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TIMODEMOS, son of Timonous, of the deme of Acharnae, but of the Timodêmidae, a clan of Salamis, where he was born or brought up (vv. 13-15), won this victory probably about Ol. 75, B.c. 480-477. The ode was apparently sung at Athens (v. 24). It is a processional (monostrophic) ode. The word fapxere in the last line is thought to indicate that it was introductory to a longer dykaμov.

It is impossible to draw any sound inference about the place of composition. Böckh fancies that it was composed at Nemea after the battle of Plataca with Fragment 53 [45]. Perhaps the opening allusion to the Homêridae was due to Salamis being one of the aspirants to the honor of being Homer's birthplace.

The first strophe forms the proëme and the rest of the ode falls into two equal divisions.

This ode throws a light on such recurrences or echoes as have to do with the main theme of an ode. The two Glyconics which constitute the middle and end of the fourth verse contain either vikaor some important proper name (Νεμεαίου, Πυθίοισι, Αἴαντος...Τιμό δημε, Τιμοδήμῳ σὺν εὐκλέϊ νόστῳ) or both. It may therefore be inferred that the music and dance were especially impressive at this part of the strophe, and conversely we may conjecture that in any ode the recurrence of prominent ideas in metrically parallel positions is generally owing to those positions being musically and orchestrically impressive.

Note the tautometric recurrences ¿§- v. 18, èk v. 8, μèv vv. 19, 9, øwvv. 25, 20. The compounds which seem to have been coined for this ode sro πολυύμνητος, εὐθυπομπός.

The mode is Lydo-Æolian.

The metre is logaædic. The recurrent phrases are (A) tetrapodies (Glyconics) with syncope of the first foot, and (B) tripodiess (second Pherocratics). The second and last verses are first Glyconics. ~ 4.

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If the two long syllables at the end of the third foot be each reckoned as a trochee, the first three verses come equal in number of feet to the last two. If the second portion of the third verse be taken as mesodic and the last verse as epodic, we get a symmetrical period, or we can count 4|4|7| 7.44, or 4 | 5 | 6 | 5.6 | 4. My analysis disregards symmetry.



1-5. As the Homêridae begin by invoking Zeus, so Timodemos begins his career of Zeus' grove at Nemea. 6-10. He ought still, since his Fate has led him straight along the path his fathers trod and caused him to do honor to Athens (by winning at Nemea), to win often at the Isthmus and Delphi.

10-12. When the Pleiades are seen, Orion is to be expected. 13-15. Salamis can rear fighting men such as the Trojan warrior Aias and the pancratiast Timodemos.

16, 17. 17-24.

The Acharnians were famous of old.

Enumeration of victories of the Timodêmidae in the Pythian, Isthmian, Nemean and the (Athenian) Olynpian games.

24, 25. The citizens are bidden to celebrate Timodemos' return

as victor from Nemea.

Στρ. α'.

· "Οθεν περ καὶ Ομηρίδαι

1 ῥαπτῶν ἐπέων τὰ πόλλ ̓ ἀοιδοὶ

3 ἄρχονται, Διὸς ἐκ προοιμίου· καὶ ὅδ ̓ ἀνὴρ

4 καταβολὴν ἱερῶν ἀγώνων | νικαφορίας δέδεκται πρῶτον


5 5 ἐν πολυϋμνήτῳ Διὸς ἄλσει.

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ὀφείλει δ' ἔτι, πατρίαν

1 εἴπερ καθ ̓ ὁδόν νιν εὐθυπομπός

15 There is only one slight irregularity of construction in this strophe, namely that instead of τόθεν οἱ ἐκ Διός after καὶ (ν. 3) we fud Νεμεαίου | ἐν π. Δ. ἄ. νυ. 4, 5.

1, 3 και... και For καὶ or και... kal emphasising a parallel see Jebb on Soph. Oed. Col. 53 ὅσ' οἶδα κἀγώ, who quotes Xenoph. Symp. 2. 25 δοκεῖ μέντοι μοι καὶ τὰ τῶν ἀνδρῶν συμπόσια ταὐτὰ πάσχειν ἅπερ καὶ τὰ ἐν γῇ φυόμενα. See also Dem. Meid. p. 514 ἐγὼ δ ̓, ὅπερ ἂν καὶ ὑμῶν ἕκαστος [ὑβρισθεὶς] προείλετο πρᾶξαι, τοῦτο καὶ αὐτὸς ἐποίησα.

1 Ομηρίδαι Α clan or school of rhapsodists from Chios. The Schol. on this line tells us that Kynaethos of Chios introduced many verses into the Homeric poems and founded a distinguished school of rhap sodista.

