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III peroratio, &$ 83 quamquam to end.

Gentlemen, all rests on you. Surely you will not play Catiline's game for him : the hour is come; take away our next year's consul, and the State is lost. In the name of our country, on behalf of Murena, I appeal alike to your patriotism and your mercy for an acquittal. Do this, and I can assure you that in so doing you will have done what is for the best.

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE NOTES.

I

Mommsen=Mommsen's History of Rome, English translation.
Madvig=Madvig's Latin Grammar, English translation, 4th ed.
Madvig de fin=Madvig's edition of the de finibus, 2nd ed 1869.
Ritter and Preller=Ritter and Preller's Historia Philosophiae Graecae et

Romanae, 4th ed 1869.
Zeller=Zeller's 'Stoics Epicureans and Sceptics' translated by Reichel,

1870.
Festus is referred to by the page of Müller's edition.
auct ad Herenn=author of the treatise ad Herennium.
auct petit cons=author of the treatise de petitione consulatus.

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M TULLI CICERONIS

ORATIO

PROL MURENA

AD IUDICES.

1. QUOD precatus a dis immortalibus sum, iudices, more 1 institutoque maiorum illo die, quo auspicato comitiis centuriatis L Murenam consulem renuntiavi, ut ea res mihi, fidei magistratuique meo, populo plebique Romanae bene atque

quoted by Varro L L VI $ 86, quod bonum fortunatum felixque salutareque siet populo Romano Quiritium reique publicae populi Romani Quiritium mihique collegaeque meo fidei magistratuique nostro.

magistratuique] que as often only with the last of the series. Two more instances of this occur in this

very section.

i. 1. quod precatus......) the opening words of the speech post reditum ad Quirites closely resemble these. The mss here give deprecatus which will not make sense. The reading indicated by precor and precatus sun following is established by Quint IX 4 $ 107, where this opening is quoted with the remark creticus initiis optimus. The presiding magistrate offered up a formal prayer after the election. Compare Liy XXXIX 15, sollemne carmen precationis.

auspicato] the ablative of the perfect participle often stands singly thus." Compare Madvig $ 429 obs 1, Liv v 38.

renuntiavi] 'declared duly elected.' The consuls settled by lot or agreement which should act as returning officer at the elections for the following year:

fidei] a correction of Lambinus from the fides of some mss. My 'honour,'trustiness.' Sorof well points out that the words are part of a traditional formula, and Halm compares the old form of words

populo plebique] this phrase is a survival from a time when the plebs were a mass of dependent aliens outside the populus = patricii, the latter alone being burgesses and engrossing all political power. We find it elsewhere, as in the title of ad fan x 35, 11 in Verrem v $ 36 and in the latter of the carmina Marciana quoted in Liv XXV 12. Cicero is here no doubt giving the exact words of the old prayer. See Mommsen, bk i cc 5, 6, Dyer, Hist of Kings of Rome, P 301,

bene atque feliciter] also formal. Compare Plin Paneg 72 nam quod precatus es, ut illa ipsa ordinatio comitiorum bene ac feliciter eveniret, nobis, rei publicae, tibi,

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feliciter eveniret, idem precor ab isdem dis immortalibus ob eiusdem hominis consulatum una cum salute obtinendum, et ut vestrae mentes atque sententiae cum populi Romani voluntatibus suffragiisque consentiant eaque res vobis populoque Romano pacem, tranquillitatem, otium concordiamque adferat. quodsi illa sollemnis comitiorum precatio consularibus auspiciis consecrata tantam habet in se vim et religionem, quantam rei publicae dignitas postulat, idem ego sum precatus, ut eis quo

que hominibus, quibus hic consulatus me rogante datus esset, 2 ea res fauste, feliciter prospereque eveniret.

quae cum ita sint, iudices, et cum omnis deorum immortalium potestas aut translata sit ad vos aut certe communicata vobiscum, idem consulem vestrae fidei commendat, qui antea dis immortalibus commendavit, ut eiusdem hominis voce et declaratus consul et defensus beneficium populi Romani cum vestra atque omnium civium salute tueatur.

