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45, 46, 53 etc.) pp. 22. Erfurt, 1842. (3) A. WESTERMANN. Untersuchungen über die in die Attischen Redner eingelegten Ur. kunden, pp. 136 (esp. pp. 105–113 on the depositions in Or. 45 and 46). Leipzig, 1850. (4) W. HORNBOSTEL. Ueber die vom Dem. in Sachen des Apollodor verfassten Gerichtsreden, pp. 42. Ratzeburg, 1851. In the Neue Jahrbücher für Philologie 1854. 2. pp. 504–5 there is a suggestive review of this dissertation by C. REHDANTZ, who also gives a short account of Apollodorus in his vitae Iphicratis Chabriae Timothei, 1845, pp. 191-3, (where he promises a special dissertation of his own, which has unhappily never appeared). (5) IM. HERMANN. Einleitende Bemerkungen zu Dem. paragraphischen Reden, (Or. 36 etc.) pp. 23 Erfurt, 1853. (6) *ĀRNOLD SCHAEFER. Demosthenes und seine Zeit. 3 vols. esp. Vol. III, Part 2, Beilagen: die Reden in Sachen Apollodors' (Or. 36, 45, 46, 53 etc.) pp. 130–199. 'Rede wider Konon' (Or. 54) pp. 247—252, 'gegen Kallikles' (Or. 55) pp. 252–7. Leipzig, 1856-8. (7) F. LORTZING, De orationibus quas Dem. pro Apollodoro scripsisse fertur. pp. 94, Berlin, 1863. (8) J. SIGG. Der Verfasser neun angeblich von Dem. für Apollodor geschriebener Reden. (Besonderer Abdruck aus dem sechsten Supplementbande der Jahrbücher für classische Philologie, pp. 396–434). Leipzig (Teubner), 1873.

LEXICOGRAPHY, ANTIQUITIES, &c. (1) HARPOCRATION. NEBELS TW déka öntópwr, ed. W. Dindorf, Oxford, 1853: (also Pollux, ed. Bekker; and Hesychius, ed. Schmidt). (2) REISKE, Indices Graecitatis in Dem. 1775, (cura Schaefer, London, 1823; indices Graecitatis in Oratores Atticos, Mitchell (after Reiske), Oxford, 1828. (3) P. P. DOBREE. Adversaria; cura Scholefield, Cambridge, 1833 (ed. Wagner, Leipsig, 1875). (4) C. R. KENNEDY, The Orations of Dem. translated with notes and dissertations. London, Vol. iv. 1861; Vol. v. 1863. (5) R. DARESTE. Les plaidoyers civils de Demosthène, traduits en Français, avec arguments et notes par Rodolphe Dareste, Avocat au Conseil d'État. et à la Cour de Cassation. Vol. I. pp. 385 ; II. pp. 364 Paris (Plon), 1875.

(1) MEYER and SCHÖMANN. Der Attische Process. Halle, 1824. (2) BOECKH. Die Staatshaushaltung der Athener, 2nd ed. 1851. (Public Economy of Athens : 1st Germ. ed. transl. by Sir George Cornewall Lewis, London, 1828, 1842. 2nd Germ. ed. transl. by Lamb, Boston, 0.8., 1857). (3) K. F. HERMANN. Griechische Privatalterthümer. Heidelberg, (2nd ed. by Starke), 1870. (4) TELFY, Corpus Juris Attici. Pesth, 1868. (5) C. R. KENNEDYand R. WHISTON. Articles in Dr. W. Smith's Dict. of Antiquities, London, 2nd ed. 1865. (6) E. CAILLEMER. Articles in Dict. des Antiquités, Daremberg and Saglio, parts 1–4, A-B, pp. 640, Paris (Hachette), 1873-5.

INTRODUCTION TO

OR. XXXVI

ΥΠΕΡ ΦΟΡΜΙΩΝΟΣ. .

In the early part of the fourth century B.C. there was a noted man of business at Athens, named Pasion. Originally a slave in the employment of a firm of bankers, by his industry and integrity he won the confidence of his employers, Antisthenes and Archestratus, and was rewarded by receiving his liberty from the latter and by succeeding both of them in their business'. In the Trapeziticus of Isocrates, he appears as defendant in a suit brought by the son of a trusted minister of Satyrus, prince of Pontus, and is charged, whether rightly or wrongly, with appropriating a sum of money deposited with him by the plaintiff, with destroying documents detrimental to his own interests, and with other sharp practice of a somewhat unscrupulous character. To examine the justice of these charges is no part of our present duty, nor indeed have we the data for arriving at any decisive result; suffice it to say that, in the language of his very opponent in that action, he is described as one of those bankers who enjoyed a wide connexion and had the management of large sums of money, and whose position as men of business had won them a general confidence'.

1 Or. 36 § 43 sq.-On the § 48; and Büchsenschütz, BeTrapezitae, see Becker's Cha. sitz und Erwerb im Griechi. ricles scene IV; K. F. Hermann, schen Alterthume pp. 500-510. Griechische Privatalterthümer 3 Isocr. Trapez. $ 2.

