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CHARLES I. PARL. 3. Seff. 1. A&. 5.

Act anent the Ratification of the calling of the Convention, Ratification

of the League and Covenant, Articles of Treaty betwixt the Kingdoms of Scotland and England, and remanent Acts of the Convention of Estates and Committee thereof.

At Edinburgh, July 15th, 1644.

HE estates of parliament presently conveened by virtue of the last.

act of the last parliament holden by his majesty, and the three eftates, in anno 1641, considering, that the lords of his majesty's privy council, and commissioners for conserving the articles of the treaty, having according to their interests and trust committed to them by his majelly and estates of parliament, used all means, by fupplications, remonitrances, and sending of commissioners, for securing the peace of this king. dom, and removing the unhappy distractions betwixt his majetty and his subjects in England, in such a way as might serve most for his majesty's honour, and good of both kingdoms; and their humble and dutiful endeavours for lo good ends having proven ineffectual, and their offer of mediation and intercellion being refused by his majesty; and thereby finding the weight and difficulty of affairs, and the charge lying on them, to be greater than they could bear; did therefore, in the month of May 1643, meet together with the commissioners for the common burdens, that by joint advice some resolution might be taken therein; and in respect of the danger inminent to the true protestant religion, his prajesty's honour, and peace of their kingdoms, by the multitude of papiits and their adherents in arms in England and Ireland, and of many other pubRick and important affairs, which could not admit delay, and did require the advice of the representative body of the kingdom; appointed and caused indiet a neeting of the convention of estates (his majesty having formerly refused their humble desires for a parliament) to be on the 22d of June following; which diet being frequently kept by the noblemen, commissioners of thires and burghs, and they finding these dangers against this kirk and state ftill encreasing, resolved, after serious deliberation and advice of the general assembly, and joint concurrence of the commissioners authorized by the parliament of England, that one of the chiefest remedies, for preventing of there and the like dangers, for preservation of religion, and both kingdoms from ruin and destruction, and for procuring of peace, That both kingdoms should, for these ends, enter into covenant; which was accordingly drawn up, and chearfully embraced, and allowed. -- And at last, a treaty was agreed unto by both kingdoms, concerning the said covenant, and aflistance craved from this kingdom by the kingdom of England, in pursuance of the ends expressed therein :---And the estates being still desirous to use all good means, that, without the effusion of more blood, there may be such a blessed pacification betwixt his majesty and his subjects, as may tend to the good of religion, his majesty's true honour and safety, and happiness of his people; did therefore give commillion to John earl of Loudon, lord chancellor, lord Maitland, lord Waristoun, and Mr. Robert Barclay, to repair to England, and endeavour the effectuating of these ends contained in the ovenant of treaties, conform to their instructions,


And the said estates having taken the proceedings above written to their consideration, do find and declare, That the lords of council, and conservers of peace, did behave themselves as faithful counsellors, loyal subjects, and good patriots, in tendering their humble endeavours for removing the distractions betwixt his majesty and his subjects, and in calling the commillioners for the common burdens, and by joint advice appointing the late meeting of convention, wherein they have approven themselves antwerable to the duty of their places, and that trult committed to them; and therefore ratifies and approves their whole proceedings therein, and declares the said convention was lawfully called, and allo full and free in itself, consisting of all the members thereof, as any convention hath been at any time bygone; and ratifies and approves the leveral acts made by them, or their committee, for injoining the covevant.--And also, The said estates of parliament (but prejudice of the premises, and of the general ratification above-mentioned) ratifies, approves and confirms the foresaid mutual league and covenant, concerning the reformation and defence of religion, the honour and happiness of the king, and the peace and safety of the three kingdoms of Scotland, England and Ireland; together with the acts of the kirk and estate authorizing the same League and Covenant; together also with the forefaid articles of treaty agreed upon betwixt the said commissioners of the convention of estates of Scotland, and the commissioners of both the houses of parliament of England, concerning the said Soleinn League and Covenant.--And the said estates ordains the same acts, with the League and Covenant above-specified, Acts authorizing the same, and the articles of treaty foresaid, to have the full force and strength of perfect laws and acts of parliament, and to be observed by all his majesty's lieges, conform to the tenors thereof respective. Of the which League and Covenant,--the tenor follows.



FOR Reformation and Defence of Religion, the Honour and Happiness of the

King, and the Peace and Safety of the Three Kingdoms of Scotland, England and Ireland; agreed upon by Commissioners from the Parliament and Assembly of Divines in England, with Commissioners of the Convention of Estates and General Assembly in Scotland; approved by the General Alsembly of the Church of Scotland, and by both Houses of Parliament and Assembly of Divines in England, and taken and subscribed by them, Anno 1643 ; and thereafter, by the faid Authority, taken and subscribed by all Ranks in Scotland and England the fame rear; and ratified by Act of the Parliament of Scotland, Anna 1644; and again renewed in Scotland, with an acknowledgment of Sins, and Engagement to Duties, by all Ranks, Anno 1648, and by Parliament 1649; and taken and subscribed by King Charles II. at Spey, June 23. 1650; and at Scoon, January 1, 1.651.

