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ise the glory of our own nation. The improve son, and seem to have few ideas above those of ents which others had made in natural and ma- sense and appetite. These, methinks, appear like ematical knowledge bave so vastly increased in large wilds, or vast uncultivated tracts of human s hands, as to afford at once a wonderful instance nature; and, when we compare them with men w great the capacity is of a human soul, and of the most exalted characters in arts and learnw inexhaustible the subject of its inquiries ; so ing, we find it difficult to believe that they are ne is that remark in holy writ, that “though a creatures of the same species. Ese man seek to find out the works of God from • Some are of opinion, that the souls of men we beginning to the end, yet shall he not be able are all naturally equal, and that the great disparity do it."

we so often observe arises from the different or. I cannot help mentioning here one character ganization or structure of the bodies to which they pre of a different kind indeed from these, yet are united. But, whatever constitutes this first ch an one as may serve to show the wonderful disparity, the next great difference which we find berce of nature and of application, and is the most tween men in their several acquirements is owing gular instance of an universal genius I have to accidental differences in their education, forer met with. The person I mean is Leonardo da tunes, or course of life. The soul is a kind of Enci, an Italian painter, descended from a noble rough diamond, which requires art, labour, and inily in Tuscany, about the beginning of the tiine, to polish it. For want of which many a xteenth century*. In his profession of history good natural geniuis is lost, or lies unfashioned, like ainting he was so great a master, that some bave a jewel in the mine. firmed he excelled all who went before him. It • One of the strongest incitements to excel in certain that he raised the envy of Michael An- such arts and accomplishments as are in the highest -lo, who was his contemporary, and that from esteem among men, is the natural passion which the e study of his works Raphael himself learned his mind of man has for glory; which, though it may be *st inanner of designing." He was a master too in faulty in the excess of it, ought by no means to bo ulpture and architecture, and skilful in anatomy, discouraged. Perhaps some moralists are 100 seathematics, and mechanics. The aqueduct from vere in beating down this principle, which seems e river Adda to Milan is mentioned as a work of to be a spring implanted by nature to give motion s contrivance. He had learned several languages, to all the latent powers of the soul, and is always d was acquainted with the studies of history, observed to exeri itself with the greatest force in ilosophy, poetry, and music. Though it is not the most generous dispositions. The men whose cessary to my present purpose, I cannot but characters bave shone the brightest among the anke notice, that all who have writ of him men-cient Romans, appear to have been strongly anined likewise his perfection of body. The in-mated by this passion. Cicero, whose learning and inces of his strength are almost incredible. He services to his country are so well known, was indescribed to have been of a well-formed person, Hamed by it to an extravagant degree, and warmly d a master of all genteel exercises. And lastly, presses Lucceius, who was composing a history of e are told thai bis n.oral qualities were agreeable those times, to be very particular and zealous in

bis natural and intellectual endowments, and relating the story of his consulship ; and to exeat he was of an honest and generous inind, cute it speedily, that he might have the plrasure of orned with great sweetness of manners. I enjoying in his life-time some part or the honour ght break oi' the account of him here, but I which he foresaw would be paid to liis memory. agine it will be an entertainment to the curiosity This was the ambition of a great mind; bit he is

my readers, to find so remarkable a character faulty in the degree of it, and can't find from stinguished by as remarkable a circumstance at soliciting the historian upon this occasion to neglect i deait. The fame of his works having gained the strict laws of history, and, in praising hun,

an universal esteem, he was invited to the even to exceed the bounds of truth. The ounger urt of France, where, after some time, he fell | Pliny appears to have had the same passion for k; and Francis the first coming to see him, he fame, but accompanied with greater chasteness ised himself in his bed to acknowledge the ho- and modesty. His ingenuous manner of owning it ter which was done him by that visit. The king to a friend, who had prompted him to undertake abraced him, and Leonardo, fainting at the same sonie great work is exquisitely beautiful, and raises tant, expired in the arms of that great mo- him to a certain grandeur above the imputation of rch.

