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BOOK III. Continued. Sk.

Pag. 2. Principles and progress of morality, Part 1. Principles of morality,

2 Sect. 1. Human actions analysed,

ib. 2. Division of human actions into right,

wrong, and indifferent,
Laws of nature respecting our moral
conduct in fociety,

27 4. Principles of duty and of benevolence, 48 5. Laws respecting rewards and punishments,

52 6. Laws respecting reparation,

66 7. Final causes of the foregoing laws of


nature, 8. Liberty and neceflity considered with respect to morality,

94 Appendix, Upon chance and contingency,


I 20

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HE principles of morality

among favages : and
if they arrive at maturity among
enlightened nations, it is by flow

This progress points out the historical part, as first in order : but as that history would give little fatisfaction, without a rule for comparing the morals of different ages, and of different nations, A



I begin with the principles of morality, such as ought to govern at all times, and in all nations. The present sketch accordingly is divided into two parts. In the first, the principles are unfolded; and the second is altogether historical.

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THE hand of God is no where more

visible, than in the nice adjustment of our internal frame to our situation in this world. An animal is endued with a power of self-motion; and in performing animal functions, requires no external aid. This in particular is the case of man, the noblest of terrestrial beings. His heart beats, his blood circulates, his stomach digests, &c. &c. By what means ? Not

furely surely by the laws of mechanism, which are far from being adequate to such operations. They are effects of an internal power, bestow'd on man for preserving life. The power is exerted uniformly, and without interruption, independent of will, and without consciousness.

Man is a being susceptible of pleasure and pain: these generate desire to attain what is agreeable, and to shun what is disagreeable; and he is possessed of other powers which enable him to gratify his defires. One power, termed inftinet, is exerted indeed with consciousness; but without will, and consequently without desiring or intending to produce any effect. Brute animals act for the most part by instinct: hunger prompts them to eat, and cold to take shelter; knowingly indeed, but without exerting any act of will, and without foresight of what will happen. Infants of the human species are, like brutes, governed by instinct: they apply to the nipple, without knowing that sucking will satisfy their hunger; and they weep when pained, without


view of relief. But men commonly are governed by desire and intention. In the progress froin infancy

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