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μίσθωσιν, οὐκ ἄλλην τινὰ, ἐν ᾗ προσγέγραπται ἕνδεκα τάλαντα ὁ πατὴρ ὀφείλων εἰς τὰς παρακαταθήκας 30 τούτῳ. ἔστι δ', οἶμαι, ταῦτα τοιαῦτα. τῶν μὲν οἴκοι χρημάτων ὡς ἐπὶ τῇ μητρὶ δοθέντων διὰ τῆς δια θήκης αὑτὸν ἐποίησε κύριον, ὥσπερ ἀκηκόατε ἄρτι, τῶν δ ̓ ἐπὶ τῆς τραπέζης ὄντων, ἃ πάντες ᾔδεσαν καὶ λαθεῖν οὐκ ἦν, διὰ τοῦ προσοφείλοντα ἀποφῆναι τὸν πατέρα ἡμῶν, ἵν ̓, ὅσα ἐξελέγχοιτο ἔχων, κεκομίσθαι φαίη. ὑμεῖς δ ̓ ἴσως αὐτὸν ὑπειλήφατε, ὅτι σολοικίζει τῇ φωνῇ, βάρβαρον καὶ εὐκαταφρόνητον εἶναι. ἔστι IIII
ἕνδεκα ταλ.] The origin of this 'debt' is carefully explained in Or. 36 §§ 4-5 (see note on προσώφειλε p. 6), and in the present speech, the plaintiff says nothing that materially shakes that explanation.
[The construction is, ὀφείλων τούτῳ εἰς τὰς π., ‘owing Phormio eleven talents on the deposits,' or for the deposits' which he had put out to interest. Kennedy translates, upon the deposits to Phormio.' See § 31 fin. P.]
30. ὡς ἐπὶ τῇ μητρὶ δοθέντων.] 'As my mother's dowry. Or. 40, περὶ προικὸς, § 6, ἐκδόντος αὐτὴν καὶ προῖκα τάλαντον ἐπιδόντος.
πάντες ᾔδεσαν κ.τ.λ.] This must be taken as a rhetorical exaggeration. All that the speaker probably means is that as Phormio was only the lessee, not the owner of the bank, he could be called upon by Apollodorus, the lessor after Pasion's death, to give an account of all the moneys held by the bank. As a contrast we have in § 66 ἐργασίας ἀφανεῖς διὰ τῆς τρα πέζης ποιῆται.
κεκομίσθαι.] In middle sense. Or. 41 § 11 οὐκ ἀνενηνόχασι κεκομισμένοι (τὴν φιάλην). Or.
56 (Dionysod.) § 3 δέον δ' αὐτὸν
σολοικίζει τῇ φωνῇ, βάρβαρον.]
Hesychius (possibly with the present passage in view) has the gloss σολοικίζει βαρβαρίζει, and Aristotle (περὶ σοφιστικών ἐλέγχων § 3) explains σολοικίζειν
δὲ βάρβαρος οὗτος τῷ μισεῖν οὓς αὐτῷ προσῆκε τιμᾶν· τῷ δὲ κακουργῆσαι καὶ διορύξαι πράγματα 31 οὐδενὸς λείπεται. λαβὲ δὴ τὴν μίσθωσιν, καὶ λέγε, ἣν τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον διὰ προκλήσεως ἐνεβάλοντο.
[Κατὰ τάδε ἐμίσθωσε Πασίων τὴν τράπεζαν Φορμίωνι· μίσθωσιν φέρειν Φορμίωνα τῆς τραπέζης τοῖς παισὶ τοῖς Πασίωνος δύο τάλαντα καὶ τετταρακοντα μνᾶς τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ ἑκάστου, χωρὶς τῆς καθ ̓ ἡμέραν διοικήσεως· μὴ ἐξεῖναι δὲ τραπεζιτεῦσαι χωρὶς Φορμίωνι, ἐὰν μὴ πείσῃ τοὺς παῖδας τοὺς Πασίωνος. ὀφείλει δὲ Πασίων ἐπὶ τὴν τράπεζαν ἕνδεκα τάλαντα εἰς τὰς παρακαταθήκας.]
