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from a mutton-pie. The Beef-Steak *, and October + clubs, are neither of them averse to eating and drinking, if we may form a judgment of them N° 10. MONDAY, MARCH 12, 1710-11. from their respective titles.
When men are thus knit together, by a love of society, not a spirit of faction, and do not meet to
Non aliter quam qui adversn vix flumine lembum
Rimigiis subigit i si brachia forte remiat, censure or annoy those that are absent, but to en
Atque illum in præceps prono rapit alveus amni. joy one another; when they are thus combined
VIRG. Georg. I. 201. for their own improvement, or for the good of
So the boat's brawny crew the current stem, others, or at least to relax themselves from the bu- And slow advancing, struggle with the stream: siness of the day, by an innocent and cheerful But if they slack their hands, or cease to strive, conversation, there may be something very useful
Then down the flood with beadlong haste they drive.
DRYDEN. in these little institutions and establishments.
I cannot forbear concluding this paper with a It is with much satisfaction that I hear this grea scheme of laws that I met with upon a wall in a city inquiring day by day after these my papers little ale house. How I came thither I may in- and receiving my morning lectures with a becom form my reader at a more convenient time. These ing seriousness and attention. My publisher tell laws were enacted by a knot of artisans and me- me, that there are already three thousand of them chanics, who used to meet every night; and as distributed every day: so that if I allow twenty there is something in them which gives us a pretty readers to every paper, which I look upon as a picture of low life, I shall transcribe them word modest computation, I may reckon about three for word:
score thousand disciples in London and WestminRules to be observed in the Two-penny club, erected ster, who I hope will take care to distinguish them
in this place for the preservation of friendship selves from the thoughtless herd of their ignoran and good neighbourhood.
and inattentive brethren. Since I have raised to I. Every member at his first coming in sball lay to make their instruction agreeable, and their di
myself so great an audience, I shall spare po paio down his two-pence. II. Every member shall fill his pipe out of his version useful. For which reasons I shall endea
vour to enliven morality with wit, and to temper own box. III. If any member absents himself, he shall both ways find iheir account in the speculation of
wit with morality, that my readers may, if possible forfeit a penny for the use of the club, unless in the day. And to the end that their virtue and case of sickness or imprisonment. IV. If any member swears or curses, his neigh-starts of thought, I have resolved to refresh their
discretion may not be short, transient, intermitting bour may give bim a kick upon the shins. V. If any member tell stories in the club that them out of that
desperate state of vice and folly
memories from day to day, till I have recovered are not true, he shall forfeit for every third lie an
into which the age is fallen. The mind that lies halfpenny. VI. If any member strikes another wrongfully,
fallow but a single day, sprouts up in follies that
are only to be killed by a constant and assiduong he sball pay his club for him. VII. If any member brings his wife into the culture. It was said of Socrates, that he brought
philosophy down from heaven, to inhabit among club, he shall pay for whatever she drinks or
men ; and I shall be ambitious to have it said of smokes.
VIII. If any member's wife comes to fetch him me, that I have brought philosophy out of closets home from the club, she shall speak to him without clubs and assemblies, at tea-tables and in coflee
and libraries, schools and colleges, to dwell in the door.
houses. IX. If any member calls another a cuckold, he shall be turned out of the club.
I would therefore in a very particular manner X. None shall be admitted into the club that is lated families, that set apart an hour in every
recommend these my speculations to all well-reguof the same trade with any member of it.
morning for tea and bread and butter; and would XI. None of the club shall have his clothes or shoes made or mended, but by a brother-member. earnestly advise them for their good to order this XII. No non-juror shall be capable of being a paper to be punctually served up, and to be look
ed upon as a part of the tea equipage. member.
Sir Francis Bacon observes, that a well-written The morality of this little club is guarded by book, compared with its rivals and antagonists, is such wholesome laws and penalties, that I ques- like Moses's serpent, that immediately swallowed tion not but my reader will be as well pleased up, and devoured those of the Egyptians. I shall with them, as he would have been with the Leges not be so vain as to think, that where the SpecConvivales of Ben Jonson , the regulations of an tator appears, the other public prints will vanish; old Roman club cited by Lipsius, or the rules of a but shall leave it to my reader's consideration, Symposium in an ancient Greek author.
wbether it is not much better to be let into the
C. knowledge of one's self, than to hear what passes See Dr. King's Works, vol. iii. p. 290, 8vo. edit. 1776. in Muscovy or Poland; and to amuse ourselves This club also consisted of the chief wits and greatest men with such writings as tend to the wearing out of in the kingdom. It is said, that Mrs. Woffington, the only ignorance, passion, and prejudice, than such as dian, was their providore ; and, as an honourable badge of naturally conduce to intláme hatreds, and make his othce, wore a small gridiron of gold hung round his neck enmities irreconcilable. with a green silk riband.
