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services which you have effected. Do what you ec-will, the present age will be talking of your virtues, ne though posterity alone will do them justice.

Other men pass through oppositions and con

tending interests in the ways of ambition; but your an great abilities have been invited to power, and imurs portuned to accept of advancement. Nor is it ing strange that this should happen to your lordship, at- who could bring into the service of your sovereign 50- the arts and policies of ancient Greece and Rome;

as well as the most exact knowledge of our own Fer-constitution in particular, and of the interests of

to Europe in general ; to which I must also add, a ut, certain dignity in yourself, that (to say the least ich of it) bas been always equal to those great honours

which have been conferred upon you. for It is very well known how much the church ive owed to you, in the most dangerous day it ever lu- saw, that of the arraignment of its prelates t; and the how far the civil power, in the late and present ns, reign, has been indebted to your counsels and ali-wisdom.

But to enumerate the great advantages which hal the public has received from your administration,

to

ve lord high chancellor of England. In the beginning of os- 1700 he was removed from his post of lord chancellor; at and the year after was impeached of high crimes and misle, demeanors by the house of commons, of which he was acd- ) quitted upon trial by the house of Jords. He then retired elf to a studious course of life, and was chosen president of the ce Royal Society. In 1706 be proposed a bill for the regulation ast of the law; and the same year was one of the principal maDi- nagers for the union between England and Scotland. In nd 1708 he was made lord president of the council, from which on post he was removed in 1710, upon the change of the mini22, stry. In the latter end of Queen Anne's reign, his lordship ar grew very infirm in his health ; which indisposition is supse posed to have been the reason that he held no other post than on a seat at the council table after the accession of King George I. P- He died of an apoplectic fit, April 26, 1716. Lord Somers, bet- sides being a most incorrupt lawyer, and honest statesman, 1- was a master-orator, a genius of the finest taste, a great patron 1 of men of parts and learning, and was the person who reof deemed Milton's 'Paradise Lost' from that obscurity in which of party-prejudice and hatred had suffered it long to lie neglecte

ed. He wrote several pieces on the subject of politics, and translated certain parts of Plutarch and Ovid.

+ Trial of the seven bishops, June 99, 1689.

e

e

would be a more proper work for an history, than himself, without thinking the less * meanly of his for an address of this nature.

own talents. But if I should take notice of all that Your lordship appears as great in your private might be observed in your lordship, I should have life, as in the most important offices which you have nothing new to say upon any other character of borne. I would, therefore, rather choose to speak distinction. I am, MY LORD, of the pleasure you afford all who are admitted to

Yoor lordship's most devoted, your conversation, of your elegant taste in all the

Most obedient humble servant, polite arts of learning, of your great humanity and

THE SPECTATOR. complacency of manners, and of the surprising influence which is peculiar to you, in making every

• This must certainly be an error; and for less we should one who converses with your lordship prefer you to read more.

THE

SPECTATOR

VOL. I.

I. THURSDAY, MARCH 1, 1710-11. books, either in the learned or the modern tongues

which I am not acquainted with.

Upon the death of my father I was resolved to Nux fumun ex fulgore, sed ex fumo dare lucem

travel into foreign countries, and therefore left the Cagilat, ut speciosa dehinc miracula promat.

university, with the character of an odd unaccountHOR. Ars Poet. ver. 143.

able fellow, that had a great deal of learning, if I One with a flash begins, and ends in smoke;

would but show it. An insatiable thirst after Another out of smoke brings glorious light,

knowledge carried me into all the countries of EuAnd (without raising expectation bigb) surpises us with dazzling miracles.

rope, in which there was any thing new or strange ROSCOMMON.

to be seen; nay, to such a degree was my curiosity

raised, that, having read the controversies of some HAVE observed, that a reader seldom peruses great men concerning the antiquities of Egypt, I

a book with pleasure, till he knows whether the made a voyage to Grand Cairo, on purpose to writer of it be a black or a fair man, of a mild or take the measure of a pyramid ; and, as soon as I cholerie disposition, married or a bachelor, with had set myself right in that particular, returned to other particolars of the like nature, that conduce my native country with great satisfaction*. very much to the right understanding of an author.