vanity. “I must confess," says he, that nothing • It is impossible to attend to such instances as employs my thoughts more than the desire I have ese, without being raised into a contemplation on of perpetuating my name ; which in my opinion is ? wonderf I nature of an human mind, which is a design worthy of a man, at least of such an one, pable of such progressions in knowledge, and who, being conscious of no guilt, is not afraid to a contain such a variety of ideas without per- be remembered by posterity.' exity or confusion. How reasonable is it from I think I ought not to conclude without interest, nce to infer its divine original? And whilst we ing all my readers in the subject of this discourse: I id unthinking matter endued with a natural shall therefore lay it down as a maxim, that though wer to last for ever, unless annibilated by Om- all are not capable of shining in learning or the potence, how absurd would it be to imagine that politer arts, yet every one is capable of excelling Being so much superior to it should not have the in something. The soul has in this respect a cerne privilege

tain vegetative power which cannot lie wholly " At the same time it is very surprising, when we idle. If it is not laid out and cultivated into a remove our thoughts from such instances as I have gular and beautiful garden, it will of itself shoot entioned, to consider those we so frequently up in weeds or flowers of a wilder growth.? Pet with in the accounts of barbarous nations

HUGHES, song the Indians ; where we find numbers of peo e who scarce show the first glimmerings of rea

He was born in 1445, and died in 1520, in the arins of scis I. King of France

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The reader will also find some papers which an N° 555, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 6, 1712.

marked with the letter X, for which he is alle 'ዚ {ር to the ingenious gentleman who diverted the ti

with the epilogue to The Distressed Mother landet, bas Respue quod non es

PERS. Sat, iv. ver. 51.

might have owned these several papers with a

free consent of these gentlemen, who did Dot eat liela Lay the fictitious character aside.

them with a design of being known for the artberta

But, as a candid and sincere behaviour ought to do All the members of the imaginary society, which preferred to all other considerations, I wrogid sa baie vo were described in my first papers, having disap. let my heart reproach me with a conscioarad "Tit bor peared one after another, it is high time for the having acquired a praise which is not my tipte

. ter Spectator himself to go off the stage. But now I The other assistances which I have had have been both am to take my leave, I am under much greater conveyed by letter, sometimes by whole paper amil anxiety than I have known for the work of any and other times by short hints from unknown brauch day since I undertook this province. It is much I have not been able to trace favours of this dat in tai more dificult to converse with the world in a real with any certainty, but to the following runtut things than a personated character. That might pass for which I place in the order wherein I received

anseo humour in the Spectator, which would look like obligation, though the first I am going to have catricularly arrogance in a writer who sets his name to his work. hardly be mentioned in a list wherein bewolk The fictitious person might contemn those who dis- deserve the precedence. The persons tou boot Painting approved him, and extol his own performances, am to make these acknowledgments are Mt. Hancock without giving offence, He might assume a mock Martynt, Mr. Pape, Mr. Hughes, Mr. Carta alita authority, without being looked upon as vain and New-college in Oxford, Mr. Tickeil of Qamai braustin conceited, The praises or censures of himself the same university, Mr. Parnelle, and Mr. Endres

, fruit fall only upon the creature of his imagination; of Trinity in Cambridge. Thus, to speak in de les and, if any one finds fault with bim, the author language of any late friend, Sir Andrew Freepouzber) may reply with the philosopher of old, Thou dost I have balanced my accounts with all my credinte upor but beat the case of Anaxarchus,' When I speak for wit and learning. But as these excellect pap in my own private sentiments, I cannot but address formances would not have seen the light a fi

And as myself to my readers in a more submissive manner, the means of this paper, 1 may still arrogate de parut

, bo and with a just gratitude for the kind reception myself the merit of their being comnusicaled by me which they have given to these daily papers, that the public, have been published for almost the space of two

I have nothing more to add, bat, having sweet drie years last past.

this work to five hundred and fifts-five paperlam I hope the apology I have made, as to the licence they will be disposed into seven volustes

, for os ter hi allowable to a feigned character, may excuse any which are already published, and the three em la ini thing which has been said in these discourses of the in the press. It will not be demanded of mess jea, Spectator and his works; but the imputation of the I now leave off, though I must owo my-elí obles grossest vanity would still dwell upon me if I did to give an account to the town of my time bave lady not give some account by what means I was ena- after; since I retire when their partiality to 100E bled to keep up the spirit of so long and approved so great, that an edition of the former volume # performance, All the papers marked with ac, Spectators, of above nije thousand each bol, i aix, an L, an I, or an O, that is to say, all the papers already sold off, and the tax on each allt which I have distinguished by any letter in the has brought into the stamp-office, one trei Were name of the muse Clio, were given ine by the gen- another, above 20), a week arising from this video tieman of whose assistance I formerly boasted in paper, notwithstanding it at first reduced to be ir the preface and concluding leaf of my Tatlers *. ihan half the pumber that was usually pricted loan I am indeed much more proud of his long continued fore this tax was laid. friendship, than I should be of the faine of being I humbly beseech the continuance of this indo thought the author of any writings which he him nation to favour what I may hereafter produr

