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a good while before, translated Sallust, "De Bello Jugurthino" so in those days she turned into the English tongue the greatest part of Horace, " De Arte Poeticd" and a little book of Plutarch's, " De Curiosttate," writing them with her own hand and fairly anew, though the Rebellion in Ireland now flamed forth dangerously.

And there was bye-talk of Sir Walter Ralegh for Lord Deputy of Ireland. Cobham saying, "None so fit." But Cecyl, "He is unworthy!" Now the Captain o' the Guard, having been across that channel more than once, had liefer live among his Caciques o' the Carib-Indies than be Governor over the Celts; and so that project of Master Secretary failed also. 'Tls failure more than success profits a man. While the one maketh him foolhardy, careless: the other teacheth him his own weakness, and the strength of his opposites.

But against another rumour, the old hatred os Spain roused that patriotism which was only now and then dulled in Ralegh by his selfishness. Our Vice-Admiral fortifies the Coast of Cornwall, visiting his fleet; though indeed the Spaniard was more careful in the keeping of his ward ever since the Earl of Essex had broken that key of his dominions, Gades. CHAPTER IV.


"Itseemeth to simple and unlearned men that one may not go under the earth, but that heshould fall from under towards the heaven. That may not be any more than that we fall towards heaven from the earth where we are. Yet, verily, in "what part soever of the earth men dwell, either above or beneath, it seemeth always to them that they go more right than any other people. And as it seemeth to us that they be under us, so it seemeth to them that we be under them"

Of The Evil Customs In The Isle Of
Lamary.Chap Xvii.


TOLOMEY and the geographers consent, with all our statesmen, that Ireland lyeth to the westward of Britain some sixty to one hundred and sixty miles.

"The inhabiters," saith one, following Mela, " are more than other nations uncivilized and without virtue ; those who have even a little knowledge being wholly destitute of piety."

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Then Solinus calleth them " an inhospitable people," and " a warlike people. For the conquerors," saith he," after drinking of the blood of their slain, daub their faces with the remainder." And again: "They know no distinction between right and wrong. When a woman bringeth forth a male child, she is wont to place its first food on the point of her husband's weapon, thrusting it therewith into his tiny throat, with a prayer (as they call it), that the sword may end as it begins life."

Another will have it that," for wholesomeness and serenity of climate, Ireland far surpasses Britain. The snow," quoth he, " scarcely ever lies there above three days: nor no man makes hay in the summer for winter's provision, nor yet builds stables for his beasts of burden." 'Tis to be enquired after whether our Venerable Bede, or yet that good Benedictine, Richard of Cirencester, were ever in the Isle: or, if they were, whether they tasted not some of its subtleties; for the not making of hay while the sun shines, savoureth of improvidence, as the exposure of their cattle tends to keep them poor and miserable. Here, too, is an old fable with a vengeance !" No reptiles be found there, and no snake can live there; for, though often carried thither out of Britain, Truth in and about Ireland. 55

so soon as the ship shall come near shore, the scent of the pure air reaching them, they presently die. Almost all things there be good against poison. We have known that, when some persons have been bitten by serpents, the very scrapings of leaves of (holy) books brought out of Ireland, being put into water and given them to drink, have incontinently expelled the spreading venom, and assuaged the swelling veins."

'Tis a strange thing you cannot find an historian speaking Truth of this land and her people! Ether all is abuseful or all is flattery—honey or gall. One matter is to be noted: to wit, that from the particular these writers will ever argue the universal. As thus: In a straight, some one eat of the rotten carcass of his horse; yet, having an English prisoner, let him free without ransom. Now, your Saxon Monk records that the mere Irish are wont to glut over carrion; telling you not of his kind treatment of the captive. Then your Celt vaunteth how his victorious Chief enacts the host, showing hospitality to an enemy; not a word about the dead beast that furnisheth forth the banquet! So it is. All Irishmen are what some may be: and the Anglo-Irish truly, give a colour to the saying, " Hibernis ipsis Hiberniores,


But what of these people that are her Grace's difficulty; for, from the days of the first settlers, England has had no greater care than how to govern her sister o' the ocean? Pity she would not somewhiles let the poor girl walk alone in her free robes and bare feet! Oh Erin! Albion hath been but a shrewd half-sister to thee!

Now, the Irish be not one people other than ourselves. The Briton, the Roman, the Dane, the Saxon, the Norman: these, with a dash of the Fleming and some others o' the seabord, make up the Englishman of our days. But who knoweth whence cometh the Celt? You shall not need go to Japhet! Some tribes of the Britons, either direct from Gaul or through Wales, a Colony from Phœnice, some stragglers coming through the pillars of Hercules, driven on the south-west coast, adventurers from Spain, Danes, too, i' th' north and east, Scots returned with Angle blood in them: these all mixed made up the Irish people or ever Strongbow set foot in Waterford. But the ingredients had this difference: that whereas all those who came to England were fond to stay there and amalgamate with the natives to one end—a national prosperity; so, on the other hand, 'twas for immediate spoil, and with an Ishmaelite

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