2 ραπτών ‘Continuous, hence 'epic. The opening to which Pindar refers is probably preserved by Theokritos, 17. 1 ἐκ Διὸς ἀρχώμεσθα, and by Aratos, Phaen. 1. Cf. Virg. Ecl. 3. 60 ab Iove principium. It is as old as Alkman, cf. Frag. 2 [31] ἐγώνγα δ' ἀείσομαι | ἐκ Διὸς ἀρχομένα. A Schol. quotes from Hêsiod ev Δήλῳ τότε πρῶτον ἐγὼ καὶ "Ομηρος ἀοιδοί | μέλπομεν, ἐν νεαροῖς ὕμνοις ῥάψαντες ἀοιδήν, | Φοῖβον Απόλλωνα χρυσάορον ὃν τέκε Λητώ.

Στρ. β'.


8 Διὸς ἐκ πρ. Cf. Ν. 5. 25. 'With an exordium about Zeus.' The phrase is in apposition with ὅθεν περ. Zeus is the subject matter of the proëme, so that the gen. is of material, not of connexion as with verbs of saying and hearing, e.g. Soph. Εl. 317 τοῦ κασιγνήτου τί φής; The ode also ends with Zeus.

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καταβολάν Cf. Kallini., quoted by Schol., Αρσινόης, ὦ ξεῖνε, γάμον καταβάλλομ ̓ ἀείδειν. For the metaphor from laying a foundation cf. note on N. 1. 8. νικαφ. I did not mean "his career of victory for a translation (1st ed. p. 16). Render "hath first won an opening strain of the rewards of victory, i.e. of epinician odes inter alia. The abstract equals a concrete plural. Cf. Eur. Herc. Fur. 603 & δυσγένεια = οι δυσγενείς. In O. 13. 14 (in spite of the accent) and I. 1. 22 νικαφόρος = brought by victory. δέδεκται At Nemea he became the winner of and is the winner of at Athens or elsewhere. Cf. Ο. 2. 49, 6. 27, P. 1. 80, 100, I. 5. 4.

5 άλσει See Paus. 2. 15. 2. The grove was of cypresses.

• οφείλει Impersonal, but there is a v. i. ὀφείλει δέ τι.

7 For metaphor cf. P. 10. 12. Note that νιν is acc. after εὐθυπομπός as well as after δέδωκε.

3 αἰὼν ταῖς μεγάλαις δέδωκε κόσμον 'Αθάναις,

+ θαμὰ μὲν Ισθμιάδων δρέπεσθαι | κάλλιστον ἄωτον, ἐν Πυθίοισί τε νικᾶν

10 5 Τιμονίου παῖδ'. ἔστι δ' ἐοικὸς

ὀρειᾶν γε Πελειάδων

ὁ μὴ τηλόθεν Ωαρίωνα νεῖσθαι.

ο καὶ μὲν ὁ Σαλαμίς γε θρέψαι φῶτα μαχατὰν


Στρ. γ'.


« δυνατός. ἐν Τροΐᾳ μὲν "Εκτωρ Αἴαντος ἄκουσεν· ὦ Τιμόδημε, σὲ δ ̓ ἀλκὰ

αιών Fate in the sense of the destiny of an individual life. Cf. I. 3. 18, Soph. Aj. 645, Trach. 84. Observe that κόσμον ̓Αθάναις glances at the meaning of Τιμόδημος Τιμονίου παῖς. Cf. N. 3. 83.

δρέπεσθαι Cf. O. 1. 13. ἄωτον Cf. Ο. 2. 7, 5. 1. 'The fairest bloom of victories' is epinician song. ty Note the Pin daric variation of construction. το For μέντε ef. Ο. 4. 15, Ρ. 2. 81, N. 7. 86.

10 δ' ‘For. Timodomos' antecedents make the anticipation of his future victories as reasonable as the expectation of seeing Orion when the Pleiades are in sight. Cf. Paley's note Hes. W. and D. 619. Catullus, 66. 94, uses the form Oarion.

12 ὀρειν 5o called because daughters of Atlas. So Simonides quoted by a Schol., Μαιάδος οὐρείας Ελικοβλεφάρου, of Maia, one of the daughters. Cf. Frag. 52. The suc cession of the constellations is a very natural example of sure succession, and no constellations would be more likely to be mentioned than those which marked the beginning of the ploughing season, and again the end of the sailing season. The word ὀρειαν converts a bare astronomical truism into mythical poetry instinct with

human interest. ye Emphasisen the phrase όρ. Πελ. of all the stars which the huge Orion pursnes, be especially pursues the Pleiades.

12 νεῖσθαι Some good use. give the error -ν' ἀνεῖσθαι. Bergk adopts this misreading under the strange delusion that ἀνεῖσθαι stands for ἀνανεῖσθαι.

13 καὶ μάν Introduces s second reason for anticipating that Timodemos would win further victories. Cf. Soph. Αj. 539 καὶ μὴν πέλας γε προσπόλοις φυλάσσεται.