Ας μὲν τοίνυν παρέσχετο συνθήκας ὡς κατὰ ταύτας μισθωσάμενος τὴν τράπεζαν, αὗταί εἰσιν, ὦ ἄνδρες δικασταί, ἀκούετε δ ̓ ἐν ταύταις αναγιγνωσκομέναις μίσθωσιν μὲν φέρειν τοῦτον, ἄνευ τῆς καθ' ἡμέραν διοικήσεως, δύο τάλαντα καὶ τετταράκοντα μνᾶς τοῦ
by τῇ λέξει βαρβαρίζειν and (in § 14) illustrates it by instances from the rules of gender. The distinction drawn between Bapβαρισμός and σολοικισμός by Zeno and the Stoics, and accepted by the writers on Rhetoric, is perhaps best expressed by Quintilian: 'vitium quod fit in singulis verbis, sit barbarismus ... cetera vitia omnia ex pluribus vocibus sunt, quorum est soloecismus (I. 5, 6 and 34).
βάρβαρον καὶ εὐκαταφρόνητον.] Ar. Nubes 492 ἀμαθὴς.....καὶ βάρο βαρος.
διορύξαι πράγματα.] Lit. ‘to undermine,' to ruin,' [here, perhaps, 'to be a rogue in business']. A metaphor from house
breaking. Or. 9 § 28 κακως
using the Challenge as a cat's paw.' Cf. Fals. Leg. § 291, ἔκρινε Φιλόνεικον καὶ δι' ἐκείνου τῶν σοὶ πεπραγμένων κατηγόρει, where Shilleto quotes the present passage.
32. τῆς καθ' ἡμέραν διοικήσεως.] 'The daily expenditure' involved in managing the bank, paying under-clerks, &c.
ἐνιαυτοῦ ἑκάστου, μὴ ἐξεῖναι δὲ τραπεζιτεύειν αὐτῷ, ἐὰν μὴ ἡμᾶς πείσῃ. προσγέγραπται δὲ τελευταῖον “ ὀφείλει δὲ Πασίων ἕνδεκα τάλαντα εἰς τὰς παρα33 “καταθήκας.” ἔστιν οὖν ὅστις ἂν τοῦ ξύλου καὶ τοῦ χωρίου καὶ τῶν γραμματείων τοσαύτην ὑπέμεινε φέρειν μίσθωσιν; ἔστι δ ̓ ὅστις ἂν, δι ̓ ὃν ὠφειλήκει του σαῦτα χρήματα ἡ τράπεζα, τούτῳ τὰ λοιπὰ ἐπέτρεψεν; εἰ γὰρ ἐνεδέησε τοσούτων χρημάτων, τούτου διοικοῦντος ἐνεδέησεν. ἴστε γὰρ πάντες, καὶ οτ ̓ ἦν ὁ πατὴρ ἐπὶ τοῦ τραπεζιτεύειν, τοῦτον καθήμενον καὶ διοικοῦντα ἐπὶ τῇ τραπέζῃ, ὥστε ἐν τῷ μυλῶνι προσ4 μύλων Bekker (Berlin ed.) et Dind. 33. ξύλου...χωρίου ... γραμματείων.] The bench (desk or counter)...the site (in the marketplace)... the banking-books (ledge ers, &c.).
ὠφειλήκει ἡ τράπεζα.] Phormio's account is that Pasion owed 11 talents to the bank; whereas Apollodorus unfairly, as it seems, treating this sum as a deficit though it stood in Pasion's hands to the credit of the bank, denounces Phormio for having caused the bank to get into debt. [Apollodorus wishes to throw a doubt on Phormio's ever having had a lease at all on the terms now brought forward. He says he would have been a fool to pay so much for a business that was encumbered if not insolvent ; and Pasio would have been equally foolish if he had let the bank to one who had managed it so badly as Phormio. P.]