The speech composed by Isocrates probably belongs to the year B.C. 394, when Pasion, though no longer a slave, was only a resident alien (MÉTOLKOs)"; at a subsequent date, on rising to the privileged position of enjoying as a denizen (iootels) such civic rights as were not of an expressly political nature, he acquired some property in land, and distinguished himself by his public spirit, on one occasion in particular presenting the State with a thousand shields from his own manufactory, and five triremes equipped at his own expense. In recognition of these services, Athens rewarded him with the rights of her citizenship

Among those who had business relations with him we find Athenians of high position like Timotheus, the celebrated general“, and Demosthenes the father of the orator”; his bank in the Peiraeus enjoyed, in the Euxine and elsewhere, a credit co-extensive with the commerce of Attica; even eight years after his death, Apollodorus, of whom we shall hear more anon, had only to declare himself as Pasion's son to be at once enabled to raise a loan in a foreign lando; and in later ages, in the imaginary letters of Alciphron, the Atticist who in the latter part of the second century of our era attempted to revive the memories of the times of Menander, we find the vulgar money-lender contrasted with a banker of blameless reputation, who bears the appropriate name of Pasion?

1 Isocr, Trapez, § 41, 2 Or. 45 & 85.

3 Or. 36 $ 47, Or, 46 g 15, Or. 53 § 18, Or. 59 2 ynploaμένου του δήμου του Αθηναίων 'Αθηναίον είναι Πασίωνα και εκγόνους τους εκείνου διά τάς ευεργεσίας τάς εις την πόλιν. .

4 Οr. 49 προς Τιμόθεον υπέρ xpéws. Cf.note on Or.36853,p.42.

5 Or. 27 & 11.

6 Οr. 50 8 56 διά το Πασίωνος είναι και εκείνον επεξενώσθαι πολ. λους και πιστευθήναι εν τη Ελ. λάδι ουκ ηπόρους, όπου δεηθείην δανείσασθαι. .

7 Alciphron 11. 3. See note on Or. 45 $ 70.—Mr Mahaffy in his Social Greece gives a slight sketch of Pasion, to illustrate

Pasion, in his old age, finding his eyesight failing him, and being only able to walk with difficulty up to Athens from his bank in the Peiraeus', four or five miles distant, transferred his business, including not only his bank but also his shield-manufactory, on lease to his managing clerk Phormio', who, like his employer, was himself originally a slave and obtained his freedom as the reward of honest service. We read of him as a generous and energetic man of business, and his skilful management is said to have been the very saving of the property of his former masterø. From the nature of the case, and from certain chronological considerations besides, it may be concluded that the lease to Phormio belongs to a date before, but not long before, Pasion’s death in B.C. 370". In B.c. 372, we find the latter still managing his business on his own account?, and we may therefore fix on B.C. 371 as the probable date of the lease. Pasion left behind him a widow, Archippe by name', and two sons by her, the elder, Apollodorus, who was four-andtwenty years old at his father's death, and the younger, Pasicles, who came of age eight years after (namely, in B.C. 362)". In his will he provided that his widow should be married to Phormio, with a dowry of two talents (about £486), a dwelling-house valued at one hundred minae (about £400), maid-servants, gold ornaments and all that formerly belonged to his wife". By

the business habits of the Greeks, pp. 382—6.

1 Or. 52 § 13 quoted in note on Or. 36 $7.

2 Or. 36 § 4, Or. 45 § 33.
3 Or. 45 $8 71-76.
4 Or. 36 & 30.
5 Or. 36 SS 49–53.

6 Οr. 46 8 13 επί Δυσνικήτου ά, χοντος, Ql. 102, 3.

7 Or. 49 & 29, 59. In the archonship of Alcisthenes, Ol. 102, 1 (Arnold Schaefer, Dem. U. 8. Zeit, 111. 2 p. 132).

8 Or. 45 8 74.
9 Or. 36 $ 22.

10 Or. 36 SS 10 and 37 compared together (A. Schaefer, u. s.).

11 Qr. 451 8 28 ad fin.

this will, Phormio also became one of the guardians to Pasion's younger son, Pasicles. He was to continue lessee of the bank and shield-manufactory until Pasicles came of age, and it was the father's wish that until that time the property should remain undivided. Owing, however, to the extravagance of the elder son, the guardians, acting in the interests of their ward, determined on a partition of all the property, with the exception of the bank and shield-manufactory leased to Phormio, half the rent of which was paid to Apollodorus, and half reserved for Pasicles, the minor'.

Apollodorus was at Athens in B.C. 370 and appears to have been present at his father's death-bed", and some time after this, he was abroad in the public service as trierarch, probably in the year B.C. 368°.

It was during his absence that, in accordance with his father's will, his mother was married to Phormio; the son, on his return home, resented this arrangement, and as the courts were not open at that time for private lawsuits, he took steps to bring a public indictment against Phormio, for criminal outrage on his mother (ypaori ißpows). However, a reconciliation was brought about and the charge was not pressed“.

In B.C. 362, when Pasicles came of age, his guardians gave an account of their trust, which was acknowledged as correct, and Phormio's lease of the bank and manufactory terminated with a discharge given him on the part of Apollodorus from all liabilities under the lease. The elder brother then, having the prior choice, took the manufactory, leaving the banking business to his younger brother'. For a short time the brothers appear to have superintended their property in person; but not long

i Or. 36 SS 8—10, § 34, note 2 on p. lii. infra. 2 Or. 49 $ 42.

4 Or. 45 &$ 3, 4. 8 Or. 45 g 3; 46 g 21. See 6 Or. 36 SS 10, 11.

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