, self is capable of producing, I remember, when and hope I have in my occurrences of life tends WN I finished The Tender Husband, I told him there deeply of paiu aud sorrow, that I am proof zink some time or other publish a work, written by us was nothing I so ardently wished, as that we might much more prosperous circumstances than 29 a 14

vantages to which my own industry can passing both, which should bear the name of The Monument, in memory of our friendship. I heartily wish what I have done here was' as honorary to that sacred name, as learning, wit, and humanity,

Your most obedient, render those pieces which I have taught the reader how to distinguish for his. When the play above. mentioned was last acted, there were so many ap- Vos valete ct plaudite.

TER. plauded strokes in it which I bad from the same haud, that I thought very meanly of myself that I

* See No 338. It was well known in Tost (2) have never publicly acknowledged them. After I that Addison was himself the autbor of the have put other friends upon importuning hin to

“When it was actually printed with his name ise 25 publish dramatic as well as other writings he has

he came early in the morning beinre the prey ??? by him, I shall end what I think I am obliged to

buted, and ordered it to be given to Mr. E B

might add weight to the solicitation bich Aó say on this head, by giving my reader this hint for making for a place for Mr. Budgell, when he dress the better judging of my productions--that the best Addison's first cousin."

minate the man who calls the cousia,' asad de part4 commeat upou them would be an account when the + See N° 143, note

exalt me.

I am,

My good-vatured reader, most obliged hurable seras,


• Addison


The following letter regards an ingenious set of | are to face-painters; and, besides, we have the gentlemen, who have done me the honour to make greatest number of the works of the best masters me one of their society.

in that kind of any people, not without a compes

tent number of those of the most excellent in every MR. SPECTATOR,

• Dec. 4, 1712. other part of painting. And for encouragement, Tae academy of painting lately established in the wealth and generosity of the English nation London, baving done you and theinselves the honour affords that in such a degree as artists have no reas to choose you one of their directors ; tbat noble son to complain. and lively art, which before was entitled to your • And accordingly, in fact, face-painting is no regard as a Spectator, has an additional claim to where so well perforrued as in England: I know you, and you seem to be under a double obligation not whether it has lain in your way to observe it, lo take soine care of her interests.

but I have, and pretend to be a tolerable judge. • The honour of our country is also concerned in I have seen what is done abroad; and can assure the matter I ain going to lay before you. We (and you that the hovour of that branch of painting is perhaps other nations as well as we) have a national justly due to us. I appeal to the judicious obfalse bumility as well as a national vain glory; servers for the truth of what I assert. "If foreigners and, though we boast ourselves to excel all the have often times, or even for the most part, exs world in things wherein we are outdone abroad, in celled our natives, it ought to be imputed to the other things we attribute to others a superiority, advantages they have met with here, joined to their which we ourselves possess. This is what is done, own ingenuity and industry ; nor has any one nas particularly in the art of portrait or face-paint. tion distinguished themselves so as to raise an aring.

gument in favour of their country: but it is to be * Painting is an art of a vast extent, too great observed, that neither French nor Italians, nor any by much for any mortal man to be in full possession one of either nation, notwithstanding all our prés of in all its parts ; it is enough if any one succeed judices in their favour, have, or ever had, for any in painting faces, history, battles, landscapes, sea- considerable time, any character anong us as face pieces, fruit, flowers, or drolls, &c. Nay, no man painters. erer was excellent in all the branches (though many * This honour is due to our own country, and has in number) of these several arts, for a distinct art been so for near an age : so that, instead of going I take upon me to call every one of those several to Italy, or elsewhere, one that designs for por kinds of painting.

trait-painting ought to study in England. Hither * And as one man may be a good landscape such should come from Holland, France, Italy, painter, but unable to paint a face or a history io Germany, &c. as he that intends to practise any lerably well, and so of ihe rest ; one nation may other kinds of painting should go to those parts excel in some kinds of painting, and other kinds where it is in the greatest perfection. It is said may thrive better in other climates.

the Blessed Virgin descended from heaven to sit to Italy may have the preference of all other na. St. Luke. I dare venture to affirm, that if she tions for history-painting; Holland for drolls, and should desire another Madonna to be painted by the a near finished manner of working; France for life, she would come to England ; and am of opia zay, janty, tluttering pictures; and England for nion that your present president, Sir Godfrey Knele portraits: but to give the honour of every one of ler, from his improvement since he arrived in this these kinds of painting to any one of those nations kingdom, would perform that office better than en account of their excellence in any of these any foreigner living. I am, with all possible res parts of it, is like adjudging the prize of heroic, spect, dramatic, lyric, or bürle:que poetry, to him who

SIR, was done well in any one of them.

