον...παρέσται δε ήδη ο δήμιος 15. μη εθέλειν.] εθέλω is the και βασανιεί εναντίον υμών, proper form in Attic prose, θέλω αν κελεύητε... κάλει μοι τους in Attic verse, but the latter is οικέτας δεύρο επί το βήμα... At occasionally found in Dem. in this point (it is important to such formulae as αν θεός θέλη. notice) follows a Challenge (See Veitch Gk. Vbs.) The Paris which Demosthenes declines.

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