14 δυνατός Fem., of. O. 9. 28, P. 4. 209, 9. 92, N. 5. 20, I. 8. 58. ἄκουσεν The Schol. cites πληγῆς αίοντες, ΙΙ. 11. 532; cf. O. 3. 24 ὑπακουέμεν αὐγαῖς ἀλίου, to be st the mercy of' [Prof. Colvin]. After all dkovdev is simply 'heard,' with a reminiscence of II. 16. 361, where Hektor attacked by Ajax σκέπτετ' διστῶν τε ῥοῖζον καὶ δοῦπον ἀκόντων. ἢ μὲν δὴ γίγνωσκε μάχης ετεραλκέα νίκην and perhaps of a sculpture or painting of the scene. For the cult of Ajax see Jebb Soph. Aj. p. xxx. For the opposition of Aias to Hektor cf. II. 8. 14. 402, 15. end, 16. σὲ δ', κ.τ.λ. While 114, 358. thee, Timodimos, doth power of endurance in the pankration exalt.' For the position of 8' answering to Mév after a vocative cf. N. 7. 85, 86


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ι 'Αχαρναι δὲ παλαίφατον

3 εὐάνορες· ὅσσα δ ̓ ἀμφ ̓ ἀέθλοις,

3 Τιμοδημίδαι εξοχώτατοι προλέγονται.

Στρ. δ'.


4 παρὰ μὲν ὑψιμέδοντι Παρνασ|-ᾧ τέσσαρας ἐξ ἀέθλων νίκας ἐκόμιξαν.

20 5 ἀλλὰ Κορινθίων ὑπὸ φωτῶν

ι ἐν ἐσλοῦ Πέλοπος πτυχαῖς

2 ὀκτὼ στεφάνοις ἔμιχθεν ἤδη·


Στρ. έ.


3 ἑπτὰ δ ̓ ἐν Νεμέᾳ· τὰ δ ̓ οἴκοι μάσσον ̓ ἀριθμοῦ
Διὸς ἀγῶνι. τόν, ὦ πολῖται, | κωμάξατε Τιμοδήμα
σὺν εὐκλέϊ νόστῳ·


25 5 ἀδυμελεῖ δ' ἐξάρχετε φωνᾷ.

ἐμᾷ μὲν πολίαρχον εὐωνύμῳ πάτρα, | 'Ηράκλεις, σέο δέ. By σε αλκὰ ἀέξει the poet means σὰ ἀλκὰ αὔξεται οι. Ν. 8. 40 αύξεται δ' ἀρετά.

16 παλαίφατον 8ο Μ88. Ρ. 11. 30. Βöekh - φατοι.



17 ὅσσα δ' ἀμφ' αέθλοις all that concerns games,' Cf. N. 11. 43 τὸ δ' ἐκ Διός. Cf. Eur. El. 945 ἃ δ ̓ ἐς γυναῖκας, For ἀμφὶ cf. Ν. 6. 14, 8, 42, P. 5. 111.

18 προλέγονται ‘Are named before all others.' Cp. I. 3. 25.

10 ύψιμέδ. "King of mountains. ακόμ. Won, cf. O. 13, 59, Ρ. 4. 106, Soph. Oed. Col. 1411 έπαινος, ὃν κομίζετον and Jebb's note 4 και μίζεσθον...cp. 6 φέροντα = φερόμενον ...Π. 11. 738 κόμισσα δὲ μώνυχας ἵππους,” also εὑρεῖν Ο. 7. 89, Ρ. 2. (4 and φέρειν ='win" passim, Soph. Oed. R. 480.

20 αλλά For μέν... ἀλλὰ cf. O. 9.5.

21 I.e. at the Isthmian games. Cf. I. 3. 11 ἐν βάσσαισιν Ισθμοῦ, 7. 63 Ισθμιον ἂν νάπος, but O. 3. 23 ἐν βάσσαις Κρονίου Πέλοπος means at


Olympia. He is regarded as the hero Eponymos of the Peloponnese. For τυχαῖς of the use of πολύπτυχος.

22 μιχθεν Οf. O. 1. 22.

23 ἀριθμοῦ ΤToo many to num. ber' (lit. for numbering), cf. Soph. Oed. R. 1374 ἔργ ̓ ἐστὶ κρείσσον ἀγχόνης εἰργασμένα. Cf. Ο. 2. 98 ἐπεὶ ψάμμος ἀριθμὸν περιπέφευγεν, 13. 113.

24 Διὸς ἀγῶνι The Athenian Olympia, celebrated in the Spring, between the great Dionysia and the Bendideia. Note the emphatic pos sition, and cf. v. 10 Τιμονόου παῖδ', ν. 14 δυνατός, ν. 17 εὐάνορες. τόν ...κωμάξατε Τιμ. Him do ye cele brate in epinician song in honour of Tim.' Cf. for dative P. 9. 89, I. 6. 20, 21. σύν Under the inspiration of.'

25 άδυμ. κ.τ.λ. A variation of the regular ἁδείᾳ μέλους ἐξάρχετε φωνα. A genitive or accusative of the utterance is usual with ἐξάρ χειν.

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