• Your most humble and • Wbere there are the greatest geniuses, and most

most obedient servant, &c.' helps and encouragements, it is reasonable to suppose an art will arrive to the greatest perfection :

The ingenious letter signed The Weather by this rule let us consider our own country with Glass, with several others, were received, but came espect to face-painting. No nation in the world too late. lelights so much in having their own, or friends or elations pictures ; whether from their national

POSTSCRIPT. ood-nature, or having a love to painting, and not eing encouraged in the great article of religious It had not come to my knowledge, when I left ictures, which the purity of our worship refuses off the Spectator, that I owe several excellent be free use of, or from whatever other cause. sentiments and agreeable pieces in this work to Dur helps are not inferior to those of any other Mr. Ince of Gray's-Inn*. eople, but rather they are greater; for what the

R. STEELE otique statues and bas reliefs which Italy enjoys re to the history-painters, the beautiful and noble

• Mr. Ince died, we are told, a student in Christ-cburni, aces with wbich England is confessed to abound Oxford, October 13, 1768.

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titudes of aspiring young men fall short of ya 1

all these beauties of your character, notwithcare WILLIAM HONEYCOMB, ESQ.

ing the study and practice of them is the akse business of their lives. But I need not tell you

that the free and disengaged behaviour of a in The seven former volumes of the Spectator hav- gentleman makes as many auk ward beaui, a * ing been dedicated to some of the most celebrated easiness of your favourite Waller hath made s persons of the age, I take leave to inscribe this

sipid poets. eighth and last to you, as to a gentleman who

At present you are content to aim all vur hath ever been ambitious of appearing in the best charms at your own spouse, without further these te company.

of mischief to any others of the ser. I koou 16. You are now wholly retired from the busy part had formerly a very great contempt for this post of mankind, and at leisure to reflect upon your dantic race of mortals who call themselves per past achievements; for which reason I look upon sophers; and yet, to your honour be it you as a person very well qualified for a dedica- there is not a sage of them all could have bet tion.

acted up to their precepts in one of the most I may possibly disappoint my readers, and your portant points of life: I near, in that gesera self too, if I do not endeavour on this occasion to disregard of popular opinion which you shoes make the world acquainted with your virtues. some years ago, when you chose for your wife s And here, sir, I shall not compliment you upon obscure young woman, who doth net indeed in your birth, person, or fortune ; nor any other the tend to an ancient family, but has certainly as sa like perfections which you possess, whether you forefathers as any lady in the land, if she cause will or no : but shall only touch upon those which but reckon up their names. are of your own acquiring, and in which every

I must own, I conceived very extraordinary one must allow you have a real merit.

hopes of you from the moment that you confessi Your janty air and easy motion, the volubility your age, and from eight-and-forty (w bere se of your discourse, the suddenness of your laugh, had stuck so many years) very ingenuously stepped the management of your spuff-box, with the white into your grand climacteric. Your deportes dess of your hands and teeth (which have jastly has since been very venerable and becoming, E gained you the envy of the most polite part of the I am rightly informed, you make a regular appet male world, and the love of the greatest beauties ance every quarter-sessions among your broches in the female) are entirely to be ascribed to your of the quorum ; and, if things go on as they do

, own personal genius and application.

stand fair for being a colonel of the milita. I You are formed for these accomplishments by am told that your time passes away as agteczki a happy turn of nature, and have foished yourself in the amusements of a country life, as it ever did in them by the utmost improvements of art. A in the gallantries of the town; and thank yo# *** man that is defective in either of these qualifica- take as much pleasure in the plastieg of vote tions (whatever may be the secret ambition of his trees, as you did forinerly in the catting down el beart), must never hope to make the figure you your old ones. In short, we hear from all seda bave done, among the fashionable part of his spe that you are thoroughly reconciled to your site cies. It is therefore no wonder we see such mul- acres, and have not too much wit to losi *** Colonel Cleland.

your own estate.

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After having spoken thus much of my patron, I must take the privilege of an author in saying

N° 556. FRIDAY, JUNE 18, 1714. something of myself. I shall therefore beg leave to add, that I have purposely omitted setting those

Qualis ubi in lucem coluber mala gramina pastus marks to the end of every paper, which appeared Frigida sub terra tumidum quem bruma tegebat; in my former volumes, that you may have an op

Nunc posilis novus eruviis, nitidusque juventa,

Lubrica convolvit sublato pectore terga portunity of showing Mrs. Honeycomb the shrewd- Arduus ad solem, et linguis micat ore trisulcis.