I have passed my latter years in this city, where To gratify this curiosity, which is so natural to a I am frequently seen in most public places, though reader, I design this paper and my next as prefa- there are not above half a dozen of my select tory di-courses to my foliowing writings, and shall friends that know me; of whom my next paper give some account in them of the several persons shall give a more particular account. There is no ilat are engaged in this work. As the chief trous place of general resort wherein I do not often ble of compiling, digesting, and correcting, will make my appearance: sometimes I am seen fall to my share, I must do myself the justice to thrusting my head into a round of politicians at open the work with my own history.

Will's, and listening with great attention to the I was born to a small hereditary estate, which, narratives that are made in those little circular auaccording to the tradition of the village where it | diences; sometimes I smoke a pipe at Child'st, lies, was bounded by the same hedges and ditches in and, while I seem attentive to nothing but the Post William the Conqueror's time that it is at present, man, overhear the conversation of every table in and has been delivered down from father to son, the room. I appear on Sunday night at St. whole and entire, without the loss or acquisition of James's coffee-house, and sometimes join the lita single field or meadow, during the space of six tle committee of politics in the inner room, as one bandred years. There runs a story in the family, who comes there to hear and improve. My face is that wben my mother was gone with child of me likewise very well known at the Grecian, the aboat three months, she dreamt that she was Cocoa-Tree, and in the theatres both of Drury brought to bed of a judge. Whether this might Lane and the Haymarket. I have been taken for proceed from a law-suit which was then depending a merchant upon the Exchange for above these ten in the family, or my father's being a justice of the years, and sometimes pass for a Jew in the assemprace, I cannot deternine; for I am not so vain bly of stock-jobbers at Jonathan'st. In short, as to think it presaged any dignity that I should wherever I see a cluster of people, I always mix arri.e at in my future life, though that was the in- with them, though I never open my lips but in my terpretation which the neighbourhood put upon it. own club. The grasity of my behaviour at my very first ap. Thus I live in the world rather as a Spectator pearance in the world, and at the time that I suck- of mankind than as one of the species; by which ed, seemed to favour my mother's dream: for, as ineans I have made myself a specwative statesman, sbor has often told me, I threw away my rattle be- soldier, merchant, and artizan, without ever medfure I was two months old, and would not make aling with any practical part in life. I am very

of my coral until they and taken away the well versed in the theory of a husband or a father, Beils from it.

and can discern the errors in the economy, busiAs for the rest of my infancy; there being no-ness, and diversion of others, better than those who thing in it remarkable, I shall pass it over in si- | are engaged in them ; as standers-by discover blots, lence. I fiod that, during my nonage, I had the which are .apt to escape those who are in the reputation of a very sullen youth, but was always game. I never espoused any party with violence, a favourite of my schoolmaster, who used to say, and am resolved to observe an exact neutrality bethat my parts were solid, and 'would wear weli. tween the whigs and tories, unless I shall be forced I had not been long at the university before I dis- to declare myself by the hostilities of either side. tinguished myself by a most profound silence; for, In short, I have acted in all the parts of iny life as during the space of eight years, excepting in the a looker-on, which is the character I intend to prepablic exercises of the college, I scarce uttered the serve in this paper. quantity of a hundred words; and indeed do not

* An allusion, no doubt, to Mr. John Greaves, a mathemaTemember that I ever spoke three sentences togetician and antiquary, who, after visiting Egypt, published a ther in my whole life. Whilst I was in this learn- book entitled Pyrainidographia.?. ed body, I applied myself with so much diligence sort of the clergy.

