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Variations from Halm's Text, 1868.

$ 3. a me uno. una. MSS. una cum consulatu. H (ex coni.). his. iis. H.

§ 4. communis salutis. salutis communis. H. $ 6. negat. at negat. H.

§ 8. favi. adfui. 11. petis. petaș. H. quae si causa non esset hominis, ... esset, tamen vel dignitas hominis tamen honoris eius...

vel honoris eius...... H. nemini, sic existimo, quibus ce- nemini, quibus laboribus ea cepeperis, ea, cum adeptus sis, deponere, ris, eos, cum adeptus sis, deponere, esse....

esset...H. § 13. aliquo convicio. aliquod convicium. H. § 14. in vita. om H. § 16. generis sui. generis sua. H (ex coni.).

§ 19. vocatur, ab utroque dis- vocatur, ab utroque dissimillima simillima ratione tractatum.

ratione transactum est.

H (ex

coni.). § 20. loquar. loquor. H. tantum laudis. tantum huic laudis, H (ex coni.).

impertit. impertiit. H (ex coni.). § 21. pari. parem. H (ex coni.). eadem in. in eadem H. apud exercitum mihi fueris, inquit, apud exercitum mihi fueris ? inquit, tot annos, forum non attigeris ? tot annis forum non attigeris ? H. tam diu, ut. tam diu, et. H (ex coni.). expedit. expediit. H (ex coni.).

idem. item. H (ex coni.). $ 22. qui potes dubitare. qui potest dubitari. H. rei militaris [quam iuris civilis] glo- rei militaris quam iuris civilis gloria ? ria?

H. § 23. didicisti. dilexisti. H. conciliant. concilient. H. § 24. in his. in iis. H. dicendi facultas. facultas. H. $ 25. petebatur. petebantur. H.

ediscendis. discendis, H. causis. capsis. H. Cic. pro L Mur.


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$ 45.


$ 27. corrupta et. corrupta ac. H. putarent. putarunt. H.
§ 28. aliquando. aliquamdiu. H.
§ 29. nonnullos. apud nos. H.

§ 30. aliquis motu. aliquo motu. H. geritur res [publica). geritur res. H.

§ 37. gratissimae. clarissimae. H.

§ 32. mihi statuam. mihi statuo. H. numquam cum Scipione esset. nunquam esset. H.

hunc regem nimirum antepones. hunc antepones. H. pugnae certe non rudis. pugnax et acer et non rudis. H. bello invectum. bellum invexisset. H.

§ 38. sumpsit; ipse cum... sumpsit ipse, cum... H. praerogativae. (sic et H ed 1872). praerogativum. H.

§ 40. L Otho, (vir fortis,]. L Otho, vir fortis. H.

§ 42. ipse autem. ipsa autem. H (ex coni.). interea Romae scilicet amicis—(sic interea amicis. H. et H ed 1872).

§ 43. Servius. [Servius]. H. consulatum. [consulatum). H. his rebus. in iis rebus. H.

aut desertam. ut desertam. H. $ 46. existimasti. si existimasti. H. facere posse : vehementer. facere posse, vehementer. H.

§ 47. proderant. proderat. H. prorogationem. perrogationem. H. § 48. sapientiae. satietati. H.

§ 49. quibus rebus certe spes quibus rebus candor ipse candidacandidatorum obscuriores videri so- torum obscurior videri solet. H. lent. (H 1872). circumfluente. circumfluentem. H.

$ 51. quia timebant. quia omnia timebant. H. $ 52. homines iam tum coniuratos. om H. a Catilina. Catilinam. H. $ 55. quae relicta. quae ei relicta. H. § 57. amicis. amicus. H. § 58. possit. posset. H. § 62. dixisti : quippe, iam. dixisti quippiam. H.

$ 63. esse moderatas (sic et H ed 1872). esse moderandas. H (ex coni.).

§ 64. seposuisses. si dixisses. H. (si posuisses. H 1872).

§ 65. isti ipsi mihi. isti mihi. H. nihil omnino gratiae concesseris. nihil gratiae causa feceris. H. etiam, in dissolvenda severitate ; sed etiam, sed tamen. H. tamen,

$ 66. sententiam sententia alia. sententia alia. H.

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§ 73.

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VARIATIONS FROM HALMS TEXT 1868 115 $ 67. qui lege punierim. quod lege punierim. H. nisi iudicat. si iudicat. H. candidatis. candidatus H. si factum sit. sin factum est. H.

§ 68. id indicare. id vindicare. H.
$ 70. necessarios candidatos adsectentur. necessarios adsectentur. H.
$ 71. gratia. ipsi denique. gratia ipsi. denique. H.
72. adsequebantur. adsequi. H.

a multitudine in tuam tua nimia diligentia, Servi, conlecta
nimiam diligentiam, Servi, coniecta sunt. H.
gladiatorium. gladiatoribus. H.