In the best place I would recommend this paper + Swift, in a letter to Stella, (London, Feb. 10, 1710.11) to the daily pernsal of those gentlemen whom i a set of above a hundred parliament men of the country, I cannot but consider as my good brothers and allies, who drink October beer at home, and meet every evening I mean the fraternity of Spectators, who live in at a tavern near the parliament to consult affairs, and drive the world without having any thing to do in iti things on to extremes against tbe Whigs, to call the old ministry to account, and get off five or six beads.''
and either by the affluence of their fortunes, or laSee Whalley's edit vol. vii.
ziness of their dispositions, bave no other business
zm. myself to furnish every day : but to make them -00- easy in this particular, I will promise them faithows fully to give it over as soon as grow dull. This I ven know will be matter of great raillery to the small
of wits; who will frequently put me in mind of my the promise, desire me to keep my word, assure me that ght it is high time to give over, with many other little
pleasantries of the like nature, which men of a vise little smart genias cannot forbear throwing out the against their best friends, when they have such an hed handle given them of being witty. But let them
of remember that I do hereby enter my caveat against nsi- this piece of raillery.
C. first any
No II.' TUESDAY, MARCH 13, 1710-11. sons Dat veniam corvir, vexat censura columbas.
JUV. Sat. ii. 63. hich
The doves are censur'd, while the crows are spard. I be
ARIETTA is visited by all persons of both sexes, the who have any pretence to wit and gallantry. She have is in that time of life which is neither affected Ereat with the follies of youth, or infirmities of age: they and her conversation is so mixed with gaiety and at í prudence, that she is agreeable both to the old and ole- the young. Her behaviour is very frank, without t on being in the least blameable ; as she is out of the
track of any amorous or ambitious pursuits of her Il be own, her visitants entertain her with accounts of have themselves very freely, whether they concern their pains passions or their interests. I made her a visit this. i di- afternoon, having been formerly introduced to the
honour of her acquaintance by my friend Will men, Honeycomb, who has prevailed upon her to admit i are
me sometimes into her assembly, as a civil inofThe fensive man. I found her accompanied with one right person only, a common-place talker, who, upon ment my entrance, arose, and after a very slight civility ods is sat down again; then turning to Arietta, pursued nd if his discourse, which I found was upon the old topic toy
constancy in love. He went on with great faany cility in repeating what be talks every day of his erious life; and with the ornaments of insignificant laughs
their and gestures, enforced his arguments by quotations s and out of plays and songs, which allude to tbe perinary Juries of the fair, and the general levity of women. es of Methought he strove to shine more than ordinarily ation, in his talkative way, that he might insult my sie and lence, and distinguish himself before a woman of nd to Arietta's taste and understanding. She had often
an inclination to interrupt him, but could find no le-be- opportunity, till the larum ccased of itself; which these it did not till he had repeated and murdered the Il al- celebrated story of the Ephesian Matron. ot an Arietta seemed to regard this piece of raillery ins at as an outrage done to her sex; as indeed I have from always observed that women, whether out of a 1 fain nicer regard to their bonour, or what other reason re al. I cannot tell, are more sensibly touched with ature, those general aspersions which are cast upon their erfec- sex, than men are by what is said of theirs. -irtues
When she had a little recovered herself from in the the serious anger she was in, she replied in the fol3, who lowing manner: rudge Sir, when I consider how perfectly new all ay on you have said on this subject is, and that the story
yon have given us is not quite two thousand years
old, I cannot but think it a piece of presumption ishers to dispute it with you ; but your quotations put table me in mind of the fable of the lion and the man. oblige The man, walking with that noble animal, showed
him, in the ostentation of human superiority, a sign | In the midst of these good offices, she would some of a man killing a lion. C'pon which, the lion times play with his hair, and delight in the opposaid very justly, “ We lions are none of us paint- sition of its colour to that of her fingers: then open ers, else we could show a hundred men killed by his bosom, then laugh at him for covering it. Ste lions, for one lion killed by a man.” You men was, it seems, a person of distinction, for she every are writers, and can represent us women as unbe- day came to bim in a different dress, of the most coming as you please in your works, while we are beautiful shells, bugies, and bredes. She likewise unable to return the injury. You have twice or brought him a great many spoils, which her other thrice observed in your discourse, that hypocrisy lovers had presented to her, so that his cave was is the very foundation of our education; and that richly adorned with all the spotted skins of brast, an ability to dissemble our affections is a professed and most party-coloured feathers of fowls, which part of our breeding. These, and such other re- that world afforded. To make his confinement Hlections, are sprinkled up and down the writings more