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almost entirely appropriated to men of leisure and substance.” The Pharisees believed in the inmortality of the soul, in the resurrection of the dead, and in the existence of angels and spirits; and it is supposed by many of the learned, that they believed also in the pre-existence of souls, a doctrine which seems to have been commonly held in the time of our Saviour. The question of the disciples of Christ, relative to the man that was born blind, “Who did sin, this man or bis parents, that he was born blind (w)?” and the doubts expressed by the people, whether Christ was John the Baptist; or Elias, or one of the antient prophets (2), are thought to have arisen from some opinion of this sort; but I confess I see no ground for the supposition, which some commentators have formed, that the Pharisees believed in the Pythagorean doctrine of the transmigration of souls. Indeed, I think this supposition is clearly contradicted both by Josephus and the sacred writers. Josephus, in his second book against Apion, says, with an allusion to the rewards given by the heathen nations for meritorious conduct; “However, the reward for such as live exactly according to the laws is not silver or gold; it is not a

. . . garland (w) John, c.9. v. 2. (a) Matt, C. 16, v, 14. .

garland of olive branches or of smallage, nor any such public sign of commendation; but every good man has his own conscience bearing witness to himself; and by virtue of our legislator's prophetic spirit, and of the firm security God himself affords to such an one, he believes that God hath made this grant to those that observe these laws, even though they be obliged readily to die for them, that they shall come into being again, and at a certain revolution of things, shall receive a better life than they had enjoyed before;” and in his Antiquities (y) he says, “ They believe that it hath pleased God to make å temperament, whereby what he wills is done, but so that the will of man can act virtuously or viciously. They also believe that souls have an immortal vigour in them, and that under the earth there will be rewards or punishments, according as they have lived virtuously or viciously in this life; and the latter are to be detained in an everlasting prison; but the former shall have power to revive and live again." St. Luke expressly says, that the Pharisees believed in the resurrection of the dead; and we cannot suppose that he would call the metempsychosis by that name. And when St. Paul professed himself a Pharisee, and declared, that of the “hope and resurrection of the

dead

(y) Lib. 18. cap. 1.

dead he was called in question (2),” the Pharisees vindicated and supported him, acknowledging that he was preaching a doctrine conformable to the principles of their own sect. We must, therefore, I think, conclude that the Pharisees believed in the resurrection of the dead, in its proper sense, though their notions upon this important point were not correct and accurate.

III. It is said, that the principles of the Sadducees were derived from Antigonus Sochæus, president of the Sanhedrim about 250 years before Christ, who, rejecting the traditionary doctrines of the Scribes, taught that man ought to serve God out of pure love, and not from hope of reward, or fear of punishment: and that they derived their name from Sadoc, one of his followers, who, mistaking or perverting this doctrine, maintained that there was no future state of rewards and punishments. Whatever foundation there may be for this account of the origin of the sect, it is certain, that in the time of our Saviour the Sadducees denied the resurrection of the dead (a), and the existence of angels and spirits, or souls of departed men; though, as Mr. Home observes, it is not easy

- to (2) Acts, c.23. v. 6. . . (a) Acts, c. 23. v. 8.

garland of olive branches or of smallage, nor any such public sign of commendation; but every good man has bis own conscience bearing witness to himself; and by virtue of our legislator's prophetic spirit, and of the firm security God himself affords to such an one, he believes that God hath made this grant to those that observe these laws, even though they be obliged readily to die for them, that they shall come into being again, and at a certain revolution of things, shall receive a better life than they had enjoyed before;" and in his Antiquities (y) he says, “ They believe that it hath pleased God to make å temperament, whereby what he wills is done, but so that the will of man can act virtuously or viciously. They also believe that souls have an immortal vigour in them, and that under the earth there will be rewards or punishments, according as they have lived virtuously or viciously in this life; and the latter are to be detained in an everlasting prison; but the former shall have power to revive and live again." St. Luke expressly says, that the Pharisees believed in the resurrection of the dead; and we cannot suppose that he would call the metempsychosis by that name. And when St. Paul professed himself a Pharisee, and declared, that of the “hope and resurrection of the

dead (y) Lib. 18. cap. 1.

dead he was called in question (x),” the Pharisees vindicated and supported him, acknowledging that he was preaching a doctrine conformable to the principles of their own sect. We must, therefore, I think, conclude that the Pharisees believed in the resurrection of the dead, in its proper sense, though their notions upon this important point were not correct and accurate.

ere

III. It is said, that the principles of the Sadducees were derived from Antigonus Sochæus, president of the Sanhedrim about 250 years before Christ, who, rejecting the traditionary doctrines of the Scribes, taught that man ought to serve God out of pure love, and not from hope of reward, or fear of punishment: and that they derived their name from Sadoc, one of his followers, who, mistaking or perverting this doctrine, maintained that there was no future state of rewards and punishments. Whatever foundation there may be for this account of the origin of the sect, it is certain, that in the time of our Saviour the Sadducees denied the resurrection of the dead (a), and the existence of angels and spirits, or souls of departed men; though, as Mr. Home observes, it is not easy

(z) Acts, c. 23. v. 6.
(a) Acts, c. 23. v. 8.

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