VIRG. Æn. ii. ver. 471. ness of your conjectures, by ascribing every spe

So shines, renew'd in youth, the crested snake, culation to its proper author : though you know Who slept the winter in a thorny brake;

And, casting off his slough when spring returns, how often many profound critics in style and sen- Now looks aloft, and with new glory burns :

Restor'd with pois'nous herbs, his ardent sides timents have very judiciously erred in this particu- Reflect the sun, and rais'd on spires he rides;

High o'er the grass hissing be rolls along, lar, before they were let into the secret.

And brandishes by fits bis forky tongue.

I am, sir,
* Your most faithful

acquainted the world with my design of humble servant,

electing a new club, and of opening my mouth in

it after a most solemn manner. Both the elec" THE SPECTATOR *.' tion and the ceremony are now past; but not finde

ing it so easy, as I at first imagined, to break through a fifty years silence, I would not venture into the world under the character of a man who pretends to talk like other people, till I had arrived at a full freedom of speech.

I shall reserve for another time the history of BOOKSELLER TO THE READER,

such club or clubs of which I am now a talkative,

but unworthy member; and shall here give an acIn the 632d Spectator the Reader will find an ac

count of this surprising change which has been count of the rise of this eighth and last volume +. produced in me, and which I look upon to be as I have not been able to prevail upon the seve

remarkable an accident as any recorded in history,

since that which happened to the son of Creesus, ral gentlemen who were concerned in this work after having been many years as much tongue-tied to let me acquaint the world with their pames. as myself.

Upon the first opening of my mouth I made a Perhaps it will be unnecessary to inform the speech, consisting of about half a dozen wellReader, that no other papers which have appeared turned periods; but grew so very hoarse upon it, under the title of Spectator, since the closing of that for three days together, instead of finding the

use of my tongue, I was afraid that I had quite lost this eighth volume, were written by any of those it. Besides, the unusual extension of my muscles on gentlemen who had a hand in this or the former this occasion made my face ache on both sides to

such a degree, that nothing but an invincible resovolumes.

lution and perseverance could have prevented me

from falling back to my monosyllables. This dedication has been attributed to Budgell.

I afterwards made several essays towards speak+ After the Spectator had been discontinued about eighteen ing; and that I might not be startled at my own months, during which time the “Guardian,” and the "Eng- voice, which has happened to me more than once, Hishman,” were published, an attempt was made to revive I used to read aloud in my chamber, and have it, at a time,' says Dr. Johnson, ‘by no means favourable to often stood in the middle of the street to call a Hiterature, wben the succession of a new family to the throne coach, when I knew there was none within hearing. filled the nation with anxiety, discord, and confusion; and

When I was thus grown pretty well acquainted either the turbulence of the times, or the satiety of the with my own voice, I laid hold of all opportureaders, put a stop to the publication after an experiment of nities to exert it. Not caring however to speak eighty numbers, which were afterwards collected into an much by myself, and to draw upon me the whole oth volume, perhaps more valuable than any one of those attention of those I conversed with, I used for what went before it. Addison produced more than a fourth

some time to walk every morning in the Mall, and part; and the other contributors are by no means unworthy talk in chorus with a parcel of Frenchmen. I of appearing as his associates. The time that had passed found my modesty greatly relieved by the commu

nicative temper of this nation, who are so very during the suspension of the Spectator, though it had not Hessened his power of humour, seems to have increased his sociable as to think they are never better com. disposition to seriousness: the proportion of his religious to his pany than when they are all opening at the same

time. comic papers is greater than in the former series. The Spec

I then fancied I might receive great benefit from tator, from its recommencement, was published only three Times a week, and no discriminative marks were added to the venience of talking with the greater freedom when

female conversation, and that I should have a conpapers.

To Addison, Tickell has ascribed 23; Nos. 556, 557, I was not under any impediment of thinking: I 558, 559, 561, 562, 565, 567, 568, 569, 571, 574, 575, 579, therefore threw myself into an assembly of ladies, 550, 582, 583, 584, 585, 590, 592, 598, and 600.' Johnson's but could not for my life get in a word among Lives of English Poets, vol. ii. p. 315, Svo. edit. 1794. them: and found that if I did not change my com

pany, I was in danger of being reduced to my primitive taciturnity,

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