+ This coffee-house, in St. Paul's Church-yard, was the reto my studies, that there are very few celebrated # In 'Change Alley,

I have given the reader just so much of my his- | was inventor of that famous country-dance which tory and character, as to let bim see I am not al- is called after him. All who know that shire are together unqualified for the business I have under- very well acquainted with the parts aod merits of taken. A- for other particulars in my life and ad- Sir Roger. He is a gentleman that is very singolarin ventures, I shall insert them in following papers, his behaviour, but his singularities proceed from his as I shall see occasion. In the mean time, when good sense, and are contradictions to the manners I consider how much I have seen, read, and heard, of the world, only as he thinks the world is in the I begin to blame my own taciturnity; and since I wrong. However, this humour creates him no enehave neither time nor inclination to communicate mies, for he does nothing with sourness or obstinacy; the fulness of my heart in speech, I am resolved to and his being uncootined to modes and forms, do it in writing, and to print myself out, if possi- makes him but the readier and more capable to ble, before I die. I have been ofte i told by my please and oblige all who know him. When he is friends, that it is pity, so many useful discoveries in town, he lives in Soho Square*. It is said, he which I have made should be in the possession of a keeps hiinself a bachelor by reason he was crossed silent man. For this reason, therefore, I shall in love by a perverse beautiful widow + of the next publish a sheet-full of thoughts every morning for county io him. Before this disappointment Sir the benefit of my contemporaries; and if I can Roger was what you call a tine gentleman, had any way contribute to the diversion or improve- often supped with my Lord Rochester and Sir ment of the country in which I live, I shall leave | George Etheridge, fought a duel upon his first it, when I am summoned out of it, with the secret coming to town, and kicked bully Dawson I in a satisfaction of thinking that I have not lived in public coffee-house for calling him youngster. But vain.

being ill used by the above-mentioned widow, be There are three very material points which I was very serious for a year and a half: and thougti, have not spoken to in this paper; and which, for his temper being naturally jovial, he at last gót several important rea ons, I must keep to myself, over it, he grew careless of himself, and never at least for some time; I mean, an account of my dressed afterwards. He continues to wear a coat name, my age, and my lodgings. I must confess, and doublet of the same cut that were in fashion I would gratify my reader in any thing that is rea- at the time of his repulse, which, in his merry husonable; but as for these three particulars, though mours, he tells us, has been in and out twelve times I am sensible they might tend very much to the em- since he first wore it. It is said Sir Roger grew humbellishment of my paper, I cannot yet come to a ble in his desires after he had forgot his cruel beautresolution of communicating them to the public. ty, insomuch that it is reported he has frequently They would indeed draw me out of that obscurity offended in point of chastity with beggars and gipwhich I have enjoyed for many years, and expose sies; but this is looked upon, by his friend-, rather me in public places to several salutes and civilities, as matter of raillery than truth. He is now in his which have been always very disagreeable to me; fifty-sixth year, cheerful, gay, and hearty; keeps a for the greatest pain I can sufler, is the being good house both in town and country; a great talked to, and being stared at. It is for this rea- lover of mankind; but there is such a mirthful cast son, likewise, that I keep my complexion and in his behaviour, that he is rather beloved than dress as very great secrets; though it is not impossi- esteemed. ble but I may make discoveries of both in the pro- Flis tenants grow rich, his servants look satisfied, gress of the work I have undertaken.

all the young women profess love to him, and the After having been thus particular upon myself, young men are glad of his company. When be I shall in to-inorrow's paper give an account of comes into a house he calls the servants by their those gentlemen who are concerned with me in names, and talks all the way up stairs to a visit. this work; for, as I have before intimated, a plan I must not omit, that Sir Roger is a justice of the of it is laid and concerted (as all other matters of quorum; that he fills the chair at a quarter-session importance are) in a club. However, as my friends with great abilities; and three months ago gained have engaged me to stand in the front, those who universal applause, by explaining a passage in ibe have a mind to correspond with me may direct game-act. their letters to the Spectator, at Mr. Buckley's, in The gentleman next in esteem and authority Little Britain; for i inust further acquaint the rea- among us is another bachelor, who is a member of der, that though our club mects only ou Tuesdays the inner-Temple; a man of great probity, wit, and Thursdays, we have appointed a committee, to and understanding ; but he has chosen his place of sit every night for the inspection of all such papers residence rather to obey the direction of an old 27 may contribute to the advancement of the pub- humorsome father, than in pursuit of his own inlic weal.

clinations. He was placed there to study the laws ADDISON,

C. of the land, and is the most learned of any of the

house in those of the stage. Aristotle and Longinus

are much better understood by him than Littleton N° 2. FRIDAY, MARCI 2, 1710-11.