et quoniam in hoc officio studium meae defensionis ab accusatoribus atque etiam ipsa susceptio causae reprehensa est,

06 obtinendüm],'for the purpose prayer for the weal of those electof making good.' Sorof. salus= ed. Zumpt. acquittal.

me rogante]=me comitia habente. et ut] refer closely to idem (neut), The full phrase is consul populum conthen it = precor ut ea res feliciter sulem rogat, compare Liv II 65 qui eveniat et ut......Halm.

plebem Romanam tribunos plebi rogacomitiorum] prayer 'at' elections. ret and vi 42 end of book. Halm. Genitive of possession or relation. 2. potestas......] Matthiae comCompare § 31 victoriae eorum bello- pares pro Rabirio § 5 z'os, quirites, rum, $ 73 ium necessitudinis, $ 56

quorum pote proxime ad deorumi odio inimicitiarum, § 63 adiumenta immortalium numen accedit. doctrinae, also g 64 rei publicae vin- qui] on consideration of the MSS culo, § 71 fructum officii, div in authority (Lag 9 alone having quem), Caecil § 14 officium necessitudinis, I now read thus and accept Halm's i in Verrem $ 54 oblivionem diutur- consulem above as the best emennitatis. See Nägelsb Stil § 100, P dation of the corrupt consul ei. 275.

beneficium] the distinction just religionem] 'sanctity.' Halm com- granted him. Compare SS 3, 86, pares pro Rosc Am Š 66, magnam vim magnam necessitatem magnam cum] 'to the preservation of'... possidet religionem paternus mater- compare pro Planc § 102 Madvig nusque sanguis.

§ 257 obs 5. idem ego......] i e so solemn is the et quoniam....ante quam....dicam] prayer, that my use of it implies a See Madvig $ 476 b.

90. Halm.

II.

ante quam pro L Murena dicere instituo, pro me ipso pauca dicam, non quo mihi potior hoc quidem in tempore sit officii mei quam huiusce salutis defensio, sed ut meo facto vobis probato maiore auctoritate ab huius honore, fama fortunisque omnibus inimicorum impetus propulsare possim.

et primum M Catoni vitam ad certam rationis norman 3 derigenti et diligentissime perpendenti momenta officiorum omnium de officio meo respondebo. negat fuisse rectum (Cato] me et consulem et legis ambitus latorem et tam severe gesto consulatu causam L Murenae attingere. cuius reprehensio me vehementer movet, non solum ut vobis, iudices, quibus maxime debeo, verum etiam ut ipsi Catoni, gravissimo atque integerrimo viro, rationem facti mei probem. a quo tandem, M Cato, est aequius consulem defendi quam a consule? quis mihi in re publica potest aut debet esse coniunctior, quam is, cui res publica a me uno traditur sustinenda, magnis meis laboribus et periculis sustentata ? quodsi in his rebus re

pro me ipso] Cicero is here seek- num, verborum, &c. ing to secure benevolentia by self- perpendenti) see on $ 77. justification. Halm compares de officio] 'service,' i.e. the defence Inventione i § 22.

of Murena. So § 2 in hoc officio. instituo] for indicative see Mad- rectum] a Stoic word, purposely vig $ 339, obs 2 c.

used here = karópouua, compare de non quo...sed ul] Madvig $ 357 b off i § 8, de fin il § 24.