$ 76. rationem officiorum ac ratione officiorum ac temporum vitemporum, vicissitudinem..... (sic et cissitudinem...... H (ex coni.). H ed 1872.)

$ 77. sin etiam cum noris tamen sin etiam, cum noris, tamen per per monitorem appellandi sunt, cur monitorem appellandi sunt, cur ante nomen petis quasi incertum sit? petis, quam nomen citavit ? aut quid quid, quod, cum admoneris, tamen admoneris, si tamen, quasi tute noris, quasi tute noris, ita salutas ? quod ita salutas ? quid, quod, posteaquam posteaquam...

$ 79. Speculis atque insidiis. speculis atque in insidiis. H.
$ 80. usitatis vitiis aut... ; non. usitatis viis aut... ; non. H.
$ 83. hoc tempus.

tempus hoc. H.
$ 85. immanis, importuna. immanis, manus importuna. H.

quae perniciem iam diu bonis omni

bus minatur. H. § 86. squalore et sordibus **** in squalore et sordibus **** H.



rationem F

Dse cands olet

. H.

* * *

§ 87. hac eum re. hac eum cum re. H. ita vos si Murena. ita vos L Murena. H. fuit, sit...... fuit, ut sit...... H. demissis. demissioni animi. H.

Catilinam E

andas Ha

s. H.


A. On the spirit of Roman trials.


Prof. Ramsay well remarks, 'the moral feeling which prevailed in a Roman court of justice was entirely at variance with the principles which rule our own.' It may be well to draw out shortly some of the main differences.

There was no class of professional advocates, taking fees and living by their profession. Any citizen could come forward to accuse or defend any other : and, as a high reputation for able pleading helped a man in rising to official distinction, many did so (pro Mur SS 8, 24). It was also a great advantage to have the power of addressing assemblies with effect (pro Mur § 24). This naturally led to the introduction of irrelevant matter into speeches in court (see the partitio $ 11, where the irrelevance of two of the heads is manifest), particularly allusions to the situation of affairs at the moment, and the probable effect on them of the condemnation or acquittal of the accused (see Introduction C and i in Verrem $$ 10, 15, 17, 20).

2. It not unfrequently happened that a corrupt collusion existed between the accuser and accused. For a sum of money or some other consideration the former would play into the hands of the latter, suppressing evidence and making only a feeble attack upon him. This was called praevaricatio (pro Cluent S$ 58, 87, div in Caecil § 58, etc), and was properly applied only to the accuser in a public—that is, a criminal—trial. Hence the chief security for

— an honest prosecution lay in the personal hostility of the accusator to the reus (see div in Caecil $ 64, Tacitus dial 36, 40, Merivale's History of the Romans, c 44). Numberless allusions shew this. In div in Caecil § 12 C Verres, cui te inimicum esse simulas (said

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to the would-be praevaricator Caecilius), pro Cluent $ 29 auditis non ab inimico opposed to audiebant ab accusatoribus, § 42 erat huic inimicus Oppianicus: erat: sed tamen erat vitricus (i e he would have shewn mercy even to an inimicus, on the ground of family connexion); and generally the relations of counsel to clients rested on grounds of personal feeling, div in Caecil § 23 magnus ille defensor et amicus eius (see pro Mur $$ 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 86), pro Mur § 2 inimicorum impetus (see the remarkable plea in $ 56).

3. Great weight was attached to the personal influence of the pleaders (pro Mur $$ 58, 59, 1 in Verrem $$ 9, 15). This naturally followed from what has been stated above.

4. There was no professionally trained judge to sift the evidence in a summing-up. The praetors were changed from year to year, and merely acted as chairmen of the Courts. With such presidents, no wonder that irrelevant considerations often were the most powerful in determining a verdict.

5. It was customary for the reus to wear old and filthy garments in sign of mourning to excite pity (pro Mur S$ 42, 86, pro Cluent .gf 18, 192, etc). Passionate appeals to the jury, either without allusion to the charge or assuming a client's innocence, were also common in speeches (see the perorations of the two just cited, the story told in pro Cluent $$ 58, 59, and Quintil vi i $36).

6. Bribery (corrumpere iudicium) was common (see for instance pro Cluent $$ 64 foll). In truth it was not guarded against with proper care. The jury were accessible during the trial to the agents of either party, instead of being kept away by themselves.

It will thus be seen how differently from our English trials a criminal prosecution was conducted at Rome. We are not dealing with the Athenian courts; but one quotation will perhaps be interesting. In Dem de Cor p 230 § 15 we read roll Mèv åy@vos olov την προς εμέ έχθραν προίσταται, και 16 της ημετέρας έχθρας ημάς εφ' ημών αυτών δίκαιον ήν τον εξετασμόν ποιείσθαι.

B. Leges iudiciariae. Up to the year 123 BC the iudices, whether single jurymen or a number empanelled to serve on the permanent or extraordinary commissions (quaestiones perpetuae or extraordinariae), were taken

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