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perience some assuagement of his grief in the idea of a future union with her, if the pious beliefs of boyhood remain unimpaired. As he allows this aspiration to grow upon him, it is certain that his imagination will call up before his mind's eye a mental picture of the girl he has lost. He will see again the graceful outline of her form, her slender neck, her well-turned arm. He will seem to clasp her hand once more, and as she turns to him her face with its bright, loving eyes, he notes her sweet smile and the abundant tresses which adorn the head she presses to his bosom. Thus, as he has known her, so, and no otherwise, does he desire again to behold her. No immaterial intelligence, and no body other than the very one he has known, can possibly seem capable of adequately satisfying his loving aspirations. For any other future would but mar the word of promise to his hope.

Such considerations as these may at first seem to deprive the conception of a future life of much of its value. And yet some considerations which I have here brought forward seem to me, from the point of view of pure reason, both to strengthen our hopes of future union and to give to them a satisfying character. When we reflect on the mystery as to how our mind is enabled to perceive its fellowcreatures now, and when we recognise that this mystery is as inexplicable as how our mind may be able after death to perceive its fellowcreatures in like condition with itself, a great antecedent objection against the latter power of perception falls to the ground. That power or faculty is, like a future life, a possibility, if not a probability. No one can justly pretend that it is a certainty.

But that possibility, or probability, is, I think, of a very consolatory nature. We have recognised the fact that in the complex unity of our bodily life it is the immaterial dominant psychical principle which is the man or woman par excellence as compared with the mere body; and that it is this psychical nature which reveals itself through, and gives all its value to, the form and manifestations of the living body-that it is at once the source and the explanation of the powerful, and often sudden, attraction which may be felt by one human being for another.

If then the soul, in its disembodied condition, can perceive and apprehend other souls similarly conditioned, it must be able to perceive directly the very nature, the essence, of the soul so made known to it. If it can thus recognise the soul of one known during earthly life, it must be able to perceive that which constituted it what it was, that which, penetrating, as it were, through the corporeal being recognised by the senses, had given to that being

its

* The late President of the British Association declared in his address that there is experimental evidence for the conveyance of thought without the use of organs of

sense.

special charm. It must perceive that which was the source of those characters upon which, not our senses, but our intellect and higher emotions through the agency of our senses, had dwelt, with, it may be, the warmth of hearty friendship, it may be with the rapture of love. Can we deem it probable that an intelligence thus able to apprehend directly that which gave to the material form all its charm, should hanker after, or desire to perceive again, the mere material accidents of that which it can now recognise as having always been the object really prized and beloved, though it may have been such quite unconsciously? In most cases it must have been loved thus unknowingly, since the many do not recognise that through the bodily character appreciable by sight and touch there is revealed to the intellect and higher emotions that which is altogether beyond sense, though it is only through the medium of senseimpressions that it can ever become known to living human beings.

But what has all this, our readers may ask, to do with the New Psychology'? Many of the excellent men devoted to its study trouble themselves little about such considerations, if they do not discard them altogether. Nevertheless, there is a distinct connection, for the views herein advocated are those of Aristotle, whạtaught, as before said, that all living beings were each a unity formed by the coalescence of an immaterial form with a certain quantity of matter. But Descartes, from whom almost all modern philosophers descend, entirely separated, as we before pointed out,' an immaterial substance of mere thought from a material body which had no property but motion. The New Psychology will have nothing of this. It directly connects psychical phenomena_sensation, and thought, and action—with what is material and can be precisely and accurately measured and emu. merated. Originating in Germany, it has been greatly developed in America and promises to extend itself quickly in our own country from very small beginnings. But most memorable are the words of its founder, Wundt, who instituted the laboratory at Leipzig and who distinctly enunciated the close affinity existing between his new psychology and the Peripatetic Philosophy His words areLes résultats de mes travaux ne cadrent ni avec le dualisme platonicien ou cartésien ; seul l'animisme Aristotélicien, qui rattache la psychologie à la biologie, se dégage, comme conclusion métaphysique plausible, de la psychologie expérimentale.' Here indeed is a remarkable recurrence and revival, such as we referred to in the beginning of this article.

How far reaching then are the results of the sagacious speculations of the great Macedonian sage, and how well justified the

s See ante, p. 262.
& See Sully, The Human Mind, 1892.

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judgment with respect to him of my old friend the late Sir Richard Owen !