See on obs.

$$ 60, 77. hoc in tempore] Sorof well com- legis) sc Tulliae de ambitu, passed pares pro Sulla &S 1--2 as generally in this very year. Seeon SS 46, 47,67. parallel to this passage.

uno] Lambinus' correction of mss ii. 3. rationis) a system of phi

Cicero had held the election losophy, namely the Stoic. Halm. himself, and his colleague C AnCompare de off ui § 20 erit autem tonius Hybrida was away from haec formula Stoicorum rationi dis- Rome at this time, fighting Catilina. ciplinaeque maxime consentanea, Hence too we see that the oratorical Acad i § 34 qui primi Platonis ra- prolepsis in traditur is not unna. tionem auctoritatemque susceperant.

tural. Zumpt. Sorof however ob. Seneca dial XII 9 § 3 says omnium jects that the renuntiatio and handofficiorum recte dispensandorum ratio. ing over the office to a successor are

ad normam] i po's kavova. deri. two very different things. Halm genti. See on § 77.

conjectures una cum consulatu. momenta] 'the relative weight, sustentata] sustenta is not used. claims of'...compare § 18 pari mo- his) with Zumpt and all mss 'these mento sortis. Orator § 47 argu.

every-day things.'

See on § 24. mentorum momenta, and so ratio- repetendis) that is when B has

una.

petendis, quae mancipi sunt, is periculum iudicii praestare debet, qui se nexu obligavit, profecto etiam rectius in iudicio consulis designati is potissimum, qui consulem declaravit,

auctor beneficii populi Romani defensorque periculi esse de4 bebit: ac si, ut nonnullis in civitatibus fieri solet, patronus-huic

causae publice constitueretur, is potissimum summo honore adfecto defensor daretur, qui eodem honore praeditus non minus adferret ad dicendum auctoritatis quam facultatis. quodsi e portu solventibus ii, qui iam in portum ex alto invehuntur, praecipere summo studio solent et tempestatum rationem et praedonum et locorum, quod natura fert, ut eis faveamus, qui eadem pericula, quibus nos perfuncti sumus, ingrediantur :

sold a thing to C, and A claims it mancipi. As according to Aelius as his own, maintaining that B Gallus, fragm 9 nexum est quodcun. never owned it, and therefore had que per aes et libram geritur, mancipano right to sell it. B is bound either tio must have been a kind of nexum. to prove the soundness of his own Compare Gaius II 27, M' Manilius, (and therefore of C's) title to the fragm 5, Q Mucius Scaevola, fragm property, or to make up to C the 5. (For mancipatio see Maine's loss which ensues upon A's making Ancient Law ed iv Lecture 6 p good his claim. The process is

204 foll, for res mancipi lect 8 p technically called evictio rei venditae. 277 foll, for nexum and the early Compare Jul Paullus sentent II 17 confusion of the notions of contract § i venditor si eius rei quam ven- and conveyance lect 9 P 314 foll). diderit dominus non sit, pretio accepto is...qui] the venditor who had to auctoritatis manebit obnoxius etc. guarantee the title to the property

quae mancipi sunt] res mancipi sold. are things the transfer of which could

praestare] emptori. Here Cicero only be accomplished by mancipatio is bound to make good the title to or in iure cessió. See on § 25. man- the consulship for Murena, to be in cipatio was a form of transfer by a fact the auctor secundus. Compare symbolic sham-sale: the price was pro Caec § 27 Caesennius auctor not paid by number but by weight. fundi, II in Verr v $ 56. A man with a pair of scales (libri. 4. nonnullis] Matthiae refers to pens), who must be of full age (im. the Athenian σύνδικοι, or συνήγοροι. pubes libripens esse non potest, Ael Hermann Pol Ant § 133. Gallus, fragm 6) and a small piece of praecipere] "give warning.' So pro money (negotium per aes et libram) Planc $ 59, Plautus mil glor 247 et were necessary, and 5 witnesses, Philocomasio id praecipiundumst ut Roman citizens of full age. res man- sciat. cipi are enumerated by Ulpian XIX praedonum] compare Thuc i 5, I, as praedia in Italico solo, iura Odyss III 71 full. praediorum rusticorum, and servi et qui ingrediantur] = quos ingredi quadrupedes quae dorso collove do- scimus. Matthiae. mantur. All other things are nec The passage quodsi......subeundas

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