εἰ γὰρ κ.τ.λ.] A sophistical argument to bear out the previous clause δι ̓ ὃν ὠφειλήκει ἡ τράπεζα. It is quite true that ἡ τράπεζα ἐνεδέησε χρημάτων, but then the 11 talents in question were held by Pasion on the
μυλώνι Z et Bekker (Leipsig ed.). security of land and were part of the assets of the business.Οι καθήμενον κ. τ.λ. ν. Οr. 36 § 7,.
ἐν τῷ μυλῶνι.] So far from being made master of the rest of the household, Phormio ought to have been punished, as a slave, with hard-labour at the mill, for bad management. For the mill, as a common part of slaves' labour, cf. the Phormio of Terence, II. 1. 18 ' herus si redierit, Molendum usque in pistrino, vapulandum, habendae compedes.' In Lysias Or. 1 § 18 a master threatens his θεράπαινα with the punishment μαστιγως θεῖσαν εἰς μυλῶνα ἐμπεσεῖν, and Dinarchus, contr. Dem. $ 23, says that Memnon the miller was condemned to death for making a freeborn boy work in his mill. Cf. Eur. Cycl. 240 εἰς μυλῶνα καταβαλεῖν, and Pol lux, ἵνα κολάζονται οἱ δοῦλοι, μυλῶνες κ.τ.λ. (K. F. Hermann, Privatalt. § 24, 9.) The parallel of Samson, 'eyeless in Gaza at the mill with slaves,' will occur to every reader (Judges xvi. 21, Milton Samson Agonistes 41, &c.). —μύλων, ‘a false form. Chandler, Gk. Acc. § 638.
ἧκεν αὐτὸν εἶναι μᾶλλον ἢ τῶν λοιπῶν κύριον γεν
34 έσθαι. ἀλλ ̓ ἐῶ ταῦτα καὶ τἄλλ ̓ ὅσ ̓ ἂν περὶ τῶν 1112 ἕνδεκα ταλάντων ἔχοιμι εἰπεῖν, ὡς οὐκ ὤφειλεν ὁ πατὴρ, ἀλλ ̓ οὗτος ὑφῄρηται. ἀλλ ̓ οὗ ἀνέγνων ἕνεκα, τοῦ τὴν διαθήκην ψευδῆ δεῖξαι, τοῦθ ̓ ὑμᾶς ἀναμνήσω. γέγραπται γὰρ αὐτόθι, μὴ ἐξεῖναι δὲ τραπεζιτεύειν Φορμίωνι, ἐὰν μὴ ἡμᾶς πείσῃ. τοῦτο τοίνυν τὸ γράμμα παντελῶς δηλοῖ ψευδῆ τὴν διαθήκην οὖσαν. τίς γὰρ ἂν ἀνθρώπων, ἃ μὲν ἔμελλε τραπεζιτείων οὗτος ἐργάζεσθαι, ταῦθ ̓ ὅπως ἡμῖν τοῖς αὑτοῦ παισὶν, ἀλλὰ μὴ τούτῳ γενήσεται προὐνοήθη, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο μὴ ἐξεῖναι τούτῳ τραπεζιτεύειν ἔγραψεν, ἵνα μὴ ἀφί στηται ἀφ ̓ ἡμῶν· ἃ δ ̓ αὐτὸς εἰργασμένος ἔνδον κατ35 έλειπε, ταῦθ ̓ ὅπως οὗτος λήψεται παρεσκεύασεν; καὶ
· εἵνεκα Ζ.
om. Bekker et Z cum libris. (See note on Isocr. Paneg. § 83.)
ἂν G. H. Schaefer.
34. ἐῶ ταῦτα κ.τ.λ.] The speaker, it will be observed, makes no attempt to meet fairly the statement made on the opposite side, accounting for the 11 talents not being actually in the bank. (Or. 36 §§ 4-6).
[ὑφῄρηται. Phormio, he says, has filched, or secretly withdrawn, eleven talents from the bank, which he now pretends Pasion and Pasion's heirs were bound to repay. P.]
μὴ τραπεζιτεύειν.] The object of this clause appears to have been to prevent Phormio's doing business on his own account, apart from the profits made on the bank. The plaintiff seems rather unfairly to suggest that Phormio was allowed to make no profit whatever out of the lease.