tolerable, she would carry him in the dusk of all ages, by authors, who leave behind them of the evening, or by the favour of moon-light, to meinorials of their resentment against the scorn of unfrequented groves and solitudes, and show him particular women, in invectives against the whole where to lie down in safety, and sleep amidst the sex. Such a writer, I doubt not, was the cele- falls of waters and melody of nightingales. Her brated Petronius, who invented the pleasant ag- part was to watch and hold him awake in her gravations of the frailty of the Ephesian lady; arıns, for fear of her countrymen, and wake bim but when we consider this question between the on occasions to consult his safety. In this manner sexes, which has been either a point of dispute or did the lovers pass away their time, till they had raillery, ever since there were men and women, learned a language of their own, in which the let us take facts from plain people, and from such voyager communicated to his mistress, how happy as have not either ambition, or capacity to em- he should be to have her in his country, where she bellish their narrations with any beauties of ima- should be clothed in such silks as his waistcoat was gination. I was the other day amusing myself made of, and be carried in houses drawn by hories, with Ligon's Account of Barbadoes *; and, in ar- without being exposed to wind or weather. All swer to your well-wrought tale, I will give you this he promised her the enjoyment of, without (as it dwells upon my memory) out of that honest such fears and alarms as they were there tormented traveller, in his fifty-fifth page, the bistory of with.' In this tender correspondence these lovers Inkle and Yarico.
lived for several months, when Yarico, instructed “ Mr. Thomas Inkle, of London, aged twenty by her lover, discovered a vessel on the coast, to years, embarked in the Downs, in the good ship which she made signals ; and in the night, with called the Achilles, bound for the West Indies, on the utmost joy and satisfaction, accompanied him the 16th of June, 1617, in order to improve his to a ship's crew of his countrymen, bound for Barfortune by trade and merchandise. Our adven- badoes. When a vessel from the main arrives in turer was the third son of an eminent citizen, who that island, it seems, the planters come down to the had taken particular care to instil into his mind shore, where there is an immediate market of the an early love of gain, by making him a perfect Indians and other slaves, as with us of horses and master of numbers, and consequently giving him a quick view of loss and advantage, and preventing “ To be short, Mr. Thomas Inkle, now coming the natural impulses of his passion, by preposses- into English territories, began seriously to reflect sion towards his interests. With a mind thus turn- upon bis loss of time, and to weigh with himself ed, young Inkle bad a person every way agree how many days interest of his money he had lost able, a ruddy vigour in his countenance, strength during his stay with Yarico. This thought made in his limbs, with ringlets of fair hair loosely flow- the young man pensive, and careful what account ing on his shoulders. It happened, in the course he should be able to give bis friends of his voyage. of the voyage, that the Achilles, in some distress, Upon which consideration, the prudent and frugal put into a creek on the main of America, in search young man sold Yarico to a Barbadian merchant ; of provisions. The youth who is the hero of my notwithstanding that the poor girl, to incline him story, among others, went on shore on this occasion. to commiserate ber condition, told him that she From their first landing they were observed by a was with child by bim; but he only made use of party of Indians, who hid themselves in the woods that information, to rise in his demands upon the for that purpose. The English unadvisedly marched purchaser." a great distance from the shore into the country, I was so touched with this story (which I think and were intercepted by the natives, who slew the should be always a counterpart to the Ephesian greatest number of them. Our adventurer escaped, Matron) that I left the room with tears in my eyes, among others, by flying into a forest. Upon his which a woman of Arietta's good sense did, I am coming into a remote and pathless part of the sure, take for greater applause, than any compliwood, he threw himself, tired and breathless, on a ments I could make ber. little hillock, when an Indian maid rusbed from a
R. thicket behind him. After the first surprise, they appeared mutually agreeable to each other. If No 12. WEDNESDAY, MARCH 14, 1710-11. the European was highly charmed with the limbs, features, and wild graces of the naked American; - Veteres avias tibi de pulmone revello. the American was no less taken with the dress,
PERS. Sat. v. 92. complexion, and shape of an European, covered
I root th' old woman from thy trembling heart, from head to foot. The Indian grew immediately At my coming to London, it was some time before enamoured of him, and consequently solicitous for I could settle myself in a house to my liking. I his preservation. She therefore conveyed him to was forced to quit my first lodgings by reason of a cave, where she gave him a delicious repast of an officious landlady, that would be asking me fruits, and led him to a stream to slake his thirst. every morning how I had slept. I then fell into
* A true and exact History of Barbadoes, &c. by Richard an honest family, and lived very happily for above Ligon, gent. fol. 1673.