or Coke. The father sends up every post questions relating to marriage-articles, leases, and tenures,

in the neighbourhood; all which questions he agrees El fiures, una conclamant ore JUV. Sat. vii. 107.

with an attorney to answer and take care of in Six more at least join their consenting voice. probably, have heen only a vague report. Mr. Tickell seems

to have been of opinion, thai toe acount of the Spectator The first of our society is a gentleman of Worces- i and the club are allocetter tictitious. tershire, of an ancient descent, a baronet, his name

* Then the most fashionable part of the town. Sir Roger de Coverley t. His great grandfather the window was intended to have something superinduced

+ Dr. Johnson said it appeared to bin,' that the story of

upon it; but the superstructure did not come.' Boswell's * His papers in the Spectator are all marked by some one of Life of Johnson, vol. i1. p. 376, Sd edit. the letters coming the word CLIO. See No 555.

# A noted sharper, swaggerer, and debauchee, well know + This character is said by Mr. Tyers to have been drawn in Black Friars and its then infamous purlieus; and to expose fir Sir John Pac'ington of Worcestershire; a tory, not with- whom, it has been said, the character of Captain Hackum, in out good sense, but abounding in absurdities. But this may, shadwell's coniedy called The Squire of Alsatia, was draw .

Astrilii ser

THE

VOL. I.

43.

eruses

1. books, either in the learned or the modern tongues

which I am not acquainted with.

Upon the death of my father I was resolved to travel into foreign countries, and therefore left the university, with the character of an odd unaccountable fellow, that had a great deal of learning, if I would but show it. An insatiable thirst after knowledge carried me into all the countries of Europe, in which there was any thing new or strange to be seen; nay, to such a degree was my curiosity raised, that, having read the controversies of some

great men concerning the antiquities of Egypt, I er the made a voyage to Grand Cairo, on purpose to ild or take the measure of a pyramid ; and, as soon as I

with had set myself right in that particular, returned to Eiduce

my native country with great satisfaction*. uthor.

I have passed my latter years in this city, where to a

I am frequently seen in most public places, though Crefa- there are not above half a dozen of my select

shall friends that know me; of whom my next paper ersons shall give a more particular account.

There is no trou: place of general resort wherein I do not often

will make my appearance: sometimes I am seeni ice to thrusting my head into a round of politicians at

Will's, and listening with great attention to the which, narratives that are made in those little circular auere it 'diences; sometimes I smoke a pipe at Child'st, bes in and, while I seem attentive to nothing but the Post esent, man, overhear the conversation of every table in

son, the room. I appear on Sunday night at St. on of James's coffee-house, and sometimes join the lite of six tle committee of politics in the inner room, as one mily, who comes there to hear and improve. My face is of me likewise very well known at the Grecian, the

was Cocoa-Tree, and in the theatres both of Drury, might Lane and the Haymarket. I have been taken for nding a merchant upon the Exchange for above these ten of the years, and sometimes pass for a Jew in the assemvain bly of stock-jobbers at Jonathan's 1.

In short, hould wherever I see a cluster of people, I always mix he in- with them, though I never open my lips but in my on it. own club.

Thus I live in the world rather as a Spectator suck- of mankind than as one of the species; by which sor, as ineans I have made myself a speculative statesman, le be- soldier, merchant, and artizan, without ever medmake aling with any practical part in life. I am very y the well versed in the theory of a husband or a father,

and can discern the errors in the economy, busig no- ness, and diversion of others, better than those who in si are engaged in them; as standers-by discover blots, d the which are .apt to escape those who are in the lways game. I never espoused any party with violence, o say, and am resolved to observe an exact neutrality bewell.' tween the whigs and tories, unless I shall be forced I dis- to declare myself by the hostilities of either side. ; for, In short, I have acted in all the parts of iny life as n the a looker-on, which is the character I intend to preed the serve in this paper. o not

* An allusion, no doubt, to Mr. John Greaves, a mathematoge- tician and antiquary, who, after visiting Egypt, published a

book entitled Pyramidographia.' gence

+ This coffee-house, in St. Paul's Church-yard, was the res

sort of the clergy. rated

# In 'Change Alley,

stap

earn

B

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