τίς γὰρ ἄν κ.τ.λ.] ‘Is there any man, I ask, who, after
taking precautions to ensure
τῆς μὲν ἐργασίας ἐφθόνησεν, ἧς οὐδὲν αἰσχρὸν ἦν μεταδοῦναι τὴν δὲ γυναῖκα ἔδωκεν, οὗ μεῖζον οὐδὲν ἂν κατέλιπεν ὄνειδος; τυχών γε τῆς παρ' ὑμῶν δωρεάς, εἶτα ὥσπερ ἂν δοῦλος δεσπότῃ διδοὺς, ἀλλ ̓ οὐ τούναντίον, εἴπερ ἐδίδου, δεσπότης οἰκέτῃ, προστιθεὶς προίκα 36 ὅσην οὐδεὶς τῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει φαίνεται. καίτοι τούτῳ μὲν αὐτὸ τοῦτο ἀγαπητὸν ἦν, τὸ τῆς δεσποίνης ἀξιω θῆναι· τῷ πατρὶ δὲ οὐδὲ λαμβάνοντι* τοσαῦτα χρή ματα, ὅσα φασὶ διδόντα οὗτοι, εὔλογον ἦν πρᾶξαι
κατέλειπεν Ζ cum Σ.
λαμβάνοντα / cum Σ.
35. ο.] sc. ὀνείδους, viz. the disgrace τοῦ γυναῖκα τούτῳ δεδωκέναι.
τυχών γε τῆς παρ' ὑμῶν δω ρεάς.] The fact that Pasion was made a citizen of Athens increases the disgrace brought on his family by his providing in his alleged will that his wife should marry Phormio.-Or. 59 § 2 ψηφισαμένου τοῦ δήμου τοῦ ̓Αθη ναίων ̓Αθηναῖον εἶναι Πασίωνα καὶ ἐκγόνους τοὺς ἐκείνου διὰ τὰς εὐερ γεσίας τὰς εἰς τὴν πόλιν followed by τῇ τοῦ δήμου δωρεᾷ. Οr. 36 § 47. [τυχών γε seems an imaginary answer in favour of Phormio ; ' very true; but then it was after he had received the franchise (that he took the wife).' 'So then' (the retort is), 'like a slave who makes a wife over to his master, rather than in the converse case, Pasion gave him, it seems, a marriage portion larger than any citizen ever did!' P.]
ὥσπερ ἄν.] se. διδοίη. Pasion's gift of his wife with a large dowry to Phormio, is the kind of gift a slave might offer his master in acknowledgement that all the slave had, belonged by right to his master, and not
such a gift as might be expected from a superior to an inferior, in which latter case a very slight favour would be enough, at any rate the inferior would be content with being allowed to have the honour of being married to his superior's wife, without any dowry at all.
εἴπερ ἐδίδου] which Apoll. does not admit.
προστιθεὶς προίκα. ] Or. 40 8 25 προσθέντας (sc. προῖκα) ἐκδοῦναι. Fals. Leg. § 195 προίκα προσθεὶς ἐκδώσω καὶ οὐ περιόψομαι παθούσας οὐδὲν ἀνάξιον οὔθ ̓ ἡμῶν οὔτε τοῦ πατρός (cf. § 54 infra, προῖκα ἐπιδοὺς ἐκδοῦναι, n.). Eur. Hippol. 628 προστ θεὶς πατὴρ φερνάς, ἀπῴκισ... Hyperides, Lycophron col. 11. 1. 16 (quoted by Shilleto), εὐθὺς ἐξεδόθη, τάλαντον ἀργυρίου προστ θέντος αὐτῇ Εὐφήμου. The commoner term was ἐπιδοῦναι (cf. §§ 30, 54, &c.).
36. λαμβάνοντι χρήματα.] Not even if he got from Phormio (viz. as a bribe for leaving him his wife) the same large amount which the defendants pretend that he gave Phormio as a marriage portion.—φασὶ διδόντα, supply πράξαι ταῦτα.