a week; when my landlord, who was a jolly good
ed am mistaken if he ventures to go to bed by himne self this twelvemonth. Indeed they talked so ne. long, that the imaginations of the whole assembly
were manifestly crazed, and, I am sure, will be I the worse for it as long as they live. I heard one nd of the girls, that had looked upon me over her ht. shoulder, asking the company how long I had been rd, in the room, and whether I did not look paler an, than I used to do. This put me under some apó ily prehensions that I should be forced to explain myne-self, if I did not retire; for which reason I took in the candle in my hand, and went up into my to- chamber, not without wondering at this unaccountof able weakness in reasonable creatures, that they be should love to astonish and terrify one another. est Were I a father, I should take a particular care my to preserve my children from these little horrors ne, and imaginations, which they are apt to contract to when they are young, and are not able to shake
off when they are in years. I have known a solbo dier that has entered a breach, affrighted at his my own shadow, and look pale upon a little scratchat ing at his door, who the day before had marched ive up against a battery of cannon. There are inCry stances of persons who have been terrified, even
I to distraction, at the figure of a tree, or the shaking on of a bullrush. The truth of it is, I look upon a he sound imagination as the greatest blessing of life, ig- next to a clear judgment and a good conscience. So In the mean time, since there are very few whose by minds are not more or less subject to these dreadm- ful thoughts and apprehensions, we ought to arm irb ourselves against them by the dictates of reason fa- and religion, 'to pull the old woman out of our ng hearts,' (aş Persius expresses it in the motto of my out paper), and extinguish those impertinent notions ons
which we imbibed at a time that we were not or- able to judge of their absurdity. Or if we believe,
as many wise and good men have done, that there as are such phantoms and apparitions as those I have ny
been speaking of, let us endeavour to establish to he ourselves an interest in him who holds the reins
I of the whole creation in his hands, and moderates to them after such a manner, that it is impossible for ent one being to break loose upon another, without are his knowledge and permission. пр
For my own part, I am apt to join in opinion ies
with those who believe that all the regions of na0- ture swarm with spirits; and that we have multing
tudes of spectators on all our actions, when we
think ourselves most alone : but instead of terrifyng ing myself with such a notion, I am wonderfully re pleased to think that I am always engaged with of such an innumerable society, in searching out the he wonders of the creation, and joining in the same se, consort of praise and adoration.
Milton * has finely described this mixed comhe munion of men and spirits in Paradise ; and had as doubtless his eye upon a verse in old Hesiod, which e. is almost word for word the same with his third a line in the following passage: to
Nor think, though men were none, rd That heav'o would want spectators, God want praise :
Millions of spiritual creatures walk the earth
Unseen, both when we wake and when we sleep; ed All these with ceaseless praise his works behold
Both day and night. How often from the steep is
of echoing bill or thicket have we heard
Singing their great Creator? Oft in bands,
With heavenly touch of instrumental sounds, ale
In full harinonic number join'd, their songs
Divide the night, and lift our thoughts to heav'n.' cle ADDISON.
* In his Paradise Lost.
was thought proper to discard him: and it is verit
believed, 'to this day, that had he been brough N° 13. THURSDAY, MARCII 15, 1710-11. opon the stage another time, he would certainl.
have done mischief. Besides, it was objected Dic mihi, si fueris tu leo, qu.ilis eris?