When I was little more than a lad, in reply to a question about the views of John Stuart Mill, whose logic I was then studying, he said to me: “I do not think that, in Philosophy, the human mind will ever get much beyond Aristotle.' To any youth consulting me, I should now, in my turn, make the very same declaration. However, let the ultimate results of the new science be what they may, whether in the long run it confirms or puts difficulties in the way of the views which we have here ventured to put forward, I desire heartily to welcome and wish good speed to the most recent development of biological science-to the experimental, or New, Psychology.

ST. GEORGE MIVART

ON THE MAIOLICA OF FAENZA 1

Much yet remains to be done ere we can arrive at an accurate knowledge of the early history and development of the ceramic arts of Italy; particularly as regards the adoption of various processes in the glazing and enamelling, in colouring and reflets; to learn whence they were originally derived, how, at what period, and to which sites of the industry they were earliest conveyed; as also the later expansion and spread of the art, and its establishment, under individual masters, in various parts of that peninsula.

The main sources from which such information might be expected would probably be: (1) the documentary evidence of public and private records, assiduously collected and carefully analysed; (2) the signatures, monograms, dates, armorial bearings and distinctive marks on pieces of the wares still preserved to our present time; and (3) abundant and carefully conducted excavation at sites of ancient potteries, in rubbish heaps, and among the foundations, wells, and sewers of ancient buildings. But, in prosecuting these inquiries and arriving at a correct judgment from the evidence they produce, the inquirer should be absolutely free from prejudice and local favour, determined to draw his conclusions from facts alone, while offering suggestions only as probabilities from less certain material.

The first and last of these methods of inquiry have been, respectively, well carried out as regards the fictile productions of the ancient Emilian city of Faenza; the first by Professor Carlo Malacola, the latter by the untiring diligence of Professor Federigo Argnani, by whom some of the results of his investigations were published in a handsome and well illustrated quarto, entitled Le Ceramiche e Maioliche Faentine, and issued by the firm of Giuseppe Montanari at Faenza in 1889.

We now have the pleasure of welcoming another brace of like rolumes, by the same enthusiastic collector of facts, throwing further light on the subject of inquiry and contributing to the bonour and glory of his native city. This very beautiful book, the

" Professor Federigo Argnani, Il Rinascimento delle Ceramiche Maiolicate in Faenza (Faenza: C. Montanari, 1898). 2 vj's

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publication of which has been anxiously looked forward to by students of Italian ceramic art, does further credit to the house of Montanari, by whom it has been so daintily produced. It is admirably printed on a fine grained paper of ivory tint and rather glossy surface, abundant in margin and tasteful in ornamentation.

Whether these heavy, glossy papers are of lasting nature is a question that time only can answer. We recollect, some quarter of a century ago, looking over certain large paper copies, printed on thick sheets of pretentious character, with old Mr. Riviere the binder, his remark, ‘Ah! a hundred years hence most of these papers will be powder ;' doubtless there are good and bad among them, but we sigh for such paper as was used by the Piranesi and others of that good old time.

The illustrations, which occupy the second volume, are admirable, mostly drawn directly from the objects themselves and successfully executed in chromo-lithography,

The book is eminently Faentine, written by a learned professor of that city, by whose able hand the drawings were also made, printed, illustrated, and published by a Faentine firm, it does honour in itself to the old Emilian city. The first volume, containing the printed Testo, is divided into, firstly, the author's Ragione di questo secondo volume, thus implying that this work should be considered as a second volume to that published in 1889.

To this follows a descriptive account of such pieces of wares, attributed by the author to the potteries of Faenza, as he had been able to examine in the museums and private collections of Northern Italy and Tuscany. These were specially visited by him under direction of the Minister of Public Instruction, with the view to a careful study and elucidation of the subject.

We then find, what is perhaps the most valuable portion of the work, a careful descriptive notice of those fragments and whole pieces, so admirably reproduced in the volume of Tavole; followed by an important Appendice consisting of a mass of extracts from documents referring to the potteries and potters of Faenza from 1385 to 1694; mostly derived from exhaustive examination of the Faentine and other archives by Signor Malagola.

A list of potters from Faenza who are known to bave taken their art to other localities in Italy and elsewhere is again followed by a classified Indice generale, adequate, no doubt, for all other sections of the book, but insufficient as regards the documents.

Signor Argnani tells us that he had intended the present work to be a sequence to that published in 1889, following up the illustration and history of Faentine wares into and through the sixteenth century, but that, having since acquired other documents and a vast number of interesting fragments, and having had an opportunity of studying examples of the pottery of Egypt, Greece, Etruria, and

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