E noblemen, barons, knights, gentlemen, citizens, bur

geffes, ministers of the gospel, and commons of all sorts, in the kingdoms of Scotland, England and Ireland, by the providence of GOD, living under one king, and being of one reformed religion, having before our eyes the glory of GOD, and the advancement of the kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, the honour and happiness of the king's majesty and his posterity, and the true publick liberty, fafery, and

peace of the kingdoms, wherein every one's private condition is included: And calling to mind the treacherous and bloody plots, conspiracies, attempts and practices of the enemies of God, against the true religion and professors thereof in all places, especially in these three kingdoms, ever since the reformation of religion; and how much their rage, power and presumption are of late, and at this time, increased and exercised, whereof the deplorable state of the church and kingdom of Ireland, the distressed estate of the church and kingdom of England, and the dangerous estate of the church and kingdom of Scotland, are present and publick testimonies: We have now at last (after other means of supplication, remonstrance, protestation and fufferings) for the preservation of our



selves and our religion from utter ruin and destruction, according to the commendable practice of these kingdoms in former times, and the example of GOD'S people in other nations; after mature deliberation, resolved and determined to enter into a mutual and solemn league and covenant, wherein we all subscribe, and each one of us for himself, with our hands lifted up to the most high GOD, do swear, I. THAT we shall sincerely, really, and constantly, thro'

the grace of GOD, endeavour, in our several places and callings, the preservation of the reformed religion in the church of Scotland, in doctrine, worship, discipline and government, against our common enemies; the reformation of religion in the kingdoms of England and Ireland, in doctrine, worship, discipline and government, according to the word of GOD, and the example of the best reformed churches: And shall endeavour to bring thechurches of GOD in thethree kingdoms, to the nearest conjunction and uniformity in religion, confession of faith, form of church-government, directory for worship and catechising; that we, and our posterity after us may, as brethren, live in faith and love; and the Lord


delight to dwell in the midst of us,

II. That we shall in like manner, without respect of persons, endeavour the extirpation of popery, prelacy, (that is, churchgovernment by arch-bishops, bishops, their chancellors, and commiffaries, deans, deans and chapters, archdeacons, and all other ecclesiastical officers depending on that hierarchy) superstition, heresy, schism, profaneness, and whatsoever fhall be found to be contrary to sound doctrine and the power of godliness; left we partake in other mens fins, and thereby be in danger to receive of their plagues: and that the Lord may be one, and his name one in the three kingdoms.

III. We shall, with the same sincerity, reality and constancy in our several vocations, endeavour, with our estates and lives, mutually to preserve the rights and privileges of the parliaments, and the liberties of the kingdoms; and to preserve and defend the king's majesty's person and authority, in the pre


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fervation and defence of the true religion, and liberties of the kingdoms; that the world may bear witness with our consciences of our loyalty, and that we have no thoughts nor intentions to diminish his majesty's just power and greatness.

IV. We shall also, with all faithfulness, endeavour the discovery

of all such as have been or shall be incendiaries, malignants, or evil instruments, by hindering the reformation of religion, dividing the king from his people, or one of the kingdoms from another, or making any faction or parties amongst the people, contrary to this League and Covenant; that they may be brought to publick trial, and receive condign punishment, as the degree of their offences shall require or deserye, or the supreme judicatories of both kingdoms respectively, or others having power from them for that effect, shall judge convenient.

V. And whereas the happiness of a blessed peace between these kingdoms, denied in former times to our progenitors, is by the good providence of God granted upto us, and hath been lately concluded, and settled by both parliaments; we shall each one of us, according to our place and interest, endeavour that they may remain conjoined in a firm peace and union to all posterity; and that justice may be done upon the wilful opposers thereof, in manner expressed in the precedent article.

VI. We shall also, according to our places and callings, in this common cause of religion, liberty and peace of the kingdoms, aflift and defend all those that enter into this League and Covenant, in the maintaining and pursuing thereof; and shall pot suffer ourselves directly or indirectly, by whatsoever combination, persuasion or terror, to be divided and withdrawn from this blessed union and conjunction, whether to make defection to the contrary part, or to give ourselves to a detestable indifferency or neutrality in this cause, which so much concerneth the glory of GOD, the good of the kingdom, and honour of the king; but shall all the days of our lives zealously and constantly continue therein, against all op




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