against the first lion, that be reared himself w
high upou bis hinder paws, and walked in 90 erec Were you a lion, how wou'd you behave'
a posture, that he looked more like an old man
than a lion. THERE is nothing that of late years bas afforded The second lion was a tailor by trade, who bematter of greater amusement to the town than longed to the playhouse, and had the character o Signior Nicolini's * combat with a lion in tbe a mild and peaceable man in his profession. 1 Haymarket, which has been very often exhibited the former was too furious, this was too sbee pisi to the general satisfaction of most of the nobility for his part; insomuch, that after a short mode and gentry in the kingdom of Great Britain. Upon walk upon the stage, he would fall at the fin the first rumour of this intended combat, it was touch of Hydaspes, without grappling with him confidently affirmed, and is still believed, by many and giving him an opportunity of showing his va in both galleries, that there would be a tame lion riety of Italian trips. It is said, indeed, that he sent from the Tower every opera night, in order once gave him a rip in his flesh-colour doublet to be killed by Hydaspes; this report, though alto- but this was only to make work for himself, in bi gether groundless, so universally prevailed in the private character of a tailor. I must not omit tha upper regions of the playhouse, that some of the it was this second lion who treated me with = most refined politicians in those parts of the audio much humanity behind the scenes. ence, gave it out in whisper, that the lion was a The acting lion at preseat is, as I am informed cousin-german of the tiger who made his appear a country gentleman, wbo does it for his diversion ance in King William's days, and that the stage but desires bis name may be concealed. He says would be supplied with lions at the public ex- very handsomely, in his own excuse, that he doe pense, during the whole session. Many likewise not act for gain; that he indulges an innocent were the conjectures of the treatment which this pleasure in it; and that it is better to pass away lion was to meet with from the hands of Signior an evening in this manner than in gaming and Nicolini; some supposed that he was to subdue drinking : but at the same time says, with a very him in recitativo, as Orpheus used to serve the agreeable raillery upon himself, that if his name wild beasts in his time, and afterwards to knock should be known, the ill-natured world might cal him on the head ; some fancied that the lion would him, the ass in the lion's skin. This gentle not pretend to lay his paws upon the hero, by man's temper is made out of such a happy mixture reason of the received opinion, that a lion will not of the mild and the choleric, that he outdoes bou hurt a virgin. Several, who pretended to have his predecessors, and has drawn together greater seen the opera in Italy, had inforined their friends, audiences than have been known in the memory that the lion was to act a part in High Dutch, and of man. roar twice or thrice to a thorough-bass, before he I must not conclude my narrative, without taking fell at the feet of Hydaspes. To clear up a matter notice of a groundless report that has been raised that was so variously reported, I have made it my to a gentleman's disadvantage, of whom I must business to examine whether this pretended lion declare myself an adınirer; namely, that Signior is really the savage he appears to be, or only a Nicolini and the lion have been seen sitting peace. counterfeit.
ably by one another, and smoking a pipe together But before I communicate my discoveries, I behind the scenes; by which their enemies would must acquaint the reader, that upon my walking insinuate, that it is but a sham combat which they behind the scenes last winter, as I was thinking on represent upon the stage: but upon inquiry I find something else, I accidentally justled against a that if any such correspondence has passed between monstrous animal that extremely startled me, and, them, it was not till the combat was over, when upon my nearer survey of it, appeared to be a the lion was to be looked upon as dead, according lion rampant. The lion seeing me very much sur to the received rules of the drama. Besides this is prised, told me, in a gentle voice, that I might what is practised every day in Westminster-hall come by him if I pleased ; ' for,' says he, 'I do where nothing is more usual than to see a couple not intend to hurt any body.' I thanked him very of lawyers, who have been tearing each other to kindly, and passed by him: and in a little time pieces in the court, embracing one another as soon after saw him leap upon the stage, and act his part as they are out of it. with very great applause. It has been observed I would not be thought, in any part of this relaby several, that the lion has changed his manner tion, to reflect upon Signior Nicolini, who in actof acting twice or thrice since his first appearance; ing this part only complies with the wretched taste which will not seem strange, when I acquaint my of his audience; he knows very well, that the lion reader that the lion has been changed upon the has many more admirers than bimself; as they say audience three several times. The first lion was a of the famous equestrian statue on the Pont-Neul candle-snuffer, who, being a fellow of a testy cho- at Paris, that more people go to see the horse than leric temper, overdid his part, and would not suffer the king who sits upon it. On the contrary, it himself to be killed so easily as he ought to have gives me a just indignation to see a person whose done; beside, it was observed of him, that he grew action gives new majesty to kings, resolution te more surly every time he came out of the lion; heroes, and softness to lovers, thus sinking from and having dropped some words in ordinary'conver- the greatness of his behaviour, and degraded into sation, as if he had not fought his best, and that be the character of a London 'Prentice. I have often suffered himself to be thrown upon his back in the wished, that our tragedians would copy after this scuffle, and that he would wrestle with Mr. Nico- great master in action. Could they make the same lini for what he pleased, out of bis lion's skin, it use of their arms and legs, and inform their faces
with as significant looks and passions, how glorious * See N° 405; and Tat. N° 115.
would an English